Search results for: Nano Clay
408 Overall Effect of Nano Clay on the Physical Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin
Authors: Alireza BozorgianÏî Navid Majdi Nasab, Hassan Mirzazadeh
Abstract:In this paper, the effect of modified clay on the mechanical efficiency of epoxy resin is examined. Studies by X ray diffraction and microscopic transient electron method show that modified clay distribution in polymer area is intercalated kind. Examination the results of mechanical tests shows that existence of modified clay in epoxy area increases pressure yield strength, tension module and nano composite fracture toughness in relate of pure epoxy. By microscopic examinations it is recognized too that the action of toughness growth of this kind of nano composite is due to crack deflection, formation of new surfaces and fracture of clay piles.
Keywords: Nano clay, Epoxy, Toughness, CompositeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1940
407 A Review on Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites
Authors: C. W. Nguong, S. N. B. Lee, D. Sujan
Abstract:Renewable natural fibres such as oil palm, flax, and pineapple leaf can be utilized to obtain new high performance polymer materials. The reuse of waste natural fibres as reinforcement for polymer is a sustainable option to the environment. However, due to its high hydroxyl content of cellulose, natural fibres are susceptible to absorb water that affects the composite mechanical properties adversely. Research found that Nano materials such as Nano Silica Carbide (n-SiC) and Nano Clay can be added into the polymer composite to overcome this problem by enhancing its mechanical properties in wet condition. The addition of Nano material improves the tensile and wear properties, flexural stressstrain behaviour, fracture toughness, and fracture strength of polymer natural composites in wet and dry conditions.
Keywords: Natural fibres, Nano Silica Carbide, Nano Clay, Wet Condition, Polymer Composites.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8171
406 On the Fatigue Behavior of a Triphasic Composite
Authors: G. Minak, D. Ghelli, A. Zucchelli
This paper presents the results of an experimental characterization of a glass fibre-epoxy composite. The behavior of the traditional two-phase composite has been compared with the one of a new three-phase composite where the epoxy matrix was modified by addition of a 3% weight fraction of montmorillonite nano-particles. Two different types of nano-clays, Cloisite® 30B and RXG7000, produced by Southern Clay Products Inc., have been considered. Three-point bending tests, both monotonic and cyclic, were carried out. A strong reduction of the ultimate flexural strength upon nano-modification has been observed in quasi-static tests. Fatigue tests yielded a smaller strength loss. In both quasi-static and fatigue tests a more pronounced tendency to delamination has been noticed in three-phase composites, especially in the case of 30B nano-clay, with respect to the standard two-phase glass fiber composite.
Keywords: Bending fatigue, epoxy resin, glass fiber, montmorillonite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2326
405 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane
Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar
In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.
Keywords: Alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2836
404 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq
Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz
14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.
Keywords: Clay minerals, formation, Mukdadiya mudstone, Shewasoor, XRD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1587
403 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber
Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan
Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution have been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate have been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), Tensile tester, Differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM respectively. Also antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.
Keywords: Composite polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical and thermal properties, silver nano-particles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2515
402 Model Studies on Shear Behavior of Reinforced Reconstituted Clay
Abstract:In this paper, shear behavior of reconstituted clay reinforced with varying diameter of sand compaction piles with area replacement-ratio (as) of 6.25, 10.24, 16, 20.25 and 64% in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay specimens is modeled using consolidated drained and undrained triaxial tests under different confining pressures ranging from 50kPa to 575kPa. The test results show that the stress-strain behavior of the clay was highly influenced by the presence of SCP. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of the clay, resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the unreinforced clay due to increased reinforcement area ratio. In addition, SCP also acts as vertical drain in the clay thus accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressures that are generated during loading by shortening the drainage path and activating radial drainage, thereby reducing post-construction settlement. Thus, sand compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of soft clays.
Keywords: Reconstituted clay, SCP, shear strength, stress-strain response, triaxial tests.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1359
401 Calcination Temperature of Nano MgO Effect on Base Transesterification of Palm Oil
Authors: Abdul Rahim Yacob, Mohd Khairul Asyraf Amat Mustajab, Nur Syazeila Samadi
Abstract:Nano MgO has been synthesized by hydration and dehydration method by modifies the commercial MgO. The prepared MgO had been investigated as a heterogeneous base catalyst for transesterification process for biodiesel production using palm oil. TGA, FT-IR and XRD results obtained from this study lie each other and proved in the formation of nano MgO from decomposition of Mg(OH)2. This study proved that the prepared nano MgO was a better base transesterification catalyst compared to commercial MgO. The nano MgO calcined at 600ºC had gives the highest conversion of 51.3% of palm oil to biodiesel.
Keywords: Hydration-dehydration method, nano MgO, transesterification, biodiesel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2049
400 Preparation and Characterization of Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid/Neat Nylon 6 Bicomponent Nanocomposite Fibers
Authors: Shahin Kazemi, Mohammad Reza Mohaddes Mojtahedi, Ruhollah Semnani Rahbar, Wataru Takarada, Takeshi Kikutani
Abstract:Nylon 6-clay hybrid/neat nylon 6, sheath/core bicomponent nanocomposite fibers containing 4 wt% of clay in sheath section were melt spun at different take-up speeds. Their orientation and crystalline structure were compared to those of neat nylon 6 fibers. Birefringence measurements showed that the orientation development in sheath and core parts of bicomponent fibers was different. Crystallinity results showed that clay did not act as a nucleating agent for bicomponent fibers. The neat nylon 6 fiber had a smooth surface while striped pattern was appeared on the surface of bicomponent fiber containing clay due to thermal shrinkage of the core part.
Keywords: Bicomponent fiber, High speed melt spinning, Nylon 6-clay hybrid, Nylon 6.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2210
399 Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil over TiO2 Supported nano-ZnO
Authors: Mbala Mukenga, Edison Muzenda, Kalala Jalama, Reinout Meijboom
Abstract:TiO2 supported nano-ZnO catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation and tested for the trans-esterification reaction of soybean oil to biodiesel. The TiO2 support stabilized the nano-ZnO in a dispersed form with limited crystallite size compared to the unsupported ZnO. The final ZnO dispersion and crystallite size and the material transfer resistance in the catalyst significantly influenced the supported nano-ZnO catalyst performance.
Keywords: nano-ZnO, soybean oil, TiO2, trans-esterificationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1883
398 Toxicity Test of Ag+, Nano-Ag0 and Nano- Ag2O Using Green Algae (Chlorella sp.) and Water Flea (Moina macrocopa)
Authors: M. Yoo-iam, R. Chaichana, T. Satapanaiaru
The research objective was to study the toxicity of silver nanoparticles in aquatic organisms. Three forms of free silver ion nanoparticles (Ag+), silver nano particles (nano-Ag0) and silver oxide nanoparticles (nano Ag2O) were examined for toxic effects with Chlorella sp. and Moina macrocopa. The results showed that the toxicity of three silver ion forms to both organisms was examined
Keywords: Chlorella sp, moina nanomacrocopa, silver nanoparticles, toxicityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1733
397 Characterization of Ajebo Kaolinite Clay for Production of Natural Pozzolan
Authors: Gbenga M. Ayininuola, Olasunkanmi A. Adekitan
Calcined kaolinite clay (CKC) is a pozzolanic material that is current drawing research attention. This work investigates the conditions for the best performance of a CKC from a kaolinite clay source in Ajebo, Abeokuta (southwest Nigeria) known for its commercial availability. Samples from this source were subjected to X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). XRD shows that kaolinite is the main mineral in the clay source. This mineral is responsible for the pozzolanic behavior of CKC. DSC indicates that the transformation from the clay to CKC occurred between 550 and 750 oC. Using this temperature range, clay samples were milled and different CKC samples were produced in an electric muffle furnace using temperatures of 550, 600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 oC respectively for 1 hour each. This was also repeated for 2 hours. The degree of de-hydroxylation (dtg) and strength activity index (SAI) were also determined for each of the CKC samples. The dtg and SAI tests were repeated two more times for each sample and averages were taken. Results showed that peak dtg occurred at 750 oC for 1 hour calcining combination (94.27%) whereas marginal differences were recorded at some lower temperatures (90.97% for 650 oC for 2 hours; 91.05% for 700 oC for 1 hour and 92.77% for 700 oC for 2 hours). Optimum SAI was reported at 700 oC for 1 hour (99.05%). Rating SAI as a better parameter than dtg, 700 oC for 1 hour combination was adopted as the best calcining condition. The paper recommends the adoption of this clay source for pozzolan production by adopting the calcining conditions established in this work.
Keywords: Calcined kaolinite clay, calcination, optimum-calcining conditions, pozzolanity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1190
396 Influence of Milled Waste Glass to Clay Ceramic Foam Properties Made by Direct Foaming Route
Authors: A. Shishkin, V. Mironovs, D. Goljandin, A. Korjakins
The goal of this work is to develop sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using widely available natural resources- clay and milled waste glass. Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) with addition of milled waste glass in 5, 7 and 10 wt% by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). For more efficient clay and waste glass milling and mixing, the high velocity disintegrator was used. The CCF with 5, 7, and 10 wt% were obtained at 900, 950, 1000 and 1050 °C firing temperature and they have demonstrated mechanical compressive strength for all 12 samples ranging from 3.8 to 14.3 MPa and porosity 76-65%. Obtained CCF has compressive strength 14.3 MPa and porosity 65.3%.
Keywords: Ceramic foam, waste glass, clay foam, glass foam, open cell, direct foaming.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1100
395 Effect of Humic Acid on Physical and Engineering Properties of Lime-Treated Organic Clay
Authors: N. Z. Mohd Yunus, D. Wanatowski, L. R. Stace
Abstract:The present work deals with the stabilisation of organic clay using hydrated lime. Artificial organic clays were prepared by adding kaolin and different humic acid contents. Results given by physical testing show that the presence of humic acid has a drawback effect on the untreated organic clay. The decrease in specific gravity value was accompanied by a decrease in dry density and plasticity of clay at higher humic acid contents. Significant increase in shear strength at 7 days of curing period is observed in the lime-treated samples up to 5% lime content. However shear strength of lime-treated organic clay decreases at longer curing periods. The results given by laboratory testing is further verified by microstructure analysis. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the presence of more than 1.5% humic acid reduces significantly the efficiency of lime stabilization in organic clays.
Keywords: Humic acid, kaolin, lime, organic clayProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2626
394 Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide in Terms of Scrubbing Techniques using Silver Nano-Particles
Authors: SeungKyu Shin, Jeong Hyub Ha, Sung Han, JiHyeon Song
Abstract:Silver nano-particles have been used for antibacterial purpose and it is also believed to have removal of odorous compounds, oxidation capacity as a metal catalyst. In this study, silver nano-particles in nano sizes (5-30 nm) were prepared on the surface of NaHCO3, the supporting material, using a sputtering method that provided high silver content and minimized conglomerating problems observed in the common AgNO3 photo-deposition method. The silver nano-particles were dispersed by dissolving Ag-NaHCO3 into water, and the dispersed silver nano-particles in the aqueous phase were applied to remove inorganic odor compounds, H2S, in a scrubbing reactor. Hydrogen sulfide in the gas phase was rapidly removed by the silver nano-particles, and the concentration of sulfate (SO4 2-) ion increased with time due to the oxidation reaction by silver as a catalyst. Consequently, the experimental results demonstrated that the silver nano-particles in the aqueous solution can be successfully applied to remove odorous compounds without adding additional energy sources and producing any harmful byproducts
Keywords: Silver nano-particles, Scrubbing, Oxidation, Hydrogen sulfide, AmmoniaProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2271
393 Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands
Authors: Saeed Talamkhani, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini
In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.
Keywords: Clayey sand, liquefaction, triaxial test, undrained shear strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 847
392 Effect of Low Plastic Clay Quantity on Behavioral Characteristics of Loose Sand
Authors: Roza Rahbari
Abstract:After the Nigatta earthquake in Japan, in 1960, the liquefaction and its related hazards, moved to the thick of matter. Most of the research have been carried out on clean sands and silty sands so far, in order to study the effect of fine particles, confinement pressures, density and so on. However, because of this delusion that adhesiveness of clay prevents the liquefaction in sand, studies on clayey sands have not been taken seriously. However, several liquefactions happened in clayey sands in recent years, and lead to the necessity of more studies in this field. The studies which were carried out so far focused on high plastic clays. In this paper, the effect of low plasticity clays on the behavioral characteristics of sands is discussed. Thus, some triaxial tests were carried out on clean sands and clayey sands with different percentages of added clay. Specimens were compacted in various densities to study the effect of quantity of clay on various densities, too. Based on the findings, the amount of clay affects the behavior of sand greatly and leads to substantial changes in peak bearing capacity and steady state values.
Keywords: Liquefaction, clay, sand, triaxial, monotonic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 618
391 Clay Palm Press: A Technique of Hand Building in Ceramics for Developing Conceptual Forms
Authors: Okewu E. Jonathan
There are several techniques of production in the field of ceramics. These different techniques overtime have been categorised under three methods of production which includes; casting, throwing and hand building. Hand building method of production is further broken down into other techniques and they include coiling, slabbing and pinching. Ceramic artists find the different hand building techniques to be very interesting, practicable and rewarding. This has encouraged ceramic artist in their various studios at different levels to experiment for further hand building techniques that could be unique and unusual. The art of “Clay Palm Press” is a development from studio experiment in a quest for uniqueness in conceptual ceramic practise. Clay palm press is a technique that requires no formal tutelage but at the same time, it is not easily comprehensible when viewed. It is a practice of putting semi-solid clay in the palm and inserting a closed fist pressure so as to take the imprint of the human palm. This clay production from the palm when dried, fired and explored into an art, work reveals an absolute awesomeness of what the palm imprint could result in.
Keywords: Ceramics, clay palm press, conceptual forms, hand building, technique.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 769
390 Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Functionalized Nanobiocomposite by Nano Hydroxyapatite
Authors: M. Meskinfam , M. S. Sadjadi , H. Jazdarreh
Abstract:In this study, synthesis of biomemitic patterned nano hydroxyapatite-starch biocomposites using different concentration of starch to evaluate effect of polymer alteration on biocomposites structural properties has been reported. Formation of hydroxyapatite nano particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Size and morphology of the samples were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). It seems that by increasing starch content, the more active site of polymer (oxygen atoms) can be provided for interaction with Ca2+ followed by phosphate and hydroxyl group.
Keywords: Biocomposite, Biomimetic, Nano hydroxyapatite, StarchProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2254
389 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test
Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii
In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.
Keywords: Small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 955
388 Prediction of Post Underwater Shock Properties of Polymer - Clay/Silica Hybrid Nanocomposites through Regression Models
Authors: D. Lingaraju, K. Ramji, M. Pramiladevi, U. Rajyalakshmi
Abstract:Exploding concentrated underwater charges to damage underwater structures such as ship hulls is a part of naval warfare strategies. Adding small amounts of foreign particles (like clay or silica) of nanosize significantly improves the engineering properties of the polymers. In the present work the clay in terms 1, 2 and 3 percent by weight was surface treated with a suitable silane agent. The hybrid nanocomposite was prepared by the hand lay-up technique. Mathematical regression models have been employed for theoretical prediction. This will result in considerable savings in terms of project time, effort and cost.
Keywords: ANOVA, clay, halloysite, nanocomposites, underwater shock, regression, silica.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2043
387 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick
Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim
Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.
Keywords: Fired Clay Brick, Sludge waste, Compressive strength, Shrinkage, Water absorption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5330
386 Improvement of Soft Clay Using Floating Cement Dust-Lime Columns
Authors: Adel Belal, Sameh Aboelsoud, Mohy Elmashad, Mohammed Abdelmonem
The two main criteria that control the design and performance of footings are bearing capacity and settlement of soil. In soft soils, the construction of buildings, storage tanks, warehouse, etc. on weak soils usually involves excessive settlement problems. To solve bearing capacity or reduce settlement problems, soil improvement may be considered by using different techniques, including encased cement dust–lime columns. The proposed research studies the effect of adding floating encased cement dust and lime mix columns to soft clay on the clay-bearing capacity. Four experimental tests were carried out. Columns diameters of 3.0 cm, 4.0 cm, and 5.0 cm and columns length of 60% of the clay layer thickness were used. Numerical model was constructed and verified using commercial finite element package (PLAXIS 2D, V8.5). The verified model was used to study the effect of distributing columns around the footing at different distances. The study showed that the floating cement dust lime columns enhanced the clay-bearing capacity with 262%. The numerical model showed that the columns around the footing have a limit effect on the clay improvement.
Keywords: Bearing capacity, cement dust – lime columns, ground improvement, soft clay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 978
385 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete
Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-kareim Shoeib
The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (4040 160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibers with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11%, 0.22%, and 0.33% by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0%, 0.11%, and 0.22% by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0%, 1.0%, and 2.0% by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fibers is more effective when used with cement mortar more than used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fibers. And also by adding nano-fibers the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.
Keywords: Carbon nano-tubes fibers, nano-silica (nS) fibers, compressive strength, flexural.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2533
384 Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay
Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed , S. Tamassoki , E. Izadi
Abstract:Investigation of sandy clay behavior is important since urban development demands mean that sandy clay areas are increasingly encountered, especially for transportation infrastructures. This paper presents the results of the finite element analysis of the direct shear test (under three vertical loading 44, 96 and 192 kPa) and discusses the effects of different parameters such as cohesion, friction angle and Young's modulus on the shear strength of sandy clay. The numerical model was calibrated against the experimental results of large-scale direct shear tests. The results have shown that the shear strength was increased with increase in friction angle and cohesion. However, the shear strength was not influenced by raising the friction angle at normal stress of 44 kPa. Also, the effect of different young's modulus factors on stress-strain curve was investigated.
Keywords: Shear strength, Finite element analysis, Large direct shear test, Sandy clay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5340
383 Nano-Alumina Sulfuric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of α-Aminonitriles Derivatives
Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Alireza Najafi Chermahini, Leila Ghorbanian
An efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of α- aminonitriles derivatives by one-pot reaction of different aldehydes with amines and trimethylsilyl cyanides has been developed using natural alumina, alumina sulfuric acid (ASA), nano-γ-alumina, nanoalumina sulfuric acid (nano-ASA) under microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions. The advantages of methods are short reaction times, high yields, milder conditions and easy work up. The catalysts can be recovered for the subsequent reactions and reused without any appreciable loss of efficiency.
Keywords: Nano-γ-alumina, nano-alumina sulfuric acid, green synthesis, microwave irradiation, α-aminonitriles derivatives.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4931
382 Application of Natural Clay to Formulate Nontraditional Completion Fluid that Triples Oil Productivity
Authors: Munawar Khalil, Badrul Mohamed Jan, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman
Abstract:In the last decades, the problem of perforation damage has been considered as the major factor for the reduction of oil productivity. Underbalance perforation is considered as one of the best means to minimize or overcome this problem. By maintaining wellbore pressure lower than formation pressure, perforation damage could be minimize or eliminated. This can be achieved by the use of nontraditional lightweight completion fluid. This paper presents the effect of natural clay in formulating nontraditional completion fluid to ensure successful perforation job and increase of production rate. Natural clay is used as homogenizing agent to create a stable and non-damaging low-density completion fluid. Results indicate that the addition of natural clay dramatically increase the stability of the final fluids. In addition, field test has shown that the application of nontraditional completion fluid increases oil production by three folds.
Keywords: Completion fluid, underbalance, clay, oil production.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1289
381 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber
Authors: Habib Shaban
Abstract:Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.
Keywords: Nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blending.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 979
380 GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower
Authors: Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi, Mehdi Mohebodini
Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.
Keywords: Drought stress, nano-silicon dioxide, oil content, TiO2 nanoparticles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 833
379 The Purification of Waste Printing Developer with the Fixed Bed Adsorption Column
Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana
The present study investigates the effectiveness of newly designed clayey pellets (fired clay pellets diameter sizes of 5 and 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets with the diameter size of 15 mm) as the beds in the column adsorption process. The adsorption experiments in the batch mode were performed before the column experiment with the purpose to determine the order of adsorbent package in the column which was to be designed in the investigation. The column experiment was performed by using a known mass of the clayey beds and the volume of the waste printing developer, which was purified. The column was filled in the following order: fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 5 mm, fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets of the diameter size of 15 mm. The selected order of the adsorbents showed a high removal efficiency for zinc (97.8%) and copper (81.5%) ions. These efficiencies were better than those in the case of the already existing mode adsorption. The obtained experimental data present a good basis for the selection of an appropriate column fill, but further testing is necessary in order to obtain more accurate results.
Keywords: Clay materials, fix bed adsorption column, metal ions, printing developer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1334