Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 105

Search results for: Nor Azlina Ab. Aziz

105 Coverage Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Nor Azlina Ab. Aziz, Kamarulzaman Ab. Aziz, Wan Zakiah Wan Ismail

Abstract:

Coverage is one of the main research interests in wireless sensor networks (WSN), it is used to determine the quality of service (QoS) of the networks. Therefore this paper aims to review the common strategies use in solving coverage problem in WSN. The strategies studied are used during deployment phase where the coverage is calculated based on the placement of the sensors on the region of interest (ROI). The strategies reviewed are categorized into three groups based on the approaches used, namely; force based, grid based or computational geometry based approach.

Keywords: Computational geometry, coverage, Delaunay triangulation, force, grid, Voronoi diagram, wireless sensor networks.

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104 Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study

Authors: Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more “engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also explain a case study that implemented those design and also the system overview.

Keywords: authentic activity. authentic context, mixed reality, situated learning

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103 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning styles, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebra was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style perform better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: Algebraic Fractions, Graduated Difficulty, Mastery Learning Style, Multimedia.

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102 Virtual Laboratory for Learning Biology – A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Murniza Muhamad, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

This study aims to conduct a preliminary investigation to determine the topic to be focused in developing Virtual Laboratory For Biology (VLab-Bio). Samples involved in answering the questionnaire are form five students (equivalent to A-Level) and biology teachers. Time and economical resources for the setting up and construction of scientific laboratories can be solved with the adaptation of virtual laboratories as an educational tool. Thus, it is hoped that the proposed virtual laboratory will help students to learn the abstract concepts in biology. Findings show that the difficult topic chosen is Cell Division and the learning objective to be focused in developing the virtual lab is “Describe the application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning".

Keywords: biology education, computer simulation, virtual laboratory, virtual reality

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101 The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation

Authors: I. Siti Rabiatull Aisha, A. Ourdjini, O. Saliza Azlina

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.

Keywords: Bismuth addition, intermetallic compound, composition, morphology.

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100 Lean TQM Automotive Factory Model System

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohd Salleh, Salmiah Kasolang, Ahmed Jaffar

Abstract:

Integrated Total Quality Management (TQM) with Lean Manufacturing (LM) is a system comprises of TQM with LM principles and is associated with financial and nonfinancial performance measurement indicators. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total customer satisfaction by removing eight wastes available in any process in an organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by PASW Statistics 18. It was found out that these vendors have been practicing and measuring the effectiveness TQM and LM implementation. More involvement of all Malaysian automotive vendors will represent the exact status of current Malaysian automotive industry in implementing TQM and LM and can determine whether the industry is ready for integrated TQM and LM system. This is the first study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System and SAEJ4000.

Keywords: Automotive Industry, Lean Manufacturing, Operational Engineering Management, Total Quality Management

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99 Well-Being in Adolescence: Fitting Measurement Model

Authors: Azlina Abu Bakar, Abdul Fatah Wan Sidek

Abstract:

Well-being has been given special emphasis in quality of life. It involves living a meaningful, life satisfaction, stability and happiness in life. Well-being also concerns the satisfaction of physical, psychological, social needs and demands of an individual. The purpose of this study was to validate three-factor measurement model of well-being using structural equation modeling (SEM). The conceptions of well-being measured such dimensions as physical, psychological and social well-being. This study was done based on a total sample of 650 adolescents from east-coast of peninsular Malaysia. The Well-Being Scales which was adapted from [1] was used in this study. The items were hypothesized a priori to have nonzero loadings on all dimensions in the model. The findings of the SEM demonstrated that it is a good fitting model which the proposed model fits the driving theory; (x2df = 1.268; GFI = .994; CFI = .998; TLI= .996; p = .255; RMSEA = .021). Composite reliability (CR) was .93 and average variance extracted (AVE) was 58%. The model in this study fits with the sample of data and well-being is important to bring sustainable development to the mainstream.

Keywords: Adolescence, Structural Equation Modeling, Sustainable Development, Well-Being.

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98 Optimization and Kinetic Study of Gaharu Oil Extraction

Authors: Muhammad Hazwan H., Azlina M.F., Hasfalina C.M., Zurina Z.A., Hishamuddin J

Abstract:

Gaharu that produced by Aquilaria spp. is classified as one of the most valuable forest products traded internationally as it is very resinous, fragrant and highly valuable heartwood. Gaharu has been widely used in aromatheraphy, medicine, perfume and religious practices. This work aimed to determine the factors affecting solid liquid extraction of gaharu oil using hexane as solvent under experimental condition. The kinetics of extraction was assumed and verified based on a second-order mechanism. The effect of three main factors, which were temperature, reaction time and solvent to solid ratio were investigated to achieve maximum oil yield. The optimum condition were found at temperature 65°C, 9 hours reaction time and solvent to solid ratio of 12:1 with 14.5% oil yield. The kinetics experimental data agrees and well fitted with the second order extraction model. The initial extraction rate (h) was 0.0115 gmL-1min-1; the extraction capacity (Cs) was 1.282gmL-1; the second order extraction constant (k) was 0.007 mLg-1min-1 and coefficient of determination, R2 was 0.945.

Keywords: Gaharu, solid liquid extraction, optimization, kinetics.

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97 Moment Generating Functions of Observed Gaps between Hypopnea Using Saddlepoint Approximations

Authors: Nur Zakiah Mohd Saat, Abdul Aziz Jemain

Abstract:

Saddlepoint approximations is one of the tools to obtain an expressions for densities and distribution functions. We approximate the densities of the observed gaps between the hypopnea events using the Huzurbazar saddlepoint approximation. We demonstrate the density of a maximum likelihood estimator in exponential families.

Keywords: Exponential, maximum likehood estimators, observed gap, Saddlepoint approximations.

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96 Green Lean TQM Practices in Malaysian Automotive Companies

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohd Salleh, Salmiah Kasolang, Ahmed Jaffar

Abstract:

Green Lean Total Quality Management (TQM) System is a system comprises of Environmental Management System (EMS) practices which is integrated to TQM with Lean Manufacturing (LM) principles. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total customer satisfaction and environmental care by removing eight wastes available in any process in an organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by SPSS v.17. It was found out that some vendors have been practicing TQM and LM while some have started to implement EMS. This study is only focusing on highly active companies that have been involved in MAJAICO Program and Proton Vendor Development Program. This is the first study conducted to know the current status of TQM, LM and EMS practices in highly active automotive companies in Malaysia. It was found out that EMS has been practiced by 16 companies out of 30. Within these 16 companies the approach is more holistic and green. This is a preliminary study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System SAEJ4000, MAJAICO Lean Production System and EMS.

Keywords: Automotive Industry, Lean Manufacturing, Operational Engineering Management, Total Quality Management. Environmental Management System.

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95 E-Government Continuance Intention of Media Psychology: Some Insights from Psychographic Characteristics

Authors: Azlina Binti Abu Bakar, Fahmi Zaidi Bin Abdul Razak, Wan Salihin Wong Abdullah

Abstract:

Psychographic is a psychological study of values, attitudes, interests and it is used mostly in prediction, opinion research and social research. This study predicts the influence of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition on e-government acceptance among Malaysian citizens. The survey responses of 543 e-government users have been validated and analyzed by means of covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling. The findings indicate that e-government acceptance among Malaysian citizens are mainly influenced by performance expectancy (β = 0.66, t = 11.53, p < 0.01) and social influence (β = 0.20, t = 4.23, p < 0.01). Surprisingly, there is no significant effect of facilitating condition and effort expectancy on e-government continuance intention (β = 0.01, t = 0.27, p > 0.05; β = -0.01, t = -0.40, p > 0.05). This study offers government and vendors a frame of reference to analyze citizen’s situation before initiating new innovations. In case of Malaysian e-government technology, adoption strategies should be built around fostering level of citizens’ technological expectation and social influence on e-government usage.

Keywords: Continuance intention, Malaysian citizens, media psychology, structural equation modeling.

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94 Exact Solutions of the Helmholtz equation via the Nikiforov-Uvarov Method

Authors: Said Laachir, Aziz Laaribi

Abstract:

The Helmholtz equation often arises in the study of physical problems involving partial differential equation. Many researchers have proposed numerous methods to find the analytic or approximate solutions for the proposed problems. In this work, the exact analytical solutions of the Helmholtz equation in spherical polar coordinates are presented using the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. It is found that the solution of the angular eigenfunction can be expressed by the associated-Legendre polynomial and radial eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of the Laguerre polynomials. The special case for k=0, which corresponds to the Laplace equation is also presented.

Keywords: Helmholtz equation, Nikiforov-Uvarov method, exact solutions, eigenfunctions.

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93 Numerical Study on the Hazards of Gravitational Forces on Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem M. Alargha, Mohammad O. Hamdan, Waseem H. Aziz

Abstract:

Aerobatic and military pilots are subjected to high gravitational forces that could cause blackout, physical injuries or death. A CFD simulation using fluid-solid interactions scheme has been conducted to investigate the gravitational effects and hazards inside cerebral aneurysms. Medical data have been used to derive the size and geometry of a simple aneurysm on a T-shaped bifurcation. The results show that gravitational force has no effect on maximum Wall Shear Stress (WSS); hence, it will not cause aneurysm initiation/formation. However, gravitational force cause causes hypertension which could contribute to aneurysm rupture.

Keywords: Aneurysm, CFD, wall shear stress, gravity, fluid dynamics, bifurcation artery.

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92 Industrial Waste Monitoring

Authors: Khairuddin Bin Osman, Ngo Boon Kiat, A. Hamid Bin hamidon, Khairul Azha Bin A. Aziz, Hazli Rafis Bin Abdul Rahman, Mazran Bin Esro

Abstract:

Conventional industrial monitoring systems are tedious, inefficient and the at times integrity of the data is unreliable. The objective of this system is to monitor industrial processes specifically the fluid level which will measure the instantaneous fluid level parameter and respond by text messaging the exact value of the parameter to the user when being enquired by a privileged access user. The development of the embedded program code and the circuit for fluid level measuring are discussed as well. Suggestions for future implementations and efficient remote monitoring works are included.

Keywords: Industrial monitoring system, text messaging, embedded programming.

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91 Classification of Fuzzy Petri Nets, and Their Applications

Authors: M.H.Aziz, Erik L.J.Bohez, Manukid Parnichkun, Chanchal Saha

Abstract:

Petri Net (PN) has proven to be effective graphical, mathematical, simulation, and control tool for Discrete Event Systems (DES). But, with the growth in the complexity of modern industrial, and communication systems, PN found themselves inadequate to address the problems of uncertainty, and imprecision in data. This gave rise to amalgamation of Fuzzy logic with Petri nets and a new tool emerged with the name of Fuzzy Petri Nets (FPN). Although there had been a lot of research done on FPN and a number of their applications have been anticipated, but their basic types and structure are still ambiguous. Therefore, in this research, an effort is made to categorize FPN according to their structure and algorithms Further, literature review of the applications of FPN in the light of their classifications has been done.

Keywords: Discrete event systems, Fuzzy logic, Fuzzy Petri nets, and Petri nets.

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90 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu

Abstract:

Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality.

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89 Factors Affecting Current Ratings for Underground and Air Cables

Authors: S. H. Alwan, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, N. Aziz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a parametric study to determine the major factors that influence the calculations of current rating for both air and underground cables. The current carrying capability of the power cables rely largely on the installation conditions and material properties. In this work, the influences on ampacity of conductor size, soil thermal resistivity and ambient soil temperature for underground installations are shown. The influences on the current-carrying capacity of solar heating (time of day effects and intensity of solar radiation), ambient air temperature and cable size for cables air are also presented. IEC and IEEE standards are taken as reference.

Keywords: Cable ampacity, underground cable, IEC standard, air cables.

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88 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator time delay.

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87 Ontology-based Query System for UNITEN Postgraduate Students

Authors: Zaihisma C. Cob, Alicia Y.C. Tang, Sharifah J. Syed Aziz

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new model to support user queries on postgraduate research information at Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The ontology to be developed will contribute towards shareable and reusable domain knowledge that makes knowledge assets intelligently accessible to both people and software. This work adapts a methodology for ontology development based on the framework proposed by Uschold and King. The concepts and relations in this domain are represented in a class diagram using the Protégé software. The ontology will be used to support a menudriven query system for assisting students in searching for information related to postgraduate research at the university.

Keywords: Ontology, Protégé, postgraduate program, query system.

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86 The Influence of Doping of Fullerene Derivative (PCBM) on the Optical Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc)

Authors: Fakhra Aziz, K. Sulaiman, Kh. S. Karimov, M. Hassan Sayyad

Abstract:

This paper presents a spectroscopic study on doping of Vanadyl pathalocyanine (VOPc) by [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The films are characterized by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. A drastic increase in the absorption coefficient has been observed with increasing dopant concentration. Optical properties of VOPc:PCBM films deposited by spin coating technique were studied in detail. Optical band gap decreased with the PCBM incorporation in the VOPc film. Optical band gap calculated from the absorption spectra decreased from 3.32 eV to 3.26 eV with a variation of 0–75 % of PCBM concentration in the VOPC films.

Keywords: Optical properties, spin-coating, optical properties, optical energy gap

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85 Green Lean TQM Human Resource Management Practices in Malaysian Automotive Companies

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohd Salleh, Salmiah Kasolang, Ahmed Jaffar

Abstract:

Green Lean Total Quality Management (LTQM) Human Resource Management (HRM) System is a system comprises of HRM in Environmental Management System (EMS) practices which is integrated to TQM with Lean Manufacturing (LM) principles. HRM is essential especially in dealing with low motivation and less productive employees. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total human resource development that is motivated and capable to optimize their creativity to be a part of Green and Lean TQM organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by Minitab v16 and SPSS v17. It was found out companies that are practicing Green LTQM HRM practices have generated more revenue and have RND capability. However, years of company establishment do not affect the openness of the company to adapt new initiatives that can help to improve the effectiveness of the operations. It was also found out the importance of training, communication and rewards for employees. The Green LTQM HRM practices framework model established in this study hopefully will give preliminary insight especially to companies that are still looking for system that can improve their productivity from managing human resource. This is preliminary study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System SAEJ4000, MAJAICO Lean Production System and EMS focusing on highly active companies that have been involved in MAJAICO Program and Proton Vendor Development Program. Future study can be conducted to know the status at other industry as well as case study pertaining to this system.

Keywords: Automotive Industry, Lean Manufacturing, Operational Engineering Management, Total Quality Management. Environmental Management System.

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84 Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine: A Review

Authors: B. Bahri, A. A. Aziz, M. Shahbakhti, M. F. Muhamad Said

Abstract:

The greenhouse effect and limitations on carbon dioxide emissions concern engine maker and the future of the internal combustion engines should go toward substantially and improved thermal efficiency engine. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative high-efficiency technology for combustion engines to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines, such as controlling the combustion phasing, extending the operating range, and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. HCCI and the exploitation of ethanol as an alternative fuel is one way to explore new frontiers of internal combustion engines with an eye towards maintaining its sustainability. This study was done to extend database knowledge about HCCI with ethanol a fuel.

Keywords: Ethanol combustion, Ethanol fuel, HCCI.

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83 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform

Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.

Keywords: Multiple-input-multiple-output, MIMO, distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO, LTE.

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82 On the Comparison of Several Goodness of Fit tests under Simple Random Sampling and Ranked Set Sampling

Authors: F. Azna A. Shahabuddin, Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, Abdul Aziz Jemain

Abstract:

Many works have been carried out to compare the efficiency of several goodness of fit procedures for identifying whether or not a particular distribution could adequately explain a data set. In this paper a study is conducted to investigate the power of several goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS), Anderson-Darling(AD), Cramer- von- Mises (CV) and a proposed modification of Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test which incorporates a variance stabilizing transformation (FKS). The performances of these selected tests are studied under simple random sampling (SRS) and Ranked Set Sampling (RSS). This study shows that, in general, the Anderson-Darling (AD) test performs better than other GOF tests. However, there are some cases where the proposed test can perform as equally good as the AD test.

Keywords: Empirical distribution function, goodness-of-fit, order statistics, ranked set sampling

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81 A Direct Probabilistic Optimization Method for Constrained Optimal Control Problem

Authors: Akbar Banitalebi, Mohd Ismail Abd Aziz, Rohanin Ahmad

Abstract:

A new stochastic algorithm called Probabilistic Global Search Johor (PGSJ) has recently been established for global optimization of nonconvex real valued problems on finite dimensional Euclidean space. In this paper we present convergence guarantee for this algorithm in probabilistic sense without imposing any more condition. Then, we jointly utilize this algorithm along with control parameterization technique for the solution of constrained optimal control problem. The numerical simulations are also included to illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the PGSJ algorithm in the solution of control problems.

Keywords: Optimal Control Problem, Constraints, Direct Methods, Stochastic Algorithm

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80 A Novel Arabic Text Steganography Method Using Letter Points and Extensions

Authors: Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub, Manal Mohammad Fattani

Abstract:

This paper presents a new steganography approach suitable for Arabic texts. It can be classified under steganography feature coding methods. The approach hides secret information bits within the letters benefiting from their inherited points. To note the specific letters holding secret bits, the scheme considers the two features, the existence of the points in the letters and the redundant Arabic extension character. We use the pointed letters with extension to hold the secret bit 'one' and the un-pointed letters with extension to hold 'zero'. This steganography technique is found attractive to other languages having similar texts to Arabic such as Persian and Urdu.

Keywords: Arabic text, Cryptography, Feature coding, Information security, Text steganography, Text watermarking.

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79 Non-Linear Control Based on State Estimation for the Convoy of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M-M. Mohamed Ahmed, Nacer K. M’Sirdi, Aziz Naamane

Abstract:

In this paper, a longitudinal and lateral control approach based on a nonlinear observer is proposed for a convoy of autonomous vehicles to follow a desired trajectory. To authors best knowledge, this topic has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature for the control of multi vehicles. The modeling of the convoy of the vehicles is revisited using a robotic method for simulation purposes and control design. With these models, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the states of each vehicle in the convoy from the available sensors, then a sliding mode control based on this observer is used to control the longitudinal and lateral movement. The validation and performance evaluation are done using the well-known driving simulator Scanner-Studio. The results are presented for different maneuvers of 5 vehicles.

Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, convoy, nonlinear control, nonlinear observer, sliding mode.

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78 Simulation of the Airflow Characteristic inside a Hard Disk Drive by Applying a Computational Fluid Dynamics Software

Authors: Chanchal Saha, Huynh Trung Luong, M. H. Aziz, Tharinan Rattanalert

Abstract:

Now-a-days, numbers of simulation software are being used all over the world to solve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) related problems. In this present study, a commercial CFD simulation software namely STAR-CCM+ is applied to analyze the airflow characteristics inside a 2.5" hard disk drive. Each step of the software is described adequately to obtain the output and the data are verified with the theories to justify the robustness of the simulation outcome. This study gives an insight about the accuracy level of the CFD simulation software to compute CFD related problems although it largely depends upon the computer speed. Also this study will open avenues for further research.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Hard disk drive, Meshing, Recirculation filter, and Filter physics parameter.

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77 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp and using them in medical application. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced and applied in the preparation of antimicrobial hydrogel.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, hydrogel olive pulp.

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76 Performance Analysis of Artificial Neural Network Based Land Cover Classification

Authors: Najam Aziz, Nasru Minallah, Ahmad Junaid, Kashaf Gul

Abstract:

Landcover classification using automated classification techniques, while employing remotely sensed multi-spectral imagery, is one of the promising areas of research. Different land conditions at different time are captured through satellite and monitored by applying different classification algorithms in specific environment. In this paper, a SPOT-5 image provided by SUPARCO has been studied and classified in Environment for Visual Interpretation (ENVI), a tool widely used in remote sensing. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classification technique is used to detect the land cover changes in Abbottabad district. Obtained results are compared with a pixel based Distance classifier. The results show that ANN gives the better overall accuracy of 99.20% and Kappa coefficient value of 0.98 over the Mahalanobis Distance Classifier.

Keywords: Landcover classification, artificial neural network, remote sensing, SPOT-5.

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