Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31097
An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim


Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: compressive strength, shrinkage, water absorption, fired clay brick, sludge waste

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4998


[1] Alaa. A. Shakir, SivakumarNaganathan, Kamal Nasharuddin Bin Mustapha, "Development of Bricks from Waste material: A Review Paper”, Australian Journal of basic and Applied Sciences, vol.7(8), pp. 812-818, 2013.
[2] N. Cruz-Pérez, F. A. Corpas-iglesias, "The use of different forms of waste in the manufacture of ceramic bricks”, Applied Clay Science, vol. 52, pp. 270-276, 2011.
[3] S. Dhanapandian, M. Shanthi, C. Manoharan, T. Ramkumar, A. Deiveegan, "Investigation of Granite Waste Incorporated Clay Brick as A Building Material”, International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, vol 4, pp. 107-113, 2010.
[4] A. Abdul Kadir, A. Mohajerani, "Recycling cigarette butts in lightweight fired clay bricks”, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials, vol. 164(5), pp. 219-229, 2011.
[5] A. B Aziz Abdul Latif, Ahmad TarmiziAbd.Karim, Ahmad Shukri Ahmad, MohdBaharudinRidzuan and Yung-Tse Hung, "Phytoremediation of Metals in Industrial Sludge by CyperusKyllingia-Rasiga, AsystassiaIntrusa and ScindapsusPictusVarArgyaeus Plant Species”, International Journal of Integrated Engineering, vol 4(2), pp. 1-8, 2012.
[6] A. Abdul Kadir& Noor Amira Sarani, "An overview of wastes recycling in fired clay bricks, International Journal of Integrated Engineering, vol 4(2), pp. 53-69, 2012.
[7] A. Abdul Kadir& Abbas Mohajerani, "Bricks: An Excellent Building Material for Recycling Wastes”, Proceedings of the Lasted International Conference Environmental Management and Engineering (EME 2011), July 4-6, Calgary, AB, Canada, pp. 108-115, 2011.
[8] M. Collepardi, "Degradation and restoration of masonry walls of historical buildings”, Material and Structure/ Materiouset constructions. Department of Science of Materials and Earth, university of Ancoma, Italy, vol 23, pp. 81-102, 1990
[9] A. Abdul Kadir, A. Mohajerani, "Properties improvement of fired clay bricks incorporating with cigarette butts”, Advanced Materials Research, vol. 535-537, pp. 1723-1730, 2012.
[10] Chanakya Arya, "Design of Structural Elements” 2nd edition, Great Britain by Alden Press, Oxford. 1994.
[11] Campbell, J. W. P. and Pryce, "Brick A World History”, Thames and Hudson, New York, NY. 2003.
[12] S. JahagirdarShrikant, S. Shrihari, B. Manu, "Reuse of Textile Mill Sludge in Burnt Clay Bricks”, International Journal of Advanced Technology in Civil Engineering, vol 2(1), pp. 96-99, 2013.
[13] Luciana C. S Herek, Carla Eponina Hori, MiriaHespanhol Miranda Reis, Nora Diaz Mora, Célia Regina Granhem Tavares, Rosângela Bergamasco, "Characterization of ceramic bricks incorporated with textile laundry sludge”, Ceramics International, vol. 38, pp. 951-959, 2012.
[14] R. Baskar, K. M. MeeraSheriffa Begum, S. Sundaram, "Characterization and Reuse of Textile Effluent Treatment Plant Waste Sludge In Clay Bricks”, Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, vol. 41(4), pp. 473-478, 2006.
[15] G. Reddy Babu, N. VenkataRamana, "Durability of Bricks Cast with Industrial Sludge”, IOSR Journal of Machanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), vol. 6(4), pp. 43-46. 2013.
[16] E. Badr El-Din Hegazy, A. FouadHanan and M. Hassanain Ahmed, "Brick Manufacturing from Water Treatment Sludge and Rise Husk Ash”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 6(3), pp. 453-461. 2012.
[17] Badr El-Din EzzatHegazy, Hanan Ahmed Fouad and Ahmed Mohammed Hassanain, "Incorporation of Water Sludge, Silica Fume and Rice Husk Ash in Brick Making”, Advances in Environmental Research, vol. 1(1), pp. 83-96, 2012.
[18] AnyakoraNkolika Victoria, "Characterisation and Performance Evaluation of Water Works Sludge As Brick Material”, International Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, vol. 3(3), pp. 69-79, May 2013.
[19] Zhou Saijun, "Experiment on Making Autoclaved Sludge Bricks with Water-Treatment Plant Sludge”, Scientific Research Fund of Human Provincial Education Department. IEEE, pp. 6568-6571, 2011.
[20] Mohammed O. Ramadan, Hanan A. Fouad and Ahmed M. Hassanain, "Reuse of Water Treatment Plant Sludge in Brick Manufacturing”, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 4(10):1223-1229, 2008.
[21] Maria P. Durante Ingunza, Anazsandra C. L. Duarte and Rubens M. Nascimento, "Use of Sewage Sludge as Raw Material in the Manufacture of Soft-Mud Bricks”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, pp. 852-856, 2011.
[22] Chih-Huang Weng, Deng-Fong Lin, Pen-Chi Chiang, "Utilization of Sludge as Brick Materials”, Advances in Environment Research 7, pp. 769-685, 2003.
[23] E. G. R. Petrucci, "Construction Materials”, 11th Edition, Globo, Porto Alegre, pp.435.
[24] A. G. Liew, A. Idris, A. A. Samad, Calvin, H. K. Wong, M. S. Jaafar& M. B. Aminuddin, "Incorporating of Sewage in Clay Brick and its Characterization”, Waste Management & Research, vol. 24, pp.226-233, 2004
[25] Deng Fong Lin and Chih Huang Weng, "Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Brick Material”, Journal of Environmental Engineering, vol. 127(10). 2011
[26] M. Dondi, M. Marsigli& B. Fabbri, "Recycling of industrial and urban wastes in brik production- A review (Part 1)”, Tile & Brick International, vol. 13(3), pp. 218-225. 1997a.
[27] B. Osman Ahmed, "Utilizzazionedelleceneridegliinceneritoridei R.S.U per sopi ceramic”, IndustriadeiLaterizi, vol. 4, pp. 103-108, 1994.
[28] R. Mesaros, "Use of sludge from the municipal sewage system for brick making”, New life for an obsolescent brickworks, Ziegel industries International 5, pp. 251-254,1989.
[29] D. A. Brosnan& W. Hochlretner , "Additions of oxidized sewage sludge in brick manufacture as a means of revenue generation”, Journal of the Canadian Ceramic Society, vol. 61(2), pp. 128-134, 1992.
[30] B. Boesmans, F. J. Colon, J. H. Van der Velden, "Lateriziprodotti con argilla e rifiutiurbani”, Proc. 5th CERP Conference, pp. 26-29. 1983.
[31] J. E. Alleman, "Beneficial use of sludge in building components, 1. Concept review and technical background”, Interbrick 3, vol. 2, pp. 14-18, 1987.
[32] J. E. Alleman, "Beneficial use of sludge in building components. 2. Full-scale production of sludge-amended bricks”, Interbrick 5, vol. 1, pp. 28-32, 1989.
[33] M. Churchill, "Aspects of sewage sludge utilization and its impact on brick making”, Global Ceramic, Review, vol.1, pp. 18-21, 1994.
[34] J. A. Slim, R. W. Wakefield, "The utilization of sewage sludge in manufacture of clay bricks”, Water SA, vol. 17(3), 1991.
[35] JooHwaTay, "Bricks manufactured from sludge”, Journal Environment Engineering, vol. 113(2), pp. 278, 1987.
[36] Sidrak FadyGohbrial, "Biofly Engineering Reuse of Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge Brick”, University of Wolonggong (Australia), 1996.
[37] Mamta Rajgor, JayeshkumarPitroda, ”Stone Sludge: Economical Solution for Manufacturing of Bricks”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN:2278-3075, vol. 2(5), pp.16-20, April 2013.
[38] Kevin Hii, Abbas Mohajerani, Paul Slatter and Nicky Eshtiaghi, "Reuse of Desalination Sludge for Brick Making”, Chemeca 2013:ChallengingTomorrow.Borton , ACT: Engineers Australia,pp. 485-490, 2013.
[39] Eduardo Ferraz, JoãoCoroado, Joaquim Silva, Celso Gomes and Fernando Rocha, "Manufacture of Ceramic Bricks using Recycled Brewing Spent Kieslguhr”, Material and manufacturing Processes, vol. 26, pp. 1319-1329, 2011.
[40] SeyedMostafaKhezri, Maryam KhalilzadehPoshtegal, Sanaz Khoramipour and ParisaGhafori, "Use of Aluminium Anodizing Sludge Cake In manufacture of Bricks”, Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, vol. 8(3&4), pp. 1158-1161, 2010.
[41] PinakiSengupta, NabajyotiSaikia, Prakash C.Borthakur, "Bricks from Petroleum Effluent treatmant plant Sludge: Properties and Environmental Characteristics”, Journal of Environmental Engineering, vol. 128(11), pp. 1090-1094. 2002.
[42] P. Sengupta, D. K. Dutta, R. L. Goswamee, P. C. Saikia, P. C. Borthakur, "Combating hazardous Sludge Disposal Problem at Lakwa (India) Oil Field Effluent”, SPE No. 39533, Proc, SPE Oil and Natural Gas Conf. And Exhibiton, Society of Petroluem Engineers, pp. 279-284, 1998.
[43] J. H. Tay, K. Y. Show and S.Y. Hong, "The Application of Industrial Sludge and Marine Clay in Brick-Making”, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, vol. 11(3), pp. 203-208, 2001.