Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2616

Search results for: Heat and mass transfer

2616 Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer for MHD Mixed Convection with Viscous Dissipation and Radiation Effect for Viscoelastic Fluid past a Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao, BorMing Lee

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for conjugate heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer mixed convection of magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) flow with radiation effect of second grade subject to suction past a stretching sheet. Parameters E Nr, Gr, Gc, Ec and Sc represent the dominance of the viscoelastic fluid heat and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similar transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The conjugate heat and mass transfer results show that the non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid has a better heat transfer effect than the Newtonian fluid. The free convection with a larger r G or c G has a good heat transfer effect better than a smaller r G or c G , and the radiative convection has a good heat transfer effect better than non-radiative convection.

Keywords: Conjugate heat and mass transfer, Radiation effect, Magnetic effect, Viscoelastic fluid, Viscous dissipation, Stretchingsheet.

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2615 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: Gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes.

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2614 Gas Condensing Unit with Inner Heat Exchanger

Authors: Dagnija Blumberga, Toms Prodanuks, Ivars Veidenbergs, Andra Blumberga

Abstract:

Gas condensing units with inner tubes heat exchangers represent third generation technology and differ from second generation heat and mass transfer units, which are fulfilled by passive filling material layer. The first one improves heat and mass transfer by increasing cooled contact surface of gas and condensate drops and film formed in inner tubes heat exchanger. This paper presents a selection of significant factors which influence the heat and mass transfer. Experimental planning is based on the research and analysis of main three independent variables; velocity of water and gas as well as density of spraying. Empirical mathematical models show that the coefficient of heat transfer is used as dependent parameter which depends on two independent variables; water and gas velocity. Empirical model is proved by the use of experimental data of two independent gas condensing units in Lithuania and Russia. Experimental data are processed by the use of heat transfer criteria-Kirpichov number. Results allow drawing the graphical nomogram for the calculation of heat and mass transfer conditions in the innovative and energy efficient gas cooling unit.

Keywords: Gas condensing unit, filling, inner heat exchanger, package, spraying, tunes.

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2613 Heat and Mass Transfer for Viscous Flow with Radiation Effect past a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of a viscous flow past a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, Ec, k0, Sc represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, viscous effect, radiation effect and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem.

Keywords: Nonlinearly stretching sheet, heat and mass transfer, radiation effect, viscous effect.

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2612 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Particulate Airflow in Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers

Authors: W. Witchayanuwat, S. Kheawhom

Abstract:

In this work, we experimentally study heat transfer from exhaust particulate air of detergent spray drying tower to water by using coiled tube heat exchanger. Water flows in the coiled tubes, where air loaded with detergent particles of 43 micrometers in diameter flows within the shell. Four coiled tubes with different coil pitches are used in a counter-current flow configuration. We investigate heat transfer coefficients of inside and outside the heat transfer surfaces through 400 experiments. The correlations between Nusselt number and Reynolds number, Prandtl number, mass flow rate of particulates to mass flow rate of air ratio and coiled tube pitch parameter are proposed. The correlations procured can be used to predicted heat transfer between tube and shell of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: Shell and coiled tube heat exchanger, Spray drying tower, Heat transfer coefficients.

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2611 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-Type Heat Sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation

Authors: Jeong Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47 and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6 and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of mass flow rates caused by different cross sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.

Keywords: Solar Inverter, Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation.

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2610 Heat and Mass Transfer of an Oscillating Flow in a Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Z. Neffah, H. Kahalerras

Abstract:

A numerical study is made in a parallel-plate porous channel subjected to an oscillating flow and an exothermic chemical reaction on its walls. The flow field in the porous region is modeled by the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the modified Frank-Kamenetskii (FKm) and Damköhler (Dm) numbers, the amplitude of oscillation (A), and the Strouhal number (St) are examined. The main results show an increase of heat and mass transfer rates with A and St, and their decrease with FKm and Dm.

Keywords: Chemical reaction, heat transfer, mass transfer, oscillating flow, porous channel.

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2609 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff

Abstract:

A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, convertingand storing solar energy as heat. In thispaper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transferbehaviour of salinity gradient solar pond. MATLAB codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results arefound to be in good agreement.

Keywords: Finite Difference method, Salt-gradient solar-pond, Solar energy, Transient heat and mass transfer.

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2608 Heat and Mass Transfer of Triple Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Couple Stress Liquid Using Ginzburg-Landau Model

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh

Abstract:

A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer.

Keywords: Couple stress liquid, Ginzburg-Landau model, rotation, triple diffusive convection.

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2607 Analysis of Drying Kinetics of a Slurry Droplet in the Falling Rate Period of Spray Drying

Authors: Boris Golman, Wittaya Julklang

Abstract:

The heat and mass transfer was investigated during the falling rate period of spray drying of a slurry droplet. The effect of the porosity of crust layer formed from primary particles during liquid evaporation was studied numerically using the developed mathematical model which takes into account the heat and mass transfer in the core and crust regions, the movement of the evaporation interface, and the external heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the droplet surface. It was confirmed that the heat transfer through the crust layer was more intense in the case of the dense droplet than the loose one due to the enhanced thermal conduction resulting in the higher average droplet temperature. The mass transfer was facilitated in the crust layer of loose droplet owing to the large pore space available for diffusion of water vapor from the evaporation interface to the outer droplet surface. The longer drying time is required for the droplet of high porosity to reach the final moisture content than that for the dense one due to the larger amount of water to be evaporated during the falling rate.

Keywords: Spray Drying, Slurry Droplet, Heat and Mass Transfer, Crust Layer Porosity, Mathematical Modeling.

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2606 Study on Electrohydrodynamic Capillary Instability with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: D. K. Tiwari, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, G. S. Agrawal

Abstract:

The effect of an axial electric field on the capillary instability of a cylindrical interface in the presence of heat and mass transfer has been investigated using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow, the viscous term in Navier-Stokes equation vanishes as vorticity is zero but viscosity is not zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance in the viscous potential flow theory and tangential stresses are not considered. A dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is derived and stability is discussed theoretically as well as numerically. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, heat transfer capillary number, conductivity ratio, permittivity ratio on the stability of the system. It has been observed that the axial electric field and heat and mass transfer both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system.

Keywords: Capillary instability, Viscous potential flow, Heat and mass transfer, Axial electric field.

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2605 The Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena in Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Desalination

Authors: Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar, M. G. Sane, Saroj B. Parjane, Rajendra M. Abhang, Mahendra Guddad

Abstract:

Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process can be used for water purification or the desalination of salt water. The process simply consists of a flat sheet hydrophobic micro porous PTFE membrane and diaphragm vacuum pump without a condenser for the water recovery or trap. The feed was used aqueous NaCl solution. The VMD experiments were performed to evaluate the heat and mass transfer coefficient of the boundary layer in a membrane module. The only operating parameters are feed inlet temperature, and feed flow rate were investigated. The permeate flux was strongly affected by the feed inlet temperature, feed flow rate, and boundary layer heat transfer coefficient. Since lowering the temperature polarization coefficient is essential enhance the process performance considerable and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient for maximizes the mass flux of distillate water. In this paper, the results of VMD experiments are used to measure the boundary layer heat transfer coefficient, and the experimental results are used to reevaluate the empirical constants in the Dittus- Boelter equation.

Keywords: Desalination, heat and mass transfer coefficient, temperature polarization, membrane distillation

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2604 Effect of Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Mixed Convective Flow past Inclined Porous Plate in Porous Medium

Authors: Md. Nasir Uddin, M. A. Alim, M. M. K. Chowdhury

Abstract:

This analysis is performed to study the momentum, heat and mass transfer characteristics of MHD mixed convective flow past inclined porous plate in porous medium, including the effect of fluid suction. The fluid is assumed to be steady, incompressible and dense. Similarity solution is used to transform the problem under consideration into coupled nonlinear boundary layer equations which are then solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta sixth-order integration scheme together with Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique. Numerical results for the various types of parameters entering into the problem for velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are presented graphically and analyzed thereafter. Moreover, expressions for the skin-friction, heat transfer co-efficient and mass transfer co-efficient are discussed with graphs against streamwise distance for various governing parameters.

Keywords: Fluid suction, heat and mass transfer, inclined porous plate, MHD, mixed convection, porous medium.

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2603 Unsteady Natural Convection Heat and Mass Transfer of Non-Newtonian Casson Fluid along a Vertical Wavy Surface

Authors: A. Mahdy, Sameh E. Ahmed

Abstract:

Detailed numerical calculations are illustrated in our investigation for unsteady natural convection heat and mass transfer of non-Newtonian Casson fluid along a vertical wavy surface. The surface of the plate is kept at a constant temperature and uniform concentration. To transform the complex wavy surface to a flat plate, a simple coordinate transformation is employed. The resulting partial differential equations are solved using the fully implicit finite difference method with SUR procedure. Flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated for a wide range of values of the Casson parameter, the dimensionless time parameter, the buoyancy ratio and the amplitude-wavelength parameter. It is found that, the variations of the Casson parameter have significant effects on the fluid motion, heat and mass transfer. Also, the maximum and minimum values of the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers increase by increase either the Casson parameter or the buoyancy ratio.

Keywords: Casson fluid, wavy surface, mass transfer, transient analysis.

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2602 Developing a Conjugate Heat Transfer Solver

Authors: Mansour A. Al Qubeissi

Abstract:

The current paper presents a numerical approach in solving the conjugate heat transfer problems. A heat conduction code is coupled internally with a computational fluid dynamics solver for developing a couple conjugate heat transfer solver. Methodology of treating non-matching meshes at interface has also been proposed. The validation results of 1D and 2D cases for the developed conjugate heat transfer code have shown close agreement with the solutions given by analysis.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Conjugate Heat transfer, Heat Conduction, Heat Transfer

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2601 The Influence of the Inlet Conditions on the Airside Heat Transfer Performance of Plain Finned Evaporator

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Ibrahim Belal

Abstract:

A numerical study has been conducted to investigate the influence of fin pitch and relative humidity on the heat transfer performance of the fin-and-tube heat exchangers having plain fin geometry under dehumidifying conditions. The analysis is done using the ratio between the heat transfer coefficients in totally wet conditions and those in totally dry conditions using the appropriate correlations for both dry and wet conditions. For a constant relative humidity, it is found that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of the air frontal velocity. By contrast, the fin efficiency decreases when the face velocity is increased. Apparently, this phenomenon is attributed to the path of condensate drainage. For the influence of relative humidity, the results showed an increase in heat transfer performance and a decrease in wet fin efficiency when relative humidity increases. This is due to the higher amount of mass transfer encountered at higher relative humidity. However, it is found that the effect of fin pitch on the heat transfer performance depends strongly on the face velocity. At lower frontal velocity the heat transfer increases with fin pitch. Conversely, an increase in fin pitch gives lower heat transfer coefficients when air velocity is increased.

Keywords: Dehumidifying conditions, Fin efficiency, Heat andmass transfer, Heat exchangers.

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2600 Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe with Annular Fins under Natural Convection at Different Inclinations

Authors: Gangacharyulu Dasaroju, Sumeet Sharma, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Heat pipe is characterised as superconductor of heat because of its excellent heat removal ability. The operation of several engineering system results in generation of heat. This may cause several overheating problems and lead to failure of the systems. To overcome this problem and to achieve desired rate of heat dissipation, there is need to study the performance of heat pipe with annular fins under free convection at different inclinations. This study demonstrates the effect of different mass flow rate of hot fluid into evaporator section on the condenser side heat transfer coefficient with annular fins under natural convection at different inclinations. In this study annular fins are used for the experimental work having dimensions of length of fin, thickness of fin and spacing of fin as 10 mm, 1 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The main aim of present study is to discover at what inclination angles the maximum heat transfer coefficient shall be achieved. The heat transfer coefficient on the external surface of heat pipe condenser section is determined by experimental method and then predicted by empirical correlations. The results obtained from experimental and Churchill and Chu relation for laminar are in fair agreement with not more than 22% deviation. It is elucidated the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 31.2 W/(m2-K) at 25˚ tilt angle and minimal condenser heat transfer coefficient of 26.4 W/(m2-K) is seen at 45˚ tilt angle and 200 ml/min mass flow rate. Inclination angle also affects the thermal performance of heat pipe. Beyond 25o inclination, heat transport rate starts to decrease.

Keywords: Annular fins, condenser heat transfer coefficient, heat pipe, natural convection, tilt angle.

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2599 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

Authors: Farhad Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Farzad Hekmatipour

Abstract:

In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

Keywords: Nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, vertical tube, laminar flow.

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2598 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5oC by the holes.

Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Flow Holes.

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2597 Heat Transfer Analysis of Rectangular Channel Plate Heat Sink

Authors: Zhang Lei, Liu Min, Liu Botao

Abstract:

In order to improve the simulation effects of space cold black environment, this paper described a rectangular channel plate heat sink. By using fluid mechanics theory and finite element method, the internal fluid flow and heat transfer in heat sink was numerically simulated to analyze the impact of channel structural on fluid flow and heat transfer. The result showed that heat sink temperature uniformity is well, and the impact of channel structural on the heat sink temperature uniformity is not significant. The channel depth and spacing are important factors which affect the fluid flow and heat transfer in the heat sink. The two factors of heat transfer and resistance need to be considered comprehensively to determine the optimal flow structure parameters.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat sink, numerical simulation

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2596 Enhancement of Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate with Ribs

Authors: M. Kito, M. Takezaki, T. Shakouchi, K. Tsujimoto, T. Ando

Abstract:

Impinging jets are widely used in industrial cooling systems for their high heat transfer characteristics at stagnation points. However, the heat transfer characteristics are low in the downstream direction. In order to improve the heat transfer coefficient further downstream, investigations introducing ribs on jet-cooled flat plates have been conducted. Most studies regarding the heat-transfer enhancement using a rib-roughened wall have dealt with the rib pitch. In this paper, we focused on the rib spacing and demonstrated that the rib spacing must be more than 6 times the nozzle width to improve heat transfer at Reynolds number Re=5.0×103 because it is necessary to have enough space to allow reattachment of flow behind the first rib.

Keywords: Forced convection, heat transfer, impinging jet cooling, rib roughened wall

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2595 Flat Miniature Heat Pipes for Electronics Cooling: State of the Art, Experimental and Theoretical Analysis

Authors: M.C. Zaghdoudi, S. Maalej, J. Mansouri, M.B.H. Sassi

Abstract:

An experimental study is realized in order to verify the Mini Heat Pipe (MHP) concept for cooling high power dissipation electronic components and determines the potential advantages of constructing mini channels as an integrated part of a flat heat pipe. A Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) prototype including a capillary structure composed of parallel rectangular microchannels is manufactured and a filling apparatus is developed in order to charge the FMHP. The heat transfer improvement obtained by comparing the heat pipe thermal resistance to the heat conduction thermal resistance of a copper plate having the same dimensions as the tested FMHP is demonstrated for different heat input flux rates. Moreover, the heat transfer in the evaporator and condenser sections are analyzed, and heat transfer laws are proposed. In the theoretical part of this work, a detailed mathematical model of a FMHP with axial microchannels is developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation. The model is based on the equations for the mass, momentum and energy conservation, which are written for the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser zones. The model, which permits to simulate several shapes of microchannels, can predict the maximum heat transfer capacity of FMHP, the optimal fluid mass, and the flow and thermal parameters along the FMHP. The comparison between experimental and model results shows the good ability of the numerical model to predict the axial temperature distribution along the FMHP.

Keywords: Electronics Cooling, Micro Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Spreader, Capillary grooves.

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2594 Empirical Heat Transfer Correlations of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers in Pulsatile Flow

Authors: Jason P. Michaud, Connor P. Speer, David A. Miller, David S. Nobes

Abstract:

An experimental study on finned-tube radiators has been conducted. Three radiators found in desktop computers sized for 120 mm fans were tested in steady and pulsatile flows of ambient air over a Reynolds number range of  50 < Re < 900. Water at 60 °C was circulated through the radiators to maintain a constant fin temperature during the tests. For steady flow, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased linearly with the mass flow rate of air. The pulsatile flow experiments showed that frequency of pulsation had a negligible effect on the heat transfer rate for the range of frequencies tested (0.5 Hz – 2.5 Hz). For all three radiators, the heat transfer rate was decreased in the case of pulsatile flow. Linear heat transfer correlations for steady and pulsatile flow were calculated in terms of Reynolds number and Nusselt number.

Keywords: Finned-tube heat exchangers, radiators, heat transfer correlations, pulsatile flow, computer radiators.

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2593 MHD Unsteady Free Convection of Heat and Mass Transfer Flow through Porous Medium with Time Dependent Suction and Constant Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Rudraman Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, we have investigated the free convection MHD flow due to heat and mass transfer through porous medium bounded by an infinite vertical non-conducting porous plate with time dependent suction under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field of strength H0. When Temperature (T) and Concentration (C) at the plate is oscillatory with time about a constant non-zero mean. The velocity distribution, the temperature distribution, co-efficient of skin friction and role of heat transfer is investigated. Here the partial differential equations are involved. Exact solution is not possible so approximate solution is obtained and various graphs are plotted.

Keywords: Time Dependent Suction, Convection, MHD, Porous.

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2592 Heat and Mass Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Surface Embedded in a Porous Medium in the Presence of Variable Chemical Reaction

Authors: T. G. Emam

Abstract:

The effect of variable chemical reaction on heat and mass transfer characteristics over unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porus medium is studied. The governing time dependent boundary layer equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations containing chemical reaction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. These equations have been transformed into a system of first order differential equations. MATHEMATICA has been used to solve this system after obtaining the missed initial conditions. The velocity gradient, temperature, and concentration profiles are computed and discussed in details for various values of the different parameters.

Keywords: Heat and mass transfer, stretching surface, chemical reaction, porus medium.

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2591 Unsteady Water Boundary Layer Flow with Non-Uniform Mass Transfer

Authors: G. Revathi, P. Saikrishnan

Abstract:

In the present analysis an unsteady laminar forced convection water boundary layer flow is considered. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are taken as variables such that those are inversely proportional to temperature. By using quasi-linearization technique the nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are linearized and the numerical solutions are obtained by using implicit finite difference scheme with the appropriate selection of step sizes. Non-similar solutions have been obtained from the starting point of the stream-wise coordinate to the point where skin friction value vanishes. The effect non-uniform mass transfer along the surface of the cylinder through slot is studied on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients.

Keywords: Boundary layer, heat transfer, non-similar solution, non-uniform mass, unsteady flow.

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2590 CFD Modeling of High Temperature Seal Chamber

Authors: Mikhail P. Strongin, Ragupathi Soundararajan

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is fast design optimization of the seal chamber. The study includes the mass transfer between lower and upper chamber on seal chamber for hot water application pumps. The use of Fluent 12.1 commercial code made it possible to capture complex flow with heat-mass transfer, radiation, Tailor instability, and buoyancy effect. Realizable k-epsilon model was used for turbulence modeling. Radiation heat losses were taken into account. The temperature distribution at seal region is predicted with respect to heat addition. Results show the possibilities of the model simplifications by excluding the water domain in low chamber from calculations. CFD simulations permit to improve seal chamber design to meet target water temperature around the seal. This study can be used for the analysis of different seal chamber configurations.

Keywords: CFD, heat transfer, seal chamber, high temperature water

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2589 A CFD Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Pipe Flow with Al2O3 Nanofluid

Authors: P.Kumar

Abstract:

Fluids are used for heat transfer in many engineering equipments. Water, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are some of the common heat transfer fluids. Over the years, in an attempt to reduce the size of the equipment and/or efficiency of the process, various techniques have been employed to improve the heat transfer rate of these fluids. Surface modification, use of inserts and increased fluid velocity are some examples of heat transfer enhancement techniques. Addition of milli or micro sized particles to the heat transfer fluid is another way of improving heat transfer rate. Though this looks simple, this method has practical problems such as high pressure loss, clogging and erosion of the material of construction. These problems can be overcome by using nanofluids, which is a dispersion of nanosized particles in a base fluid. Nanoparticles increase the thermal conductivity of the base fluid manifold which in turn increases the heat transfer rate. In this work, the heat transfer enhancement using aluminium oxide nanofluid has been studied by computational fluid dynamic modeling of the nanofluid flow adopting the single phase approach.

Keywords: Heat transfer intensification, nanofluid, CFD, friction factor

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2588 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim

Abstract:

The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid.

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2587 Parametric Studies of Wood Pyrolysis Particles

Authors: W. Afef, A. Mohamed Ammar, G. Kamel, O. Ahmed

Abstract:

In the present study, a numerical approach to describe the pyrolysis of a single solid particle of wood is used to study the influence of various conditions such as particle size, heat transfer coefficient, reactor temperature and heating rate. The influence of these parameters in the change of the duration of the pyrolysis cycle was studied. Mathematical modeling was employed to simulate the heat, mass transfer, and kinetic processes inside the reactor. The evolutions of the mass loss as well as the evolution of temperature inside the thick piece are investigated numerically. The elaborated model was also employed to study the effect of the reactor temperature and the rate of heating on the change of the temperature and the local loss of the mass inside the piece of wood. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature.

Keywords: Wood, Pyrolysis, Modeling, Convective heat transfer, Kinetic.

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