Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 220

Search results for: Chao Yuan

220 Model Parameters Estimating on Lyman–Kutcher–Burman Normal Tissue Complication Probability for Xerostomia on Head and Neck Cancer

Authors: Tsair-Fwu Lee , Hui-Min Ting , Pei-Ju Chao, Jing-Chuan Jiang, Min-Yuan Chao, Wen-Cheng Chen, Long-Chang Chen, Jia-Ming Wu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to derive parameters estimating for the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model using analysis of scintigraphy assessments and quality of life (QoL) measurement questionnaires for the parotid gland (xerostomia). In total, 31 patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer were enrolled. Salivary excretion factor (SEF) and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires datasets are used for the NTCP modeling to describe the incidence of grade 4 xerostomia. Assuming that n= 1, NTCP fitted parameters are given as TD50= 43.6 Gy, m= 0.18 in SEF analysis, and as TD50= 44.1 Gy, m= 0.11 in QoL measurements, respectively. SEF and QoL datasets can validate the Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) guidelines well, resulting in NPV-s of 100% for the both datasets and suggests that the QUANTEC 25/20Gy gland-spared guidelines are suitable for clinical used for the HN cohort to effectively avoid xerostomia.

Keywords: HN, NTCP, SEF, QoL, QUANTEC

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219 Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music: The Art of Combining Taiwanese Traditional Music and Western Composition in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Piano Repertoire

Authors: Sheng Wei Hsu

Abstract:

Taiwanese composer Kuo Chih-Yuan (1921-2013) studied composition at Tokyo University of the Arts and was influenced by the musical nationalism prevailing in Japan at the time. Determined to create world-class contemporary works to represent Taiwan, he created music with elements of traditional Taiwanese music in ways that had not been done before. The aims of this study were to examine the traditional elements used in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music (1972), and how an understanding of these elements might guide pianists to interpret a more proper performance of his work was also presented in this study.

Keywords: Kuo Chih-Yuan, music analysis, piano works, Taiwanese traditional music.

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218 The New Relative Efficiency Based on the Least Eigenvalue in Generalized Linear Model

Authors: Chao Yuan, Bao Guang Tian

Abstract:

A new relative efficiency is defined as LSE and BLUE in the generalized linear model. The relative efficiency is based on the ratio of the least eigenvalues. In this paper, we discuss about its lower bound and the relationship between it and generalized relative coefficient. Finally, this paper proves that the new estimation is better under Stein function and special condition in some degree.

Keywords: Generalized linear model, generalized relative coefficient, least eigenvalue, relative efficiency.

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217 The Relative Efficiency Based on the MSE in Generalized Ridge Estimate

Authors: Chao Yuan, Bao Guang Tian

Abstract:

A relative efficiency is defined as Ridge Estimate in the general linear model. The relative efficiency is based on the Mean square error. In this paper, we put forward a parameter of Ridge Estimate and discussions are made on the relative efficiency between the ridge estimation and the General Ridge Estimate. Eventually, this paper proves that the estimation is better than the general ridge estimate, which is based on the MSE.

Keywords: Ridge estimate, generalized ridge estimate, MSE, relative efficiency.

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216 A Study of the Lighting Control System for a Daylit Office

Authors: Chih-Jian Hu, Chung-Chih Cheng, Hsiao-Yuan Wu., Nien-Tzu Chao

Abstract:

Increasing user comfort and reducing operation costs have always been primary objectives of lighting control strategies in a building. This paper proposes an architecture of the lighting control system for a daylit office. The system consists of the lighting controller, A/D & D/A converter, dimmable LED lights, and the lighting management software. Verification tests are conducted using the proposed system specialized for the interior lighting of a open-plan office. The results showed the proposed architecture of the lighting system would improve the overall system reliability, lower the system cost, and provide ease of installation and maintenance.

Keywords: control, dimming, LED, lighting.

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215 An Estimation of Variance Components in Linear Mixed Model

Authors: Shuimiao Wan, Chao Yuan, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, a linear mixed model which has two random effects is broken up into two models. This thesis gets the parameter estimation of the original model and an estimation’s statistical qualities based on these two models. Then many important properties are given by comparing this estimation with other general estimations. At the same time, this paper proves the analysis of variance estimate (ANOVAE) about σ2 of the original model is equal to the least-squares estimation (LSE) about σ2 of these two models. Finally, it also proves that this estimation is better than ANOVAE under Stein function and special condition in some degree.

Keywords: Linear mixed model, Random effects, Parameter estimation, Stein function.

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214 Two New Relative Efficiencies of Linear Weighted Regression

Authors: Shuimiao Wan, Chao Yuan, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In statistics parameter theory, usually the parameter estimations have two kinds, one is the least-square estimation (LSE), and the other is the best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE). Due to the determining theorem of minimum variance unbiased estimator (MVUE), the parameter estimation of BLUE in linear model is most ideal. But since the calculations are complicated or the covariance is not given, people are hardly to get the solution. Therefore, people prefer to use LSE rather than BLUE. And this substitution will take some losses. To quantize the losses, many scholars have presented many kinds of different relative efficiencies in different views. For the linear weighted regression model, this paper discusses the relative efficiencies of LSE of β to BLUE of β. It also defines two new relative efficiencies and gives their lower bounds.

Keywords: Linear weighted regression, Relative efficiency, Lower bound, Parameter estimation.

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213 Comparison of Neural Network and Logistic Regression Methods to Predict Xerostomia after Radiotherapy

Authors: Hui-Min Ting, Tsair-Fwu Lee, Ming-Yuan Cho, Pei-Ju Chao, Chun-Ming Chang, Long-Chang Chen, Fu-Min Fang

Abstract:

To evaluate the ability to predict xerostomia after radiotherapy, we constructed and compared neural network and logistic regression models. In this study, 61 patients who completed a questionnaire about their quality of life (QoL) before and after a full course of radiation therapy were included. Based on this questionnaire, some statistical data about the condition of the patients’ salivary glands were obtained, and these subjects were included as the inputs of the neural network and logistic regression models in order to predict the probability of xerostomia. Seven variables were then selected from the statistical data according to Cramer’s V and point-biserial correlation values and were trained by each model to obtain the respective outputs which were 0.88 and 0.89 for AUC, 9.20 and 7.65 for SSE, and 13.7% and 19.0% for MAPE, respectively. These parameters demonstrate that both neural network and logistic regression methods are effective for predicting conditions of parotid glands.

Keywords: NPC, ANN, logistic regression, xerostomia.

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212 Knowledge Sharing Behavior in E-Communities: from the Perspective of Transaction Cost Theory

Authors: Teresa L. Ju, Szu-Yuan Sun, Pei-Ju Chao, Chang-Yao Wu

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the factors affecting knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge-based electronic communities (e-communities) because quantity and quality of knowledge shared among the members play a critical role in the community-s sustainability. Past research has suggested three perspectives that may affect the quantity and quality of knowledge shared: economics, social psychology, and social ecology. In this study, we strongly believe that an economic perspective may be suitable to validate factors influencing newly registered members- knowledge contribution at the beginning of relationship development. Accordingly, this study proposes a model to validate the factors influencing members- knowledge sharing based on Transaction Cost Theory. By doing so, we may empirically test our hypotheses in various types of e-communities to determine the generalizability of our research models.

Keywords: Electronic community, individual behavior, knowledge sharing, transaction cost theory.

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211 Module and Comodule Structures on Path Space

Authors: Lili Chen, Chao Yuan

Abstract:

On path space kQ, there is a trivial kQa-module structure determined by the multiplication of path algebra kQa and a trivial kQc-comodule structure determined by the comultiplication of path coalgebra kQc. In this paper, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQa-module structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial left kQa-module structure is isomorphic to the dual module structure of trivial right kQc-comodule. Dually, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQc-comodule structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial right kQc-comodule structure is isomorphic to the dual comodule structure of trivial left kQa-module. Finally, the trivial and nontrivial module structures on path space are compared from the aspect of submodule, and the trivial and nontrivial comodule structures on path space are compared from the aspect of subcomodule.

Keywords: Quiver, path space, module, comodule, dual.

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210 Influence on Willingness of Virtual Community's Knowledge Sharing: Based on Social Capital Theory and Habitual Domain

Authors: Szu-Yuan Sun, Teresa L. Ju, Hao-Fan Chumg, Chang-Yao Wu, Pei-Ju Chao

Abstract:

Despite the fact that Knowledge Sharing (KS) is very important, we found only little discussion about the reasons why people have the willingness to share knowledge at such platform even though there is no immediate benefit to the persons who contribute knowledge in it. The aim of this study is to develop an integrative understanding of the factors that support or inhibit individuals- knowledge sharing intentions in virtual communities and to find whether habit would generate people-s willingness to be involved. We apply Social Capital Theory (SCT), and we also add two dimensions for discussion: member incentive and habitual domain (HD). This research assembles the questionnaire from individuals who have experienced knowledge sharing in virtual communities, and applies survey and Structural Equation Model (SEM) to analyze the results from the questionnaires. Finally, results confirm that individuals are willing to share knowledge in virtual communities: (1) if they consider reciprocity, centrality, and have longer tenure in their field, and enjoy helping. (2) if they have the habit of sharing knowledge. This study is useful for the developers of virtual communities to insight into knowledge sharing in cyberspace.

Keywords: Habitual domains, knowledge sharing, social capital theory, virtual community.

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209 Development of a Small-Group Teaching Method for Enhancing the Learning of Basic Acupuncture Manipulation Optimized with the Theory of Motor Learning

Authors: Wen-Chao Tang, Tang-Yi Liu, Ming Gao, Gang Xu, Hua-Yuan Yang

Abstract:

This study developed a method for teaching acupuncture manipulation in small groups optimized with the theory of motor learning. Sixty acupuncture students and their teacher participated in our research. Motion videos were recorded of their manipulations using the lifting-thrusting method. These videos were analyzed using Simi Motion software to acquire the movement parameters of the thumb tip. The parameter velocity curves along Y axis was used to generate small teaching groups clustered by a self-organized map (SOM) and K-means. Ten groups were generated. All the targeted instruction based on the comparative results groups as well as the videos of teacher and student was provided to the members of each group respectively. According to the theory and research of motor learning, the factors or technologies such as video instruction, observational learning, external focus and summary feedback were integrated into this teaching method. Such efforts were desired to improve and enhance the effectiveness of current acupuncture teaching methods in limited classroom teaching time and extracurricular training.

Keywords: Acupuncture, group teaching, video instruction, observational learning, external focus, summary feedback.

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208 Active Power Filtering Implementation Using Photovoltaic System with Reduced Energy Storage Capacitor

Authors: Horng-Yuan Wu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Tsair-Fwu Lee

Abstract:

A novel three-phase active power filter (APF) circuit with photovoltaic (PV) system to improve the quality of service and to reduce the capacity of energy storage capacitor is presented. The energy balance concept and sampling technique were used to simplify the calculation algorithm for the required utility source current and to control the voltage of the energy storage capacitor. The feasibility was verified by using the Pspice simulations and experiments. When the APF mode was used during non-operational period, not only the utilization rate, power factor and power quality could be improved, but also the capacity of energy storage capacitor could sparing. As the results, the advantages of the APF circuit are simplicity of control circuits, low cost, and good transient response.

Keywords: active power filter, sampling, energy-storagecapacitor, harmonic current, energy balance.

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207 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman

Abstract:

Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: Convergence, iteration, line search, running time, steepest descent, unconstrained optimization.

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206 Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Nest Soil, Egg, and Blood of the Snail-eating Turtle (Malayemys macrocephala) from the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

Authors: Sarun Keithmaleesatti, Pakorn Varanusupakul, Wattasit Siriwong, Kumthorn Thirakhupt, Mark Robson, Noppadon Kitana

Abstract:

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are known to be persistent and bioaccumulative toxicants that may cause reproductive impairments in wildlife as well as human. The current study uses the snail-eating turtle Malayemys macrocephala, a long-lived animal commonly distribute in rice field habitat in central part of Thailand, as a sentinel to monitor OCP contamination in environment. The nest soil, complete clutch of eggs, and blood of the turtle were collected from agricultural areas in the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand during the nesting season of 2007-2008. The novel methods for tissue extraction by an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE, for egg) and liquid-liquid extraction (for blood) have been developed. The nineteen OCP residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with micro-electron captured detector (GC-μECD). The validated methods have met requirements of the AOAC standard. The results indicated that significant amounts of OCPs are still contaminated in nest soil and eggs of the turtle even though the OCPs had been banned in this area for many years. This suggested the potential risk to health of wildlife as well as human in the area.

Keywords: Gas chromatography, persistent organic pollutants, rice field, sentinel species.

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205 The Spanning Laceability of k-ary n-cubes when k is Even

Authors: Yuan-Kang Shih, Shu-Li Chang, Shin-Shin Kao

Abstract:

Qk n has been shown as an alternative to the hypercube family. For any even integer k ≥ 4 and any integer n ≥ 2, Qk n is a bipartite graph. In this paper, we will prove that given any pair of vertices, w and b, from different partite sets of Qk n, there exist 2n internally disjoint paths between w and b, denoted by {Pi | 0 ≤ i ≤ 2n-1}, such that 2n-1 i=0 Pi covers all vertices of Qk n. The result is optimal since each vertex of Qk n has exactly 2n neighbors.

Keywords: container, Hamiltonian, k-ary n-cube, m*-connected.

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204 3D Scaffolds Fabricated by Microfluidic Device for Rat Cardiomyocytes Observation

Authors: Chih-Wei Chao, Jiashing Yu

Abstract:

To mimic the natural circumstances of cell growth in an organism, we present three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds fabricated by microfluidics for cultivation. This work investigates the cellular behaviors of rat cardiomyocytes in gelatin 3D scaffolds compared to those on 2D control, such as proliferation, viability and morphology. We found that the scaffolds may induce skeletal differentiation of H9c2 cells.

Keywords: Microfluidic device, H9c2, tissue engineering, 3D scaffolds.

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203 Applications of Support Vector Machines on Smart Phone Systems for Emotional Speech Recognition

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Chien-Lung Li, Kun-Rong Hsie, Mingteh Chen

Abstract:

An emotional speech recognition system for the applications on smart phones was proposed in this study to combine with 3G mobile communications and social networks to provide users and their groups with more interaction and care. This study developed a mechanism using the support vector machines (SVM) to recognize the emotions of speech such as happiness, anger, sadness and normal. The mechanism uses a hierarchical classifier to adjust the weights of acoustic features and divides various parameters into the categories of energy and frequency for training. In this study, 28 commonly used acoustic features including pitch and volume were proposed for training. In addition, a time-frequency parameter obtained by continuous wavelet transforms was also used to identify the accent and intonation in a sentence during the recognition process. The Berlin Database of Emotional Speech was used by dividing the speech into male and female data sets for training. According to the experimental results, the accuracies of male and female test sets were increased by 4.6% and 5.2% respectively after using the time-frequency parameter for classifying happy and angry emotions. For the classification of all emotions, the average accuracy, including male and female data, was 63.5% for the test set and 90.9% for the whole data set.

Keywords: Smart phones, emotional speech recognition, socialnetworks, support vector machines, time-frequency parameter, Mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC).

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202 Solving Linear Matrix Equations by Matrix Decompositions

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Kezheng Zuo

Abstract:

In this paper, a system of linear matrix equations is considered. A new necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency of the equations is derived by means of the generalized singular-value decomposition, and the explicit representation of the general solution is provided.

Keywords: Matrix equation, Generalized inverse, Generalized singular-value decomposition.

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201 Analysis of Cost Estimation and Payment Systems for Consultant Contracts in the US, Japan, China and the UK

Authors: Shih-Hsu Wang, Yuan-Yuan Cheng, Ming-Tsung Lee, Wei-Chih Wang

Abstract:

Determining reasonable fees is the main objective of designing the cost estimation and payment systems for consultant contracts. However, project clients utilize different cost estimation and payment systems because of their varying views on the reasonableness of consultant fees. This study reviews the cost estimation and payment systems of consultant contracts for five countries, including the US (Washington State Department of Transportation), Japan (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), China (Engineering Design Charging Standard) and UK (Her Majesty's Treasure). Specifically, this work investigates the budgeting process, contractor selection method, contractual price negotiation process, cost review, and cost-control concept of the systems used in these countries. The main finding indicates that that project client-s view on whether the fee is high will affect the way he controls it. In the US, the fee is commonly considered to be high. As a result, stringent auditing system (low flexibility given to the consultant) is then applied. In the UK, the fee is viewed to be low by comparing it to the total life-cycle project cost. Thus, a system that has high flexibility in budgeting and cost reviewing is given to the consultant. In terms of the flexibility allowed for the consultant, the systems applied in Japan and China fall between those of the US and UK. Both the US and UK systems are helpful in determining a reasonable fee. However, in the US system, rigid auditing standards must be established and additional cost-audit manpower is required. In the UK system, sufficient historical cost data should be needed to evaluate the reasonableness of the consultant-s proposed fee

Keywords: Consultant Services, Cost Estimation and Payment System, Payment Flexibility, Cost-control Concept

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200 Linear Maps That Preserve Left Spectrum of Diagonal Quaternionic Matrices

Authors: Geng Yuan, Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai, Shuhua Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss some properties of left spectrum and give the representation of linear preserver map the left spectrum of diagonal quaternionic matrices.

Keywords: Quaternionic matrix, left spectrum, linear preserver map.

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199 The Study on Evaluation System and Method of Legacy System

Authors: Chao Qi, Fuyang Peng, Bo Deng, Xiaoyan Su

Abstract:

In the upgrade process of enterprise information systems, how to deal with and utilize those legacy systems affects the efficiency of construction and development of the new system. We propose an evaluation system, which comprehensively describes the capacity of legacy information systems in five aspects. Then we propose a practical legacy systems evaluation method. Base on the evaluation result, we can determine the current state of legacy system which was evaluated.

Keywords: Legacy Information Systems, Evaluation IndexSystem, Evaluation Method, Evaluation Level

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198 On Chvátal’s Conjecture for the Hamiltonicity of 1-Tough Graphs and Their Complements

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Yuan-Kang Shih, Hsun Su

Abstract:

In this paper, we show that the conjecture of Chv tal, which states that any 1-tough graph is either a Hamiltonian graph or its complement contains a specific graph denoted by F, does not hold in general. More precisely, it is true only for graphs with six or seven vertices, and is false for graphs with eight or more vertices. A theorem is derived as a correction for the conjecture.

Keywords: Complement, degree sum, Hamiltonian, tough.

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197 The Study on Migration Strategy of Legacy System

Authors: Chao Qi, Fuyang Peng, Bo Deng, Xiaoyan Su

Abstract:

In the upgrade process of enterprise information systems, whether new systems will be success and their development will be efficient, depends on how to deal with and utilize those legacy systems. We propose an evaluation system, which comprehensively describes the capacity of legacy information systems in five aspects. Then a practical legacy systems evaluation method is scripted. Base on the evaluation result, we put forward 4 kinds of migration strategy: eliminated, maintenance, modification, encapsulating. The methods and strategies play important roles in practice.

Keywords: Legacy Systems, Evaluation Method, Migration Strategy.

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196 Bi-linear Complementarity Problem

Authors: Chao Wang, Ting-Zhu Huang Chen Jia

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new linear complementarity problem named as bi-linear complementarity problem (BLCP) and the method for solving BLCP. In addition, the algorithm for error estimation of BLCP is also given. Numerical experiments show that the algorithm is efficient.

Keywords: Bi-linear complementarity problem, Linear complementarity problem, Extended linear complementarity problem, Error estimation, P-matrix, M-matrix.

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195 Discrete Wavelet Transform Decomposition Level Determination Exploiting Sparseness Measurement

Authors: Lei Lei, Chao Wang, Xin Liu

Abstract:

Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been widely adopted in biomedical signal processing for denoising, compression and so on. Choosing a suitable decomposition level (DL) in DWT is of paramount importance to its performance. In this paper, we propose to exploit sparseness of the transformed signals to determine the appropriate DL. Simulation results have shown that the sparseness of transformed signals after DWT increases with the increasing DLs. Additional Monte-Carlo simulation results have verified the effectiveness of sparseness measure in determining the DL.

Keywords: Sparseness, DWT, decomposition level, ECG.

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194 Transient Heat Transfer of a Spiral Fin

Authors: Sen-Yung Lee, Li-Kuo Chou, Chao-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of temperature transient response of a spiral fin, with its end insulated, is analyzed with base end subjected to a variation of fluid temperature. The hybrid method of Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method-Padé, is applied to the temperature transient response of the fin, the result of the temperature distribution and the heat flux at the base of the spiral fin are obtained, show a good agreement in the physical phenomenon.

Keywords: Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method- Padé, transient response, heat transfer.

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193 The Study on Service-oriented Encapsulating Methods of Legacy Systems

Authors: Chao Qi, Xiaoyan Su, Zhan Mao, Xuan Qi

Abstract:

At present, web Service is the first choice to reuse the legacy system for the implementation of SOA. According to the status of the implementation of SOA and the status of the legacy systems, we propose four encapsulating strategies. Base on the strategies, we proposal the service-oriented encapsulating framework, the legacy system can be encapsulated by the service-oriented encapsulating layer in three aspects, communication protocols, data and program. The reuse rate of the legacy systems can be increased by using this framework

Keywords: Legacy system, service-oriented encapsulating, SOA.

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192 A Practical Approach for Testing the Process Quality

Authors: Mou-Yuan Liao, Chien-Wei Wu, Chien-Hua Lin

Abstract:

Process capability index Cpk is the most widely used index in making managerial decisions since it provides bounds on the process yield for normally distributed processes. However, existent methods for assessing process performance which constructed by statistical inference may unfortunately lead to fine results, because uncertainties exist in most real-world applications. Thus, this study adopts fuzzy inference to deal with testing of Cpk . A brief score is obtained for assessing a supplier’s process instead of a severe evaluation.

Keywords: Process capability analysis, quality control.

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191 Iterative Solutions to Some Linear Matrix Equations

Authors: Jiashang Jiang, Hao Liu, Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

In this paper the gradient based iterative algorithms are presented to solve the following four types linear matrix equations: (a) AXB = F; (b) AXB = F, CXD = G; (c) AXB = F s. t. X = XT ; (d) AXB+CYD = F, where X and Y are unknown matrices, A,B,C,D, F,G are the given constant matrices. It is proved that if the equation considered has a solution, then the unique minimum norm solution can be obtained by choosing a special kind of initial matrices. The numerical results show that the proposed method is reliable and attractive.

Keywords: Matrix equation, iterative algorithm, parameter estimation, minimum norm solution.

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