Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 103

Search results for: Carboxymethyl cellulose

103 Cellulose Extraction from Pomelo Peel: Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Authors: J. Chumee, D. Seeburin

Abstract:

The cellulose was extracted from pomelo peel and an etherification reaction used for converting cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The pomelo peel was refluxed with 0.5 M HCl and 1 M NaOH solution at 90°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cellulose was bleached with calcium hypochlorite and used as precursor. The precursor was soaked in mixed solution between isopropyl alcohol and 40%w/v NaOH for 12 h. After that, chloroacetic acid was added and reacted at 55°C for 6 h. The optimum condition was 5 g of cellulose: 0.25 mole of NaOH : 0.07 mole of ClCH2COOH with 78.00% of yield. Moreover, the product had 0.54 of degree of substitution (DS).

Keywords: Pomelo peel, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cellulose.

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102 The Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose on the Stability of Emulsions Stabilized by Whey Proteins under Digestion in vitro and in vivo

Authors: D. Leskauskaite, I. Jasutiene, M. Kersiene, E. Malinauskyte, P. Matusevicius

Abstract:

In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion model was used to investigate the changes of emulsions under digestion conditions. Oil in water emulsions stabilized by whey proteins (2%) and stabilized by whey proteins (2%) with addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (0.75%) as gelling agent of continuous phase were prepared at pH7. Both emulsions were destabilized under gastric conditions; however the protective role of carboxymethyl cellulose was indicated by recording delay of fat digestibility of this emulsion. In the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose whey proteins on the interfacial surface of droplets were more resistant to gastric degradation causing limited hydrolysis of fat due to the poor acceptability of lipids for the enzymes. Studies of emulsions using in vivo model supported results from in vitro studies. Lower content of triglycerides in blood serum and higher amount of fecal fat of rats were determined when rats were fed by diet containing emulsion made with whey proteins and carboxymethyl cellulose. 

Keywords: Digestibility, emulsions, lipids, rats.

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101 Plaque Formation of Toxoplasma gondii in Vero Cells using Carboxymethylcellulose

Authors: L. Fonseca-Géigel, M. Alvarez, G. García, R. Cox, L. Morier, L. Fonte, M. G. Guzmán

Abstract:

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite capable of infecting all nucleated cells in a diverse array of species. Toxoplasma plaque assay have been described using Bacto Agar. Because of its experimental advantages carboxymethyl cellulose overlay, medium viscosity was choosing and the aim of this work was to develop alternative method for formation of T. gondii plaques. Tachyzoites were inoculated onto monolayers of Vero cells and cultured at 37° C under 5 % CO2. The cultures were followed up by microscopy inspection. Small plaques were visible by naphtol blue stain 4 days after infection. Larger plaques could be observed by day 10 of culture. The carboxymethyl cellulose is a cheap reagent and the methodology is easier, faster than assays under agar overlay. This is the first description of the carboxymethyl cellulose overlay use for obtaining the formation of T. gondii plaques and may be useful in consequent obtaining tachyzoites for detailed studies.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cell culture, Plaque assay, Toxoplasma gondii.

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100 Fermentative Production and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Bacterial Cellulose Using Date Syrup

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Ali R. Yousefi, Hamed Askari, Maryam Bakhtiyari

Abstract:

In this study, static batch fermentation was used for bacterial cellulose production in date syrup solution (Bx. 10%) at 28°C using Gluconacetobacter. xylinus (PTCC 1734). The physicochemical properties of standard Sigma CMC and the produced carboxymethyl bacterial cellulose (CMBC) were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to the FT-IR spectra the bands at 1664 and 1431 cm-1 indicate that carboxylic acid groups and carboxylate groups exist on the surface. The SEM imaging of CMBC and CMC carried out in magnification of 1K. Comparing the SEM imaging obviously showed that the ribbon shape in CMC remained but the length of ribbons became shorter while that shape changed to flake shape for CMBC. Determination of the area under XRD patterns demonstrated that the crystallinity amount of CMC was more than that for CMBC (51.08% and 81.84% for CMBC and CMC, respectively).

Keywords: Carboxymethyl bacterial cellulose, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractometry.

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99 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp and using them in medical application. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced and applied in the preparation of antimicrobial hydrogel.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, hydrogel olive pulp.

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98 Gastroprotective Activity of Swietenia Mahagoni Seed Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

Authors: Salma Saleh Alrdahe, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Shaharudin Abul Razak, Farkaad Abdul Kadir, Pouya Hassandarvish

Abstract:

Swietenia mahagoni have been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different diseases. Present study was performed to evaluate anti-ulcerogenic activity of ethanol seed extract against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Six groups of rats were orally pre-treated respectively with carboxymethyl cellulose, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg plant extract one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After additional hour, rats were sacrificed and ulcer areas of gastric walls were determined. Grossly, carboxymethyl cellulose group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with plant extract exhibited significant protection of gastric mucosa. Histology, carboxymethyl cellulose group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa; edema and leucocytes infiltration of sub mucosa compared to plant extract which showed gastric protection. Acute toxicity study did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. Conclusions, results suggest that S. mahagoni promotes ulcer protection as ascertained grossly and histologically.

Keywords: Cytoprotection, Gastric ulcer, Histology, Swieteniamahagoni seed.

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97 Extended Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coated Polypropylene Films Containing Zataria multiflora Essential Oil

Authors: Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films containing Zataria multiflora (ZEO) essential oils (4%) as an antimicrobial packaging for chicken breast stored at 4 °C. To increase PP film hydrophilicity, it was treated by atmospheric cold plasma prior to coating by CMC. Then, different films including PP, PP/CMC, PP/CMC containing 4% of ZEO were used for the chicken meat packaging in vapor phase. Total viable count and pseudomonads population and oxidative (TBA) changes of the chicken breast were analyzed during shelf life. Results showed that the shelf life of chicken meat kept in films containing ZEO improved from three to nine days compared to the control sample without any direct contact with the film. Study of oxygen barrier properties of bilayer film without essential oils (0.096 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) in comparison with PP film (416 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) shows that coating of PP with CMC significantly reduces oxygen permeation of the obtained packaging (P<0.05), which reduced aerobic bacteria growth. Chemical composition of ZEO was also evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and this shows that thymol was the main antimicrobial and antioxidant component of the essential oil. The results revealed that PP/CMC containing ZEO has good potential for application as active food packaging in indirect contact which would also improve sensory properties of product.

Keywords: Shelf life, chicken breast, polypropylene, carboxymethyl cellulose, essential oil.

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96 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: Antimicrobial hydrogel, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose, grafting, olive pulp.

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95 Investigation of Physicochemical Properties of the Bacterial Cellulose Produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus from Date Syrup

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Ali R. Yousefi

Abstract:

Bacterial cellulose, a biopolysaccharide, is produced by the bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Static batch fermentation for bacterial cellulose production was studied in sucrose and date syrup solutions (Bx. 10%) at 28 °C using G. xylinus (PTCC, 1734). Results showed that the maximum yields of bacterial cellulose (BC) were 4.35 and 1.69 g/l00 ml for date syrup and sucrose medium after 336 hours fermentation period, respectively. Comparison of FTIR spectrum of cellulose with BC indicated appropriate coincidence which proved that the component produced by G. xylinus was cellulose. Determination of the area under X-ray diffractometry patterns demonstrated that the crystallinity amount of cellulose (83.61%) was more than that for the BC (60.73%). The scanning electron microscopy imaging of BC and cellulose were carried out in two magnifications of 1 and 6K. Results showed that the diameter ratio of BC to cellulose was approximately 1/30 which indicated more delicacy of BC fibers relative to cellulose.

Keywords: Gluconacetobacter xylinus, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractometry

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94 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

Abstract:

In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, X-ray diffraction.

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93 Structural Characteristics of Batch Processed Agro-Waste Fibres

Authors: E. I. Akpan, S. O. Adeosun, G. I. Lawal, S. A. Balogun, X. D. Chen

Abstract:

The characterisation of agro-wastes fibres for composite applications from Nigeria using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been done. Fibres extracted from groundnut shell, coconut husk, rice husk, palm fruit bunch and palm fruit stalk are processed using two novel cellulose fibre production methods developed by the authors. Cellulose apparent crystallinity calculated using the deconvolution of the diffractometer trace shows that the amorphous portion of cellulose was permeable to hydrolysis yielding high crystallinity after treatment. All diffratograms show typical cellulose structure with well-defined 110, 200 and 040 peaks. Palm fruit fibres had the highest 200 crystalline cellulose peaks compared to others and it is an indication of rich cellulose content. Surface examination of the resulting fibres using SEM indicates the presence of regular cellulose network structure with some agglomerated laminated layer of thin leaves of cellulose microfibrils. The surfaces were relatively smooth indicating the removal of hemicellulose, lignin and pectin.

Keywords: X-ray diffraction, SEM, cellulose, deconvolution, crystallinity.

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92 Survey on Nano-fibers from Acetobacter Xylinum

Authors: A. Ashjaran, M. E. Yazdanshenas, A. Rashidi, R. Khajavi, A. Rezaee

Abstract:

fibers of pure cellulose can be made from some bacteria such as acetobacter xylinum. Bacterial cellulose fibers are very pure, tens of nm across and about 0.5 micron long. The fibers are very stiff and, although nobody seems to have measured the strength of individual fibers. Their stiffness up to 70 GPa. Fundamental strengths should be at least greater than those of the best commercial polymers, but best bulk strength seems to about the same as that of steel. They can potentially be produced in industrial quantities at greatly lowered cost and water content, and with triple the yield, by a new process. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the bacterial cellulose as a biological nonwoven fabric with special emphasis on its fermentative production and applications. Characteristics of bacterial cellulose biofabric with respect to its structure and physicochemical properties are discussed. Current and potential applications of bacterial cellulose in textile, nonwoven cloth, paper, films synthetic fiber coating, food, pharmaceutical and other industries are also presented.

Keywords: Microbial cellulose, Biofabric, Microorganisms Acetobacter xylinum, Polysaccharide

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91 Effect of Dietary α-Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela, Aziz Bin Ahmad, A. B. Abol-Munafi

Abstract:

Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.

Keywords: Dietary cellulose, growth parameters, Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, purified diets.

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90 Study of Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment with Sulfuric Acid as a Step of Cellulose Obtaining

Authors: Candido. R.G., Godoy, G.G., Gonçalves, A.R

Abstract:

To produce sugar and ethanol, sugarcane processing generates several agricultural residues, being straw and bagasse is considered as the main among them. And what to do with this residues has been subject of many studies and experiences in an industry that, in recent years, highlighted by the ability to transform waste into valuable products such as electric power. Cellulose is the main component of these materials. It is the most common organic polymer and represents about 1.5 x 1012 tons of total production of biomass per year and is considered an almost inexhaustible source of raw material. Pretreatment with mineral acids is one of the most widely used as stage of cellulose extraction from lignocellulosic materials for solubilizing most of the hemicellulose content. This study had as goal to find the best reaction time of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with sulfuric acid in order to minimize the losses of cellulose concomitantly with the highest possible removal of hemicellulose and lignin. It was found that the best time for this reaction was 40 minutes, in which it was reached a loss of hemicelluloses around 70% and lignin and cellulose, around 15%. Over this time, it was verified that the cellulose loss increased and there was no loss of lignin and hemicellulose.

Keywords: cellulose, acid pretreatment, hemicellulose removal, sugarcane bagasse

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89 Conversion of Sugarcane Shoots to Reducing Sugars

Authors: Sathida Phonoy, Bongotrut Pitiyont, Vichien kitpreechavanich

Abstract:

Sugarcane Shoots is an abundantly available residual resources consisting of lignocelluloses which take it into the benefit. The present study was focused on utilizing of sugarcane shoot for reducing sugar production as a substrate in ethanol production. Physical and chemical pretreatments of sugarcane shoot were investigated. Results showed that the size of sugarcane shoot influenced the cellulose content. The maximum cellulose yield (60 %) can be obtained from alkaline pretreated sugarcane shoot with 1.0 M NaOH at 30 oC for 90 min. The cellulose yield reached up to 93.9% (w/w). Enzymatically hydrolyzed of cellulosic residual in 0.04 citrate buffer (pH 5) with celluclast 1.5L (0.7 FPU/ml) resulted in the highest amount of reducing sugar at a rate of 32.1 g/l after 4 h incubation at 50°C, and 100 oC for 5 min . Cellulose conversion was 55.5%.

Keywords: Conversion, Sugarcane Shoots, Reducing Sugars.

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88 The Potential of Tempo-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibers to Replace Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber

Authors: S. Dikmen Kucuk, A. Tozluoglu, Y. Guner

Abstract:

In recent years, petroleum-based polymers began to be limited due to effects on human and environmental point of view in many countries. Thus, organic-based biodegradable materials have attracted much interest in the composite industry because of environmental concerns. As a result of this, it has been asked that inorganic and petroleum-based materials should be reduced and altered with biodegradable materials. In this point, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of use of TEMPO (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose instead of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer) rubber, which is a petroleum-based material. Thus, the exchange of petroleum-based EPDM rubber with organic based cellulose nanofibers, which are environmentally friendly (green) and biodegradable, will be realized. The effect of tempo-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TCNF) instead of EPDM rubber was analyzed by rheological, mechanical, chemical, thermal and aging analyses. The aged surfaces were visually scrutinized and surface morphological changes were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained showed that TEMPO oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose can be used at an amount of 1.0 and 2.2 phr resulting the values stay within tolerance according to customer standard and without any chemical degradation, crack, colour change or staining.

Keywords: EPDM, cellulose, green materials, nanofibrillated cellulose, TCNF, tempo-oxidized nanofiber.

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87 In vitro Studies of Mucoadhesiveness and Release of Nicotinamide Oral Gels Prepared from Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Sarunyoo Songkro, Naranut Rajatasereekul, Nipapat Cheewasrirungrueng

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mucoadhesion and the release of nicotinamide gel formulations using in vitro methods. An agar plate technique was used to investigate the adhesiveness of the gels whereas a diffusion apparatus was employed to determine the release of nicotinamide from the gels. In this respect, 10% w/w nicotinamide gels containing bioadhesive polymers: Carbopol 934P (0.5-2% w/w), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) (4-10% w/w), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) (4-6% w/w) and methylcellulose 4000 (MC) (3-5% w/w) were prepared. The gel formulations had pH values in the range of 7.14 - 8.17, which were considered appropriate to oral mucosa application. In general, the rank order of pH values appeared to be SCMC > MC4000 > HPMC > Carbopol 934P. Types and concentrations of polymers used somewhat affected the adhesiveness. It was found that anionic polymers (Carbopol 934 and SCMC) adhered more firmly to the agar plate than the neutral polymers (HPMC and MC 4000). The formulation containing 0.5% Carbopol 934P (F1) showed the highest release rate. With the exception of the formulation F1, the neutral polymers tended to give higher relate rates than the anionic polymers. For oral tissue treatment, the optimum has to be balanced between the residence time (adhesiveness) of the formulations and the release rate of the drug. The formulations containing the anionic polymers: Carbopol 934P or SCMC possessed suitable physical properties (appearance, pH and viscosity). In addition, for anionic polymer formulations, justifiable mucoadhesive properties and reasonable release rates of nicotinamide were achieved. Accordingly, these gel formulations may be applied for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions.

Keywords: Nicotinamide, bioadhesive polymer, mucoadhesiveness, release rate, gel.

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86 Effect of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl Cellulose Concentration on Release Profile and Kinetics of Glibenclamide Extended Release Dosage Form System

Authors: Amit Kumar, Peeyush Sharma, Anil Bhandari

Abstract:

The aim of present work was to optimize the effect of Ethyl Cellulose (EC) and Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) concentration in extended release solid dispersion of Glibenclamide using combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers such as Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The advantage of solid dispersion technique provides a unique approach to particle size reduction and increased rates of dissolution. The compatibility studies of the drug and polymers were studied by TLC and results suggested no interaction between drug and polymers. Solid dispersions of Glibenclamide were prepared by common solvent evaporation method using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The results indicated that homogeneous or heterogeneous conditions during the preparation methods employed governed the internal structures of the polymer matrices while retaining the drug in an amorphous form. F2 formulation prepared by solid dispersion method, displayed extended drug release followed by Higuchi matrix model indicating diffusion release of GLB from polymer matrices.

Keywords: Ethyl Cellulose, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Solid Dispersion.

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85 Exploring the Influences on Entrainment of Serpentines by Grinding and Reagents

Authors: M. Tang, S. M. Wen, D. W. Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents the influences on the entrainment of serpentines by grinding and reagents during copper–nickel sulfide flotation. The previous bench flotation tests were performed to extract the metallic values from the ore in Yunnan Mine, China and the relatively satisfied results with recoveries of 86.92% Cu, 54.92% Ni, and 74.73% Pt+Pd in the concentrate were harvested at their grades of 4.02%, 3.24% and 76.61 g/t, respectively. However, the content of MgO in the concentrate was still more than 19%. Micro-flotation tests were conducted with the objective of figuring out the influences on the entrainment of serpentines into the concentrate by particle size, flocculants or depressants and collectors, as well as visual observations in suspension by OLYMPUS camera. All the tests results pointed to the presences of both “entrapped-in” serpentines and its coating on the hydrophobic flocs resulted from strong collectors (combination of butyl xanthate, butyl ammonium dithophosphate, even after adding carboxymethyl cellulose as effective depressant. And fine grinding may escalate the entrainment of serpentines in the concentrate.

Keywords: Serpentine, copper and nickel sulfides, flotation, entrainment.

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84 Biodegradation Behavior of Cellulose Acetate with DS 2.5 in Simulated Soil

Authors: Roberta Ranielle M. de Freitas, Vagner R. Botaro

Abstract:

The relationship between biodegradation and mechanical behavior is fundamental for studies of the application of cellulose acetate films as a possible material for biodegradable packaging. In this work, the biodegradation of cellulose acetate (CA) with DS 2.5 was analyzed in simulated soil. CA films were prepared by casting and buried in the simulated soil. Samples were taken monthly and analyzed, the total time of biodegradation was 6 months. To characterize the biodegradable CA, the DMA technique was employed. The main result showed that the time of exposure to the simulated soil affects the mechanical properties of the films and the values of crystallinity. By DMA analysis, it was possible to conclude that as the CA is biodegraded, its mechanical properties were altered, for example, storage modulus has increased with biodegradation and the modulus of loss has decreased. Analyzes of DSC, XRD, and FTIR were also carried out to characterize the biodegradation of CA, which corroborated with the results of DMA. The observation of the carbonyl band by FTIR and crystalline indices obtained by XRD were important to evaluate the degradation of CA during the exposure time.

Keywords: Biodegradation, cellulose acetate, DMA, simulated soil.

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83 Cellolytic Activity of Bacteria of the Bacillus Genus Isolated from the Soil of Zailiskiy Alatau Slopes

Authors: I. Savitskaya, A. Kistaubayeva, A. Zhubanova, I. Blavachinskaiya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, A. Otarbay, A.Isabekova

Abstract:

This study was conducted for the investigation of number of cellulolytic bacteria and their ability in decomposition. Seven samples surface soil were collected on cellulose Zailiskii Alatau slopes. Cellulolitic activity of new strains of Bacillus, isolated from soil is determined. Isolated cellulose degrading bacteria were screened for determination of the highest cellulose activity by quantitative assay using Congo red, gravimetric assay and colorimetric DNS method trough of the determination of the parameters of sugar reduction. Strains are assigned to: B.subtilis, B.licheniformis, B. cereus and, В. megaterium. Bacillus strains consisting of several different types of cellulases have broad substrate specificity of cellulase complexes formed by them. Cellulolitic bacteria were recorded to have highest cellulase activity and selected for optimization of cellulase enzyme production.

Keywords: Cellulose-degrading bacteria, cellulase complex, foothills soil, screening.

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82 A Visco-elastic Model for High-density Cellulose Insulation Materials

Authors: Jonas Engqvist, Per Hard af Segerstad, Birger Bring, Mathias Wallin

Abstract:

A macroscopic constitutive equation is developed for a high-density cellulose insulation material with emphasis on the outof- plane stress relaxation behavior. A hypothesis is proposed where the total stress is additively composed by an out-of-plane visco-elastic isotropic contribution and an in-plane elastic orthotropic response. The theory is validated against out-of-plane stress relaxation, compressive experiments and in-plane tensile hysteresis, respectively. For large scale finite element simulations, the presented model provides a balance between simplicity and capturing the materials constitutive behaviour.

Keywords: Cellulose insulation materials, constitutive modelling, material characterisation, pressboard.

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81 Hydrogel Based on Cellulose Acetate Used as Scaffold for Cell Growth

Authors: A. Maria G. Melero, A. M. Senna, J. A. Domingues, M. A. Hausen, E. Aparecida R. Duek, V. R. Botaro

Abstract:

A hydrogel from cellulose acetate cross linked with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (HAC-EDTA) was synthesized by our research group, and submitted to characterization and biological tests. Cytocompatibility analysis was performed by confocal microscopy using human adipocyte derived stem cells (ASCs). The FTIR analysis showed characteristic bands of cellulose acetate and hydroxyl groups and the tensile tests evidence that HAC-EDTA present a Young’s modulus of 643.7 MPa. The confocal analysis revealed that there was cell growth at the surface of HAC-EDTA. After one day of culture the cells presented spherical morphology, which may be caused by stress of the sequestration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions at the cell medium by HAC-EDTA, as demonstrated by ICP-MS. However, after seven days and 14 days of culture, the cells present fibroblastoid morphology, phenotype expected by this cellular type. The results give efforts to indicate this new material as a potential biomaterial for tissue engineering, in the future in vivo approach.

Keywords: Cellulose acetate, hydrogel, biomaterial, cellular growth.

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80 Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: Viviane C. Correia, Sergio F. Santos, Holmer Savastano Jr.

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).

Keywords: Carbonation, cement composites, nanofibrillated cellulose.

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79 Modification and Characterization of Bacterial Cellulose Biopolymer as Proton Conducting Membrane

Authors: C. W. Lin, S.W. Chen

Abstract:

This study describes the preparation of a novel proton conducting membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) modified by grafting of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1 -propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) through UV-induced graft polymerization. These AMPS-g-BC membranes have been characterized by various techniques including FTIR, SEM and TGA, to find their successful grafting of AMPS on BC, surface morphology and thermal stability, respectively. Physical properties of AMPS-g-BC membranes have been assessed in terms of Lamda value( λ ), ion exchange capacity(IEC) and proton conductivity. The relationship between degree of grafting and AMPS concentration used for grafting has been determined by weight gain method. An optimum proton conductivity equal to 2.89x10-2 S cm-1 and IEC value equal to 1.79 mmol g-1 have been obtained when 20 wt% AMPS concentration is used for grafting (i.e. the corresponding membrane is notated as AMPS20-g-BC).

Keywords: Bacterial cellulose, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, Proton conducting membrane, Self diffusioncoefficient, Fuel cell

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78 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: Cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties.

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77 Denitrification of Wastewater Containing High Nitrate Using a Bioreactor System Packed by Microbial Cellulose

Authors: H. Godini, A. Rezaee, A. Jafari, S. H. Mirhousaini

Abstract:

A Laboratory-scale packed bed reactor with microbial cellulose as the biofilm carrier was used to investigate the denitrification of high-strength nitrate wastewater with specific emphasis on the effect the nitrogen loading rate and hydraulic retention time. Ethanol was added as a carbon source for denitrification. As a result of this investigation, it was found that up to 500 mg/l feed nitrate concentration the present system is able to produce an effluent with nitrate content below 10 ppm at 3 h hydraulic retention time. The highest observed denitrification rate was 4.57 kg NO3-N/ (m3 .d) at a nitrate load of 5.64 kg NO3- N/(m3 .d), and removal efficiencies higher than 90% were obtained for loads up to 4.2 kg NO3-N/(m3 .d). A mass relation between COD consumed and NO3-N removed around 2.82 was observed. This continuous-flow bioreactor proved an efficient denitrification system with a relatively low retention time.

Keywords: Biological nitrate removal, Denitrification, Microbial cellulose, Packed-bed reactor.

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76 Mixture Design Experiment on Flow Behaviour of O/W Emulsions as Affected by Polysaccharide Interactions

Authors: Nor Hayati Ibrahim, Yaakob B. Che Man, Chin Ping Tan, Nor Aini Idris

Abstract:

Interaction effects of xanthan gum (XG), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and locust bean gum (LBG) on the flow properties of oil-in-water emulsions were investigated by a mixture design experiment. Blends of XG, CMC and LBG were prepared according to an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design (10 points) and used at 0.5% (wt/wt) in the emulsion formulations. An appropriate mathematical model was fitted to express each response as a function of the proportions of the blend components that are able to empirically predict the response to any blend of combination of the components. The synergistic interaction effect of the ternary XG:CMC:LBG blends at approximately 33-67% XG levels was shown to be much stronger than that of the binary XG:LBG blend at 50% XG level (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, an antagonistic interaction effect became significant as CMC level in blends was more than 33% (p < 0.05). Yield stress and apparent viscosity (at 10 s-1) responses were successfully fitted with a special quartic model while flow behaviour index and consistency coefficient were fitted with a full quartic model (R2 adjusted ≥ 0.90). This study found that a mixture design approach could serve as a valuable tool in better elucidating and predicting the interaction effects beyond the conventional twocomponent blends.

Keywords: O/W emulsions, flow behavior, polysaccharideinteraction, mixture design.

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75 Graft Copolymerization of Cellulose Acetate with Nitro-N-Amino Phenyl Maleimides

Authors: Azza. A. Al-Ghamdi, Abir. A. Abdel-Naby

Abstract:

The construction of Nitro -N-amino phenyl maleimide branches onto Cellulose acetate (CA) substrate by free radical graft copolymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator led to formation of highly thermal stable copolymers as shown from the results of gravimetric analysis (TGA). CA-g-2,4-dinitro amino phenyl maleimide exhibited higher thermal stability than the CA-g-4-nitro amino phenyl maleimide as shown from the initial decomposition temperature (To). This is due to the ability of nitro group to form hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl group of the glucopyranose ring which increases the crystallinity of polymeric matrix. The crystalline shapes representing the graft part are clearly distinct in the Emission scanning electron microscope (ESEM) morphology of the copolymer. A suggested reaction mechanism for the grafting process was also discussed.

Keywords: Cellulose acetate, crystallinity, graft copolymerization, thermal properties.

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74 Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate onto Cellulose in Homogeneous Medium – Effect of Solvent and Initiator

Authors: B. Tosh, C. R. Routray

Abstract:

Homogeneous graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto cellulose was carried out in N, N – dimethyl acetamide/LiCl (DMAc/LiCl) and dimethyl sulfoxide/ paraformaldehyde (DMSO/PF) solvent system taking ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and tin (II)-2-ethyl hexanoate [Sn(Oct)2] as initiators. Different grafting parameters like graft yield (GY), grafting efficiency (GE) and total conversion of monomer to polymer (TC) were evaluated at different reaction conditions of temperature, time, and variation of the amount of monomer and initiator. The viscosity average molecular weight of grafted PMMA and number of grafts per cellulose chain were also calculated. The products were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses and possible reaction mechanisms were deduced. Thermal degradation of the grafted products was also studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermo-gravimetry (DTG).

Keywords: Grafting, grafting efficiency, homogeneous medium, methyl methacrylate.

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