Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 187

Search results for: Graduated Difficulty

187 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning styles, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebra was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style perform better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: Algebraic Fractions, Graduated Difficulty, Mastery Learning Style, Multimedia.

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186 Rating and Generating Sudoku Puzzles Based On Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Authors: Bahare Fatemi, Seyed Mehran Kazemi, Nazanin Mehrasa

Abstract:

Sudoku is a logic-based combinatorial puzzle game which people in different ages enjoy playing it. The challenging and addictive nature of this game has made it a ubiquitous game. Most magazines, newspapers, puzzle books, etc. publish lots of Sudoku puzzles every day. These puzzles often come in different levels of difficulty so that all people, from beginner to expert, can play the game and enjoy it. Generating puzzles with different levels of difficulty is a major concern of Sudoku designers. There are several works in the literature which propose ways of generating puzzles having a desirable level of difficulty. In this paper, we propose a method based on constraint satisfaction problems to evaluate the difficulty of the Sudoku puzzles. Then we propose a hill climbing method to generate puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Whereas other methods are usually capable of generating puzzles with only few number of difficulty levels, our method can be used to generate puzzles with arbitrary number of different difficulty levels. We test our method by generating puzzles with different levels of difficulty and having a group of 15 people solve all the puzzles and recording the time they spend for each puzzle.

Keywords: Constraint satisfaction problem, generating Sudoku puzzles, hill climbing.

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185 Study Habits and Level of Difficulty Encountered by Maltese Students Studying Biology Advanced Level Topics

Authors: Marthese Azzopardi, Liberato Camilleri

Abstract:

This research was performed to investigate the study habits and level of difficulty perceived by post-secondary students in Biology at Advanced-level topics after completing their first year of study. At the end of a two-year ‘sixth form’ course, Maltese students sit for the Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Advanced-level biology exam as a requirement to pursue science-related studies at the University of Malta. The sample was composed of 23 students (16 taking Chemistry and seven taking some ‘Other’ subject at the Advanced Level). The cohort comprised seven males and 16 females. A questionnaire constructed by the authors, was answered anonymously during the last lecture at the end of the first year of study, in May 2016. The Chi square test revealed that gender plays no effect on the various study habits (c2 (6) = 5.873, p = 0.438). ‘Reading both notes and textbooks’ was the most common method adopted by males (71.4%), whereas ‘Writing notes on each topic’ was that mostly used by females (81.3%). The Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the study habits of students and the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course (p = 0.231). Statistical difference was found with the One-ANOVA test when comparing the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course when students are clustered by their Secondary Education Certificate (SEC) grade (p < 0.001). Those obtaining a SEC grade of 2 and 3 got the highest mean assessment of 68.33% and 66.9%, respectively [SEC grading is 1-7, where 1 is the highest]. The Friedman test was used to compare the mean difficulty rating scores provided for the difficulty of each topic. The mean difficulty rating score ranges from 1 to 4, where the larger the mean rating score, the higher the difficulty. When considering the whole group of students, nine topics out of 21 were perceived as significantly more difficult than the other topics. Protein synthesis, DNA Replication and Biomolecules were the most difficult, in that order. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules is significantly lower for students taking Chemistry compared to those not choosing the subject (p = 0.018). Protein Synthesis was claimed as the most difficult by Chemistry students and Biomolecules by those not studying Chemistry. DNA Replication was the second most difficult topic perceived by both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the effect of gender on the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending various topics. It was found that females have significantly more difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules than males (p=0.039). Protein synthesis was perceived as the most difficult topic by males (mean difficulty rating score = 3.14), while Biomolecules, DNA Replication and Protein synthesis were of equal difficulty for females (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Males and females perceived DNA Replication as equally difficult (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Discovering the students’ study habits and perceived level of difficulty of specific topics is vital for the lecturer to offer guidance that leads to higher academic achievement.

Keywords: Biology, Perceived difficulty, Post-secondary, Study habits.

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184 Evaluation of Fitts’ Law Index of Difficulty Formulation for Screen Size Variations

Authors: Hidehiko Okada, Takayuki Akiba

Abstract:

It is well-known as Fitts’ law that the time for a user to point a target on a GUI screen can be modeled as a linear function of “index of difficulty (ID).” In this paper, the authors investigate whether the traditional ID formulation is appropriate independently of device screen sizes. Result of our experiment reveals that the ID formulation may not consistently capture actual difficulty: users’ pointing performances are not consistent among pointing target variations of which index of difficulty are consistent. The term A/W may not be appropriate because the term causes the observed inconsistency. Based on this finding, the authors then evaluate the applicability of possible models other than Fitts’ one. Multiple regression models are found to be able to appropriately represent the effects of target design variations. The authors next make an attempt to improve the definition of ID in Fitts’ model. Our idea is to raise the size or the distance values depending on the screen size. The modified model is found to fit well to the users’ pointing data, which supports the idea. 

Keywords: Fitts’ law, pointing device, small screen, touch user interface, usability.

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183 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for softwareintensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: Functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis.

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182 The Epistemological Crisis in the Theory of Vittorio Guidano

Authors: Mauricio Otaíza Morales

Abstract:

This work shows a basic philosophical difficulty in the constructivist foundations of the cognitive posracionalist psychology of Vittorio Guidano. This is a difficulty caused by the problem of the existential crisis. It will be analyzed how Guidano-s suggestions about this problem depend on felt experience. Then it will appear how Guidano-s philosophy and psychotherapy must turn towards a phenomenological approach. Finally, some references are given about Eugen Gendlin-s philosophy which could be considered as a radical way to confront these questions.

Keywords: Cognitive posracionalist psychology of VittorioGuidano, Epistemological crisis, Existential crisis, Experience asdirectly felt.

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181 On Quantum BCH Codes and Its Duals

Authors: J. S. Bhullar, Manish Gupta

Abstract:

Classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes C that contain their dual codes can be used to construct quantum stabilizer codes this chapter studies the properties of such codes. It had been shown that a BCH code of length n which contains its dual code satisfies the bound on weight of any non-zero codeword in C and converse is also true. One impressive difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. To address this difficulty, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes have been derived as binary stabilizer codes. We were able to shed more light on the structure of dual containing BCH codes. These results make it possible to determine the parameters of quantum BCH codes in terms of weight of non-zero dual codeword.

Keywords: Quantum Codes, BCH Codes, Dual BCH Codes, Designed Distance.

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180 The Framework for Adaptive Games for Mobile Application Using Neural Networks

Authors: Widodo Budiharto, Michael Yoseph Ricky, Ro'fah Nur Rachmawati

Abstract:

The rapid development of the BlackBerry games industry and its development goals were not just for entertainment, but also used for educational of students interactively. Unfortunately the development of adaptive educational games on BlackBerry in Indonesian language that interesting and entertaining for learning process is very limited. This paper shows the research of development of novel adaptive educational games for students who can adjust the difficulty level of games based on the ability of the user, so that it can motivate students to continue to play these games. We propose a method where these games can adjust the level of difficulty, based on the assessment of the results of previous problems using neural networks with three inputs in the form of percentage correct, the speed of answer and interest mode of games (animation / lessons) and 1 output. The experimental results are presented and show the adaptive games are running well on mobile devices based on BlackBerry platform

Keywords: Adaptive games, neural networks, mobile games, BlackBerry

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179 A Retrievable Genetic Algorithm for Efficient Solving of Sudoku Puzzles

Authors: Seyed Mehran Kazemi, Bahare Fatemi

Abstract:

Sudoku is a logic-based combinatorial puzzle game which is popular among people of different ages. Due to this popularity, computer softwares are being developed to generate and solve Sudoku puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Several methods and algorithms have been proposed and used in different softwares to efficiently solve Sudoku puzzles. Various search methods such as stochastic local search have been applied to this problem. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one of the algorithms which have been applied to this problem in different forms and in several works in the literature. In these works, chromosomes with little or no information were considered and obtained results were not promising. In this paper, we propose a new way of applying GA to this problem which uses more-informed chromosomes than other works in the literature. We optimize the parameters of our GA using puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Then we use the optimized values of the parameters to solve various puzzles and compare our results to another GA-based method for solving Sudoku puzzles.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, optimization, solving Sudoku puzzles, stochastic local search.

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178 Mass Casualty Acute Pepper Spray Inhalation Respiratory Effect Severity

Authors: B. Michelle Sweeting

Abstract:

Pepper spray use has gained momentum since 1992 and although the active ingredient is readily available, it is considered a weapon with restricted use in many regions, including The Bahamas. In light of controversy in the literature regarding the severity of presenting respiration complaints among individuals postacute exposure of pepper spray inhalation, this descriptive case series study was conducted to assess the respiratory status of persons evaluated during a mass casualty in The Bahamas. Parameters noted were patients- demographics and respiration severity determined via clinical examination findings, disposition and follow-up review of the 20 persons. Their most common complaint was difficulty breathing post exposure. Two required admission and stayed for <24 hours uneventfully. All cases remained without residual complaints upon follow-up. Results showed that although respiration difficulty was perceived as the most detrimental of presenting complaints, it was noted to be mostly subjective with benign outcome.

Keywords: Acute Pepper Spray Inhalation, Capsaicinoids, Oleoresin Capsicum, Pepper spray, Respiratory severity severity.

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177 Barriers to Competitive Tenders in Building Conservation Works

Authors: Yoke-Mui Lim, Yahaya Ahmad

Abstract:

Conservation works in Malaysia that is procured by public organisation usually follow the traditional approach where the works are tendered based on Bills of Quantities (BQ). One of the purposes of tendering is to enable the selection of a competent contractor that offers a competitive price. While competency of the contractors are assessed by their technical knowledge, experience and track records, the assessment of pricing will be dependent on the tender amount. However, the issue currently faced by the conservation works sector is the difficulty in assessing the competitiveness and reasonableness of the tender amount due to the high variance between the tenders amount. Thus, this paper discusses the factors that cause difficulty to the tenderers in pricing competitively in a bidding exercise for conservation tenders. Data on tendering is collected from interviews with conservation works contractors to gain in-depth understanding of the barriers faced in pricing tenders of conservation works. Findings from the study lent support to the contention that the variance of tender amount is very high amongst tenderers. The factors identified in the survey are the format of BQ, hidden works, experience and labour and material costs.

Keywords: Building Conservation, Malaysia, Bill of Quantities, Tender.

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176 Reusing Assessments Tests by Generating Arborescent Test Groups Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ovidiu Domşa, Nicolae Bold

Abstract:

Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) notions in education and three basic processes of education (teaching, learning and assessment) can bring benefits to the pupils and the professional development of teachers. In this matter, we refer to these notions as concepts taken from the informatics area and apply them to the domain of education. These notions refer to genetic algorithms and arborescent structures, used in the specific process of assessment or evaluation. This paper uses these kinds of notions to generate subtrees from a main tree of tests related between them by their degree of difficulty. These subtrees must contain the highest number of connections between the nodes and the lowest number of missing edges (which are subtrees of the main tree) and, in the particular case of the non-existence of a subtree with no missing edges, the subtrees which have the lowest (minimal) number of missing edges between the nodes, where a node is a test and an edge is a direct connection between two tests which differs by one degree of difficulty. The subtrees are represented as sequences. The tests are the same (a number coding a test represents that test in every sequence) and they are reused for each sequence of tests.

Keywords: Chromosome, genetic algorithm, subtree, test.

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175 Contributory Factors to Diabetes Dietary Regimen Non Adherence in Adults with Diabetes

Authors: Okolie Uchenna, Ehiemere Ijeoma, Ezenduka Pauline, Ogbu Sylvester

Abstract:

A cross sectional survey design was used to collect data from 370 diabetic patients. Two instruments were used in obtaining data; in-depth interview guide and researchers- developed questionnaire. Fisher's exact test was used to investigate association between the identified factors and nonadherence. Factors identified were: socio-demographic factors such as: gender, age, marital status, educational level and occupation; psychosocial obstacles such as: non-affordability of prescribed diet, frustration due to the restriction, limited spousal support, feelings of deprivation, feeling that temptation is inevitable, difficulty in adhering in social gatherings and difficulty in revealing to host that one is diabetic; health care providers obstacles were: poor attitude of health workers, irregular diabetes education in clinics , limited number of nutrition education sessions/ inability of the patients to estimate the desired quantity of food, no reminder post cards or phone calls about upcoming patient appointments and delayed start of appointment / time wasting in clinics.

Keywords: Behavior change, diabetes mellitus, dietarymanagement, diet adherence.

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174 Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Sewage Sludge from the Middle Region (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah Cities) of Libya

Authors: J. A. Mayouf, Q. A. Najim, H. S. Al-Bayati

Abstract:

The concentrations of cadmium and lead in sewage sludge samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method. Samples of sewage sludge were obtained from three sewage treatment plants localised in Middle Region of Libya (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah cities). The results shows that, the mean levels of Cadmium for all regions are ranges from 81 to 123.4 ppm and these values are higher than the limitations for the international standard which are not registered more than 50 ppm (dry weight) in USA, Egypt and the EU countries. While, the lead concentrations are ranged from 8.0 to 189.2 ppm and all values are within the standard limits which graduated between (275–613) ppm.

Keywords: Cadmium, Lead, Sewage, Spectrometry.

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173 Understanding Cultural Dissonance to Enhance Higher Education Academic Success

Authors: G. Bickel, D. Jensen

Abstract:

This research documents a qualitative study of selected Native Americans who have successfully graduated from mainstream higher education institutions. The research framework explored the Bicultural Identity Formation Model as a means of understanding the expressions of the students' adaptations to mainstream education. This approach lead to an awareness of how the participants in the study used specific cultural and social strategies to enhance their educational success and also to an awareness of how they coped with cultural dissonance to achieve a new academic identity. Research implications impact a larger audience of bicultural, foreign, or international students experiencing cultural dissonance.

Keywords: Bicultural Identity Formation Model, Cultural Dissonance, Higher Education, Student Success

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172 Study of Barriers to Women's Entrepreneurship Development among Iranian Women (Case Entrepreneur Women)

Authors: F. Niazkar, N. Arab-Moghaddam

Abstract:

In this research, effort was made to identify and evaluate barriers to the development of entrepreneurship among Iranian entrepreneur women who were graduated from universities. In this study, perspectives of thirty-seven available entrepreneur women were examined. In order to prepare questionnaires and receive knowledge about barriers among these women, seven cases of entrepreneur women took part in in-depth interviews. Then, to evaluate the importance of barriers, the researchers made a questionnaire with closed questions in which the barriers were classified into the following categories: personal-familial barriers; socio-cultural barriers; economic-financial-commercial barriers; and structural barriers. Entrepreneur women were requested to rate the importance of each item. The results indicated that there were different obstacles among entrepreneur women. The order of the important barriers was as fallow: economic-financial-commercial, structural, socio-cultural, and personal-familial.

Keywords: Barriers to Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneur Women

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171 Computer Assisted Learning in a Less Resource Region

Authors: Hamidullah Sokout, Samiullah Paracha, Abdul Rashid Ahmadi

Abstract:

Passing the entrance exam to a university is a major step in one's life. University entrance exam commonly known as Kankor is the nationwide entrance exam in Afghanistan. This examination is prerequisite for all public and private higher education institutions at undergraduate level. It is usually taken by students who are graduated from high schools. In this paper, we reflect the major educational school graduates issues and propose ICT-based test preparation environment, known as ‘Online Kankor Exam Prep System’ to give students the tools to help them pass the university entrance exam on the first try. The system is based on Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), which introduced an essential package of educational technology for learners that features: (I) exam-focused questions and content; (ii) self-assessment environment; and (iii) test preparation strategies in order to help students to acquire the necessary skills in their carrier and keep them up-to-date with instruction.

Keywords: Web-based test prep systems, Learner-centered design, E-Learning, Intelligent tutoring system.

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170 Questions Categorization in E-Learning Environment Using Data Mining Technique

Authors: Vilas P. Mahatme, K. K. Bhoyar

Abstract:

Nowadays, education cannot be imagined without digital technologies. It broadens the horizons of teaching learning processes. Several universities are offering online courses. For evaluation purpose, e-examination systems are being widely adopted in academic environments. Multiple-choice tests are extremely popular. Moving away from traditional examinations to e-examination, Moodle as Learning Management Systems (LMS) is being used. Moodle logs every click that students make for attempting and navigational purposes in e-examination. Data mining has been applied in various domains including retail sales, bioinformatics. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of data mining in e-learning environment. It has been applied to discover, extract, and evaluate parameters related to student’s learning performance. The combination of data mining and e-learning is still in its babyhood. Log data generated by the students during online examination can be used to discover knowledge with the help of data mining techniques. In web based applications, number of right and wrong answers of the test result is not sufficient to assess and evaluate the student’s performance. So, assessment techniques must be intelligent enough. If student cannot answer the question asked by the instructor then some easier question can be asked. Otherwise, more difficult question can be post on similar topic. To do so, it is necessary to identify difficulty level of the questions. Proposed work concentrate on the same issue. Data mining techniques in specific clustering is used in this work. This method decide difficulty levels of the question and categories them as tough, easy or moderate and later this will be served to the desire students based on their performance. Proposed experiment categories the question set and also group the students based on their performance in examination. This will help the instructor to guide the students more specifically. In short mined knowledge helps to support, guide, facilitate and enhance learning as a whole.

Keywords: Data mining, e-examination, e-learning, moodle.

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169 Design of PI Controller Using MRAC Techniques For Couple-Tanks Process

Authors: Boonsrimuang P., Numsomran A., Kangwanrat S.

Abstract:

The typical coupled-tanks process that is TITO plant has the difficulty in controller design because changing of system dynamics and interacting of process. This paper presents design methodology of auto-adjustable PI controller using MRAC technique. The proposed method can adjust the controller parameters in response to changes in plant and disturbance real time by referring to the reference model that specifies properties of the desired control system.

Keywords: PI controller, MRAC, Couple-tanks process

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168 How to Build and Evaluate a Solution Method: An Illustration for the Vehicle Routing Problem

Authors: Nicolas Zufferey

Abstract:

The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a famous combinatorial optimization problem. Because of its well-known difficulty, metaheuristics are the most appropriate methods to tackle large and realistic instances. The goal of this paper is to highlight the key ideas for designing VRP metaheuristics according to the following criteria: efficiency, speed, robustness, and ability to take advantage of the problem structure. Such elements can obviously be used to build solution methods for other combinatorial optimization problems, at least in the deterministic field.

Keywords: Vehicle routing problem, Metaheuristics, Combinatorial optimization.

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167 Analytical Model of Connection Establishment Duration Calculation in Wireless Networks

Authors: Y. Chaiko

Abstract:

It is important to provide possibility of so called “handover" for the mobile subscriber from GSM network to Wi-Fi network and back. To solve specified problem it is necessary to estimate connection time between base station and wireless access point. Difficulty to estimate this parameter is that it doesn-t described in specifications of the standard and, hence, no recommended value is given. In this paper, the analytical model is presented that allows the estimating connection time between base station and IEEE 802.11 access point.

Keywords: Access point, connection procedure, Wi-Fi network.

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166 A Novel Stator Resistance Estimation Method and Control Design of Speed-Sensorless Induction Motor Drives

Authors: N. Ben Si Ali, N. Benalia, N. Zarzouri

Abstract:

Speed sensorless systems are intensively studied during recent years; this is mainly due to their economical benefit and fragility of mechanical sensors and also the difficulty of installing this type of sensor in many applications. These systems suffer from instability problems and sensitivity to parameter mismatch at low speed operation. In this paper an analysis of adaptive observer stability with stator resistance estimation is given.

Keywords: Motor drive, sensorless control, adaptive observer, stator resistance estimation.

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165 Information System Management Factors Related to Behavioral Trend of Online Accommodation Services

Authors: Supattra Kanchanopast

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the customers’ behavioral trend for online accommodation system at Bangkonthi District, Samutsongkhram province. The research collected data from 400 online users. A questionnaire was utilized as the tool in collecting information. Descriptive statistics included frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Independent- sample t- test, analysis of variance and Pearson Correlation were also used. The findings of this research revealed that the majority of the respondents were male, 25-32 years old, and graduated a bachelor degree. The respondents mostly worked in private sectors and had monthly income between 10,001-15,000 baht. The regular online users, visiting this system between 3-4 times/month, spending 1-2 hours/time, searched for online accommodation information. This result showed that the users had good and high attitude towards the system. According to the hypothesis testing, the number of online usage had positive related to the behavioral trends: accommodation purchasing intention and recommend the accommodation to others. Furthermore, both the number of online usage and overall attitude had a significant correlation to accommodation purchase intention and recommend the accommodation to others.

Keywords: Customer Behavior, Information System Management, Online Accommodation Services.

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164 Detection of Temporal Change of Fishery and Island Activities by DNB and SAR on the South China Sea

Authors: I. Asanuma, T. Yamaguchi, J. Park, K. J. Mackin

Abstract:

Fishery lights on the surface could be detected by the Day and Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP). The DNB covers the spectral range of 500 to 900 nm and realized a higher sensitivity. The DNB has a difficulty of identification of fishing lights from lunar lights reflected by clouds, which affects observations for the half of the month. Fishery lights and lights of the surface are identified from lunar lights reflected by clouds by a method using the DNB and the infrared band, where the detection limits are defined as a function of the brightness temperature with a difference from the maximum temperature for each level of DNB radiance and with the contrast of DNB radiance against the background radiance. Fishery boats or structures on islands could be detected by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the polar orbit satellites using the reflected microwave by the surface reflecting targets. The SAR has a difficulty of tradeoff between spatial resolution and coverage while detecting the small targets like fishery boats. A distribution of fishery boats and island activities were detected by the scan-SAR narrow mode of Radarsat-2, which covers 300 km by 300 km with various combinations of polarizations. The fishing boats were detected as a single pixel of highly scattering targets with the scan-SAR narrow mode of which spatial resolution is 30 m. As the look angle dependent scattering signals exhibits the significant differences, the standard deviations of scattered signals for each look angles were taken into account as a threshold to identify the signal from fishing boats and structures on the island from background noise. It was difficult to validate the detected targets by DNB with SAR data because of time lag of observations for 6 hours between midnight by DNB and morning or evening by SAR. The temporal changes of island activities were detected as a change of mean intensity of DNB for circular area for a certain scale of activities. The increase of DNB mean intensity was corresponding to the beginning of dredging and the change of intensity indicated the ending of reclamation and following constructions of facilities.

Keywords: Day night band, fishery, SAR, South China Sea.

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163 Performance Management Guide for Research and Development Process

Authors: Heejung Lee

Abstract:

Performance management seems to be essential in business area and is also an exciting topic. Despite significant and myriads of research efforts, performance management guide today as a rigorous approach is still in an immature state and metrics are often selected based on intuitive and heuristic approach. In R&D side, the difficulty to guide the proper performance management is even more increasing due to the natural characteristics of R&D such as unique or domain-specific problems. In our approach, we present R&D performance management guide considering various characteristics of R&D side: performance evaluation objectives, dimensions, metrics, and uncertainties of R&D sector.

Keywords: Performance management, R&D, metrics.

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162 Self-Efficacy Perceptions and the Attitudes of Prospective Teachers towards Assessment and Evaluation

Authors: Münevver Başman, Ezel Tavşancıl

Abstract:

Making the right decisions about students depends on teachers’ use of the assessment and evaluation techniques effectively. In order to do that, teachers should have positive attitudes and adequate self-efficacy perception towards assessment and evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between self-efficacy perception and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation and what kind of differences these issues have in terms of a variety of demographic variables. The study group consisted of 277 prospective teachers who have been studying in different departments of Marmara University, Faculty of Education. In this study, ‘Personal Information Form’, ‘A Perceptual Scale for Measurement and Evaluation of Prospective Teachers Self-Efficacy in Education’ and ‘Attitudes toward Educational Measurement Inventory’ are applied. As a result, positive correlation was found between self-efficacy perceptions and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation. Considering different departments, there is a significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them. However, considering variables of attending statistics class and the class types at the graduated high school, there is no significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them.

Keywords: Attitude, perception, prospective teacher, self-efficacy.

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161 A Longitudinal Study of the Readability of the Chairman’s Narratives in Corporate Reports: Malaysian Evidence

Authors: Azhar Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

This paper examines the readability of the chairman’s narratives, as determined by the Flesch score, of a Malaysian public listed company’s corporate reports from 1962 to 2009. It partially supports earlier studies which demonstrated that corporate reports were difficult to read, and had shown very negligible decrease in difficulty over time. Net profit to sales and readability was significantly positively correlated but number of financial statements was significantly negatively correlated with readability.

Keywords: Chairman’s narratives, corporate communications, readability, longitudinal.

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160 A Follow–Up Study of Bachelor of Science Graduates in Applied Statistics from Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University during the 1999-2012 Academic Years

Authors: Somruedee Pongsena

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to follow – up the graduated students of Bachelor of Science in Applied Statistics from Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University (SSRU) during the 1999 – 2012 academic years and to provide the fundamental guideline for developing the current curriculum according to Thai Qualifications Framework for Higher Education (TQF: HEd). The sample was collected from 75 graduates by interview and online questionnaire. The content covered 5 subjects were Ethics and Moral, Knowledge, Cognitive Skills, Interpersonal Skill and Responsibility, Numerical Analysis as well as Communication and Information Technology Skills. Data were analyzed by using statistical methods as percentiles, means, standard deviation, t- tests, and F- tests. The findings showed that samples were mostly female had less than 26 years old. The majority of graduates had income in the range of 10,001-20,000 Baht and experience range were 2-5 years. In addition, overall opinions from receiving knowledge to apply to work were at agree; mean score was 3.97 and standard deviation was 0.40. In terms of, the hypothesis testing’s result indicate gender only had different opinion at a significance level of 0.05.

Keywords: Follow up, Graduates, knowledge, opinion, Work performance.

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159 Shape-Based Image Retrieval Using Shape Matrix

Authors: C. Sheng, Y. Xin

Abstract:

Retrieval image by shape similarity, given a template shape is particularly challenging, owning to the difficulty to derive a similarity measurement that closely conforms to the common perception of similarity by humans. In this paper, a new method for the representation and comparison of shapes is present which is based on the shape matrix and snake model. It is scaling, rotation, translation invariant. And it can retrieve the shape images with some missing or occluded parts. In the method, the deformation spent by the template to match the shape images and the matching degree is used to evaluate the similarity between them.

Keywords: shape representation, shape matching, shape matrix, deformation

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158 Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication

Authors: Kaiwan S. Ismael, Ergun Ercelebi, Majeed Nader

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

Keywords: Control Area Network (CAN), monitoring blood bank center, PIC microcontroller, MPLAB IDE.

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