Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 694

Search results for: Composite polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber

694 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan

Abstract:

PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: Amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile.

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693 Properties of Composite Nanofiber Produced by Single and Coaxial Nozzle Method used for Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Onur Ayaz, Nuray Ucar, Elif Bahar, Oguzhan Ucar, Mustafa Oksuz, Aysen Onen, Mehmet Ucar, Ezgi İşmar, Ali Demir

Abstract:

In this study, single nozzle method used for electrospinning technique which composite polymer solution with cellulose nanowiskers (CNW) was treated by ultrasonic sonificator have been compared with coaxial (double) nozzle method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composite nanofiber. The effect of water content in composite polymer solution on properties of nanofiber has also been examined. It has been seen that single nozzle method which polymer solution does not contain water has better results than that of coaxial method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of nanofiber. However, it is necessary to make an optimization study on setting condition of ultrasonic treatment to get better dispersion of CNW in composite nanofiber and to get better mechanical and thermal properties

Keywords: cellulose nanowhiskers, coaxial nozzle, composite nanofiber, electrospinning

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692 Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorous on the Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber

Authors: Mustafa Yılmaz, Ahmet Akar, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Commercially available poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) P(AN-VA) or poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) P(AN-MA) are not satisfactory to meet the demand in flame and fire-resistance. In this work, vinylphosphonic acid is used during polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methacrylic acid to produce fire-retardant polymers. These phosphorus containing polymers are successfully spun in the form of nanofibers. Properties such as water absorption of polymers are also determined and compared with commercial polymers.

Keywords: Flame retardant, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile, phosphorous compound, membrane.

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691 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nanofiber and Nanofiber/Nanoparticle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon

Abstract:

Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF), carbon nanofiber (CNF), polyacrylonitrile/ carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), polyvinyl alcohol/nanosilver (PVA/Ag) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. In this study, the electrical conductivities of nanofiber and nanofiber/nanoparticles have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag (at UConn condition). The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, activate carbon nanofiber, PVA fiber, pan fiber, carbon nanotube, nanoparticle, nanocomposites.

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690 UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Authors: A. Evcin, N. Çiçek Bezir, R. Duman, N. Duman

Abstract:

Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.

Keywords: Electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, characterization, composites, nanofiber, ultraviolet radiation.

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689 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan

Abstract:

Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution have been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate have been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), Tensile tester, Differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM respectively. Also antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: Composite polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical and thermal properties, silver nano-particles.

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688 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites

Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı

Abstract:

Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.

Keywords: Electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiber.

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687 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani

Abstract:

A proton exchange membrane has been developed for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt% compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: Composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers.

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686 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova

Abstract:

For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: Nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning.

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685 Properties of MWCNTs/PAN Nanofiber Sheet Prepared from Chemically Modified MWCNTs

Authors: M. Seneewong-Na-Ayuttaya, T. Pongprayoon

Abstract:

The nanofiber sheet of Multiwall Cabon Nanotube (MWCNTs)/Polyacylonitile (PAN) composites was fabricated from electrospun nanofiber. Firstly the surface of MWCNTs was chemically modified, comparing two different techniques consisting of admicellar polymerization and functionalization to improve the dispersion and prevent the aggregation in the PAN matrix. The modified MWCNTs were characterized by the dispersion in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent, Laser particle size, and FTRaman. Lastly, DSC, SEM and mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet were examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet prepared from admicellar polymerization-modified MWCNTs were higher than those of the others.

Keywords: Multiwall carbon nanotube, admicellar polymerization, functionalization, nanofiber sheet.

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684 Carbon-Based Electrodes for Parabens Detection

Authors: Aniela Pop, Ianina Birsan, Corina Orha, Rodica Pode, Florica Manea

Abstract:

Carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode has been investigated through voltammetric and amperometric techniques in order to detect parabens from aqueous solutions. The occurrence into environment as emerging pollutants of these preservative compounds has been extensively studied in the last decades, and consequently, a rapid and reliable method for their quantitative quantification is required. In this study, methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) were chosen as representatives for paraben class. The individual electrochemical detection of each paraben has been successfully performed. Their electrochemical oxidation occurred at the same potential value. Their simultaneous quantification should be assessed electrochemically only as general index of paraben class as a cumulative signal corresponding to both MP and PP from solution. The influence of pH on the electrochemical signal was studied. pH ranged between 1.3 and 9.0 allowed shifting the detection potential value to smaller value, which is very desired for the electroanalysis. Also, the signal is better-defined and higher sensitivity is achieved. Differential-pulsed voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry were exploited under the optimum pH conditions to improve the electroanalytical performance for the paraben detection. Also, the operation conditions were selected, i.e., the step potential, modulation amplitude and the frequency. Chronomaprometry application as the easiest electrochemical detection method led to worse sensitivity, probably due to a possible fouling effect of the electrode surface. The best electroanalytical performance was achieved by pulsed voltammetric technique but the selection of the electrochemical technique is related to the concrete practical application. A good reproducibility of the voltammetric-based method using carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode was determined and no interference effect was found for the cation and anion species that are common in the water matrix. Besides these characteristics, the long life-time of the electrode give to carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode a great potential for practical applications.

Keywords: Carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, electroanalysis, methylparaben, propylparaben.

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683 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyacrylonitrile Composite as Novel Semi-Permeable Mixed Matrix Membrane in Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. M. Doroodmand, Z.Tahvildar, M. H.Sheikhi

Abstract:

novel and simple method is introduced for rapid and highly efficient water treatment by reverse osmosis (RO) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) / polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer as a flexible, highly efficient, reusable and semi-permeable mixed matrix membrane (MMM). For this purpose, MWCNTs were directly synthesized and on-line purified by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, followed by directing the MWCNT bundles towards an ultrasonic bath, in which PAN polymer was simultaneously suspended inside a solid porous silica support in water at temperature to ~70 οC. Fabrication process of MMM was finally completed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. In accordance with the analytical figures of merit, the efficiency of fabricated MMM was ~97%. The rate of water treatment process was also evaluated to 6.35 L min-1. The results reveal that, the CNT-based MMM is suitable for rapid treatment of different forms of industrial, sea, drinking and well water samples.

Keywords: Mixed Matrix Membrane, Carbon Nanostructures, Chemical Vapour Deposition, Hot Isostatic Pressing

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682 Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite

Authors: Dattaji K. Shinde, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.

Keywords: Electrospun nanofibers, H-VARTM, Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), Matrix modification.

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681 Optimization of Electrospinning Parameter by Employing Genetic Algorithm in order to Produce Desired Nanofiber Diameter

Authors: S. Saehana, F. Iskandar, M. Abdullah, Khairurrijal

Abstract:

A numerical simulation of optimization all of electrospinning processing parameters to obtain smallest nanofiber diameter have been performed by employing genetic algorithm (GA). Fitness function in genetic algorithm methods, which was different for each parameter, was determined by simulation approach based on the Reneker’s model. Moreover, others genetic algorithm parameter, namely length of population, crossover and mutation were applied to get the optimum electrospinning processing parameters. In addition, minimum fiber diameter, 32 nm, was achieved from a simulation by applied the optimum parameters of electrospinning. This finding may be useful for process control and prediction of electrospun fiber production. In this paper, it is also compared between predicted parameters with some experimental results.

Keywords: Diameter, Electrospinning, GA, Nanofiber.

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680 Preparation of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced HDPE Using Dialkylimidazolium as a Dispersing Agent: Effect on Thermal and Rheological Properties

Authors: J. Samuel, S. Al-Enezi, A. Al-Banna

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene reinforced with carbon nanofibers (HDPE/CNF) have been prepared via melt processing using dialkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid) as a dispersion agent. The prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. The samples blended with imidazolium ionic liquid exhibit higher thermal stability. DSC analysis showed clear miscibility of ionic liquid in the HDPE matrix and showed single endothermic peak. The melt rheological analysis of HDPE/CNF composites was performed using an oscillatory rheometer. The influence of CNF and ionic liquid concentration (ranging from 0, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the viscoelastic parameters was investigated at 200 °C with an angular frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The rheological analysis shows the shear-thinning behavior for the composites. An improvement in the viscoelastic properties was observed as the nanofiber concentration increases. The progress in the modulus values was attributed to the structural rigidity imparted by the high aspect ratio CNF. The modulus values and complex viscosity of the composites increased significantly at low frequencies. Composites blended with ionic liquid exhibit slightly lower values of complex viscosity and modulus over the corresponding HDPE/CNF compositions. Therefore, reduction in melt viscosity is an additional benefit for polymer composite processing as a result of wetting effect by polymer-ionic liquid combinations.

Keywords: HDPE, carbon nanofiber, ionic liquid, complex viscosity, modulus.

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679 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman

Abstract:

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: Boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutants, pharmaceuticals.

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678 Morphological and Electrical Characterization of Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers Synthesized Using Electrospinning Method for Electrical Application

Authors: Divyanka Sontakke, Arpit Thakre, D. K Shinde, Sujata Parmeshwaran

Abstract:

Electrospinning is the most widely utilized method to create nanofibers because of the direct setup, the capacity to mass-deliver consistent nanofibers from different polymers, and the ability to produce ultrathin fibers with controllable diameters. Smooth and much arranged ultrafine Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with diameters going from submicron to nanometer were delivered utilizing Electrospinning technique. PAN powder was used as a precursor to prepare the solution utilized as a part of this process. At the point when the electrostatic repulsion contradicted surface tension, a charged stream of polymer solution was shot out from the head of the spinneret and along these lines ultrathin nonwoven fibers were created. The effect of electrospinning parameter such as applied voltage, feed rate, concentration of polymer solution and tip to collector distance on the morphology of electrospun PAN nanofibers were investigated. The nanofibers were heat treated for carbonization to examine the changes in properties and composition to make for electrical application. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed before and after carbonization to study electrical conductivity and morphological characterization. The SEM images have shown the uniform fiber diameter and no beads formation. The average diameter of the PAN fiber observed 365nm and 280nm for flat plat and rotating drum collector respectively. The four probe strategy was utilized to inspect the electrical conductivity of the nanofibers and the electrical conductivity is significantly improved with increase in oxidation temperature exposed.

Keywords: Electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile carbon nanofibres, heat treatment, electrical conductivity.

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677 Conversion of Modified Commercial Polyacrylonitrile Fibers to Carbon Fibers

Authors: R. Eslami Farsani, A. Shokuhfar, A. Sedghi

Abstract:

Carbon fibers are fabricated from different materials, such as special polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers, rayon fibers and pitch. Among these three groups of materials, PAN fibers are the most widely used precursor for the manufacture of carbon fibers. The process of fabrication carbon fibers from special PAN fibers includes two steps; oxidative stabilization at low temperature and carbonization at high temperatures in an inert atmosphere. Due to the high price of raw materials (special PAN fibers), carbon fibers are still expensive. In the present work the main goal is making carbon fibers from low price commercial PAN fibers with modified chemical compositions. The results show that in case of conducting completes stabilization process, it is possible to produce carbon fibers with desirable tensile strength from this type of PAN fibers. To this matter, thermal characteristics of commercial PAN fibers were investigated and based upon the obtained results, with some changes in conventional procedure of stabilization in terms of temperature and time variables; the desirable conditions of complete stabilization is achieved.

Keywords: Modified Commercial PAN Fibers, Stabilization, Carbonization, Carbon Fibers.

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676 Sintering of Composite Ceramic based on Corundum with Additive in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO System

Authors: Aung Kyaw Moe, Lukin Evgeny Stepanovich, Popova Nelya Alexandrovna

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the additive content in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO system on the sintering of composite ceramics based on corundum was studied. The samples were pressed by uniaxial semi-dry pressing under 100 MPa and sintered at 1500 °С and 1550 °С. The properties of composite ceramics for porosity and flexural strength were studied. When the amount of additives increases, the properties of composite ceramic samples are better than samples without additives.

Keywords: Ceramic, composite material, sintering, corundum.

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675 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring.

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674 Applications of Carbon Fibers Produced from Polyacrylonitrile Fibers

Authors: R. Eslami Farsani, R. Fazaeli

Abstract:

Carbon fibers have specific characteristics in comparison with industrial and structural materials used in different applications. Special properties of carbon fibers make them attractive for reinforcing and fabrication of composites. These fibers have been utilized for composites of metals, ceramics and plastics. However, it-s mainly used in different forms to reinforce lightweight polymer materials such as epoxy resin, polyesters or polyamides. The composites of carbon fiber are stronger than steel, stiffer than titanium, and lighter than aluminum and nowadays they are used in a variety of applications. This study explains applications of carbon fibers in different fields such as space, aviation, transportation, medical, construction, energy, sporting goods, electronics, and the other commercial/industrial applications. The last findings of composites with polymer, metal and ceramic matrices containing carbon fibers and their applications in the world investigated. Researches show that carbon fibers-reinforced composites due to unique properties (including high specific strength and specific modulus, low thermal expansion coefficient, high fatigue strength, and high thermal stability) can be replaced with common industrial and structural materials.

Keywords: Polyacrylonitrile Fibers, Carbon Fibers, Application

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673 Aging Behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC Composite in T4 and T6 Treatments

Authors: Melby Chacko, Jagannath Nayak

Abstract:

The aging behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC composite was investigated using Rockwell B hardness measurement. The composite was solutionized at 350°C and quenched in water. The composite was aged at room temperature (T4 treatment) and also at 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C (T6 treatment). The natural and artificial aging behaviour of composite was studied using aging curves determined at different temperatures. The aging period for peak aging for different temperatures was identified. The time required for attaining peak aging decreased with increase in the aging temperature. The peak hardness was found to increase with increase with aging temperature and the highest peak hardness was observed at 180ºC. Beyond 180ºC the peak hardness was found to be decreasing.

Keywords: 6061 Al-SiC composite, Aging curve, Rockwell B hardness, T4, T6 treatments.

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672 On the Coupled Electromechanical Behavior of Artificial Materials with Chiral-Shell Elements

Authors: Anna Girchenko, Victor A. Eremeyev, Holm Altenbach

Abstract:

In the present work we investigate both the elastic and electric properties of a chiral material. We consider a composite structure made from a polymer matrix and anisotropic inclusions of GaAs taking into account piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composite material. The principal task of the work is the estimation of the functional properties of the composite material.

Keywords: Coupled electromechanical behavior, Composite structure, Chiral metamaterial.

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671 Numerical Study for Structural Design of Composite Rotor with Crack Initiation

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, a coupled damage effect in the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor blade are developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor offers a good stability. Numerical calculations on the model developed prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed determining the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: Rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical.

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670 Numerical and Experimental Stress Analysis of Stiffened Cylindrical Composite Shell under Transverse end Load

Authors: J. Arashmehr, G. H. Rahimi, S.F.Rasouli

Abstract:

Grid composite structures have many applications in aerospace industry in which deal with transverse loadings abundantly. In present paper a stiffened composite cylindrical shell with clamped-free boundary condition under transverse end load experimentally and numerically was studied. Some electrical strain gauges were employed to measure the strains. Also a finite element analysis was done for validation of experimental result. The FEM software used was ANSYS11. In addition, the results between stiffened composite shell and unstiffened composite shell were compared. It was observed that intersection of two stiffeners has an important effect in decrease of stress in the shell. Fairly good agreements were observed between the numerical and the measured results. According to recent studies about grid composite structures, it should be noted that any investigation like this research has not been reported.

Keywords: Grid composite structure, Transverse loadings, Strain measurement, Finite element analysis

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669 The Effect of Parameters on Productions of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Fatih Sevim, Emel Sevimli, Fatih Demir, Turan Çalban

Abstract:

Nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters about 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: Nanofibers, ceramics composite, sol-gel processing, electrospinning.

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668 Affecting Factors of the Mechanical Properties to Phenolic/Fiber Composite

Authors: Thirapat Kitinirunkul, Nattawat Winya, Komson Prapunkarn

Abstract:

Influences of the amount of phenolic, curing temperature and curing time on the Mechanical Properties of phenolic/fiber composite were investigated by using two-level factorial design. The latter was used to determine the affects of those factors on mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the affects of amount of phenolic, curing temperature and curing time of the composite to determine the best condition for mechanical properties according to MIL-I-24768 by the tensile strength is more than 103 MPa.

Keywords: Phenolic Resin, Composite, Fiber Composite, Affecting Factors.

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667 Numerical Modeling of Steel-Composite Hybrid Tubes Subject to Static and Dynamic Loading

Authors: Y. S. Tai, M. Y. Huang, H. T. Hu

Abstract:

The commercial finite element program LS-DYNA was employed to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of cylindrical metal tubes that are externally wrapped with composite. The effects of composite wall thickness, loading conditions and fiber ply orientation were examined. The results demonstrate that a wrapped composite can be utilized effectively to enhance the crushing characteristics and energy absorbing capacity of the tubes. Increasing the thickness of the composite increases the mean force and the specific energy absorption under both static and dynamic crushing. The ply pattern affects the energy absorption capacity and the failure mode of the metal tube and the composite material property is also significant in determining energy absorption efficiency.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced metal tubes, energy absorption, axial crushing, impact loading.

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666 Effect of Needle Diameter on the Morphological Structure of Electrospun n-Bi2O3/Epoxy-PVA Nanofiber Mats

Authors: Bassam M. Abunahel, Nurul Zahirah Noor Azman, Munirah Jamil

Abstract:

The effect of needle diameter on the morphological structure of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy-PVA nanofibers has been investigated using three different types of needle diameters. The results were observed and investigated using two techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first technique is backscattered SEM while the second is secondary electron SEM. The results demonstrate that there is a correlation between the needle diameter and the morphology of electrospun nanofibers. As the internal needle diameter decreases, the average nanofiber diameter decreases and the fibers get thinner and smoother without agglomeration or beads formation. Moreover, with small needle diameter the nanofibrous porosity get larger compared with large needle diameter.

Keywords: Needle diameter, fiber diameter, agglomeration, porosity, SEM.

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665 Composite Patch Repair of Central Crack Growth in Aluminium Alloy Plate

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, A. Zeggane, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this work, repaired crack in 6061- T6 aluminum plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the displacement, strain and stress, also the first six mode shape of the plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its seize vary from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second. Thirdly we repair various cracks with composite patch (carbon/ epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally the comparison of stress, strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.

Keywords: Composite patch repair, crack growth, aluminum alloy plate, stress.

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