Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2596

Search results for: Water absorption.

2596 Comparison and Analysis of Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers Using Plastic Heat Transfer Tubes and Traditional Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers

Authors: Xue-dong Zhang

Abstract:

There are extensive applications of lithium bromide-water absorption chillers in industry, but the heat exchangers corrosion and refrigerating capacity loss are very difficult to be solved. In this paper, an experiment was conducted by using plastic heat transfer tubes instead of copper tubes. As an example, for a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller of refrigerating capacity of 35kW, the correlative performance of the lithium bromide-water absorption chiller using plastic heat transfer tubes was compared with the traditional lithium bromide-water absorption chiller. And then the following three aspects, i.e., heat transfer area, pipe resistance, and safety strength, are analyzed. The results show that plastic heat transfer tubes can be used on lithium bromide-water absorption chillers, and its prospect is very optimistic.

Keywords: Absorption chillers, Comparison and analysis, Corrosion, Lithium bromide, Plastic heat exchangers.

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2595 Effect of Strength Class of Concrete and Curing Conditions on Capillary Water Absorption of Self-Compacting and Conventional Concrete

Authors: Emine Ebru Demirci, Remzi Sahin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to compare Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Conventional Concrete (CC) in terms of their capillary water absorption. During the comparison of SCC and CC, the effects of two different factors were also investigated: concrete strength class and curing condition. In the study, both SCC and CC were produced in three different concrete classes (C25, C50 and C70) and the other parameter (i.e. curing condition) was determined as two levels: moisture and air curing. It was observed that, for both curing environments and all strength classes of concrete, SCCs had lower capillary water absorption values than that of CCs. It was also detected that, for both SCC and CC, capillary water absorption values of samples kept in moisture curing were significantly lower than that of samples stored in air curing. Additionally, it was determined that capillary water absorption values for both SCC and CC decrease with increasing strength class of concrete for both curing environments.

Keywords: Capillary water absorption, curing condition, reinforced concrete beam, self-compacting concrete.

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2594 Influential Effect of Self-Healing Treatment on Water Absorption and Electrical Resistance of Normal and Light Weight Aggregate Concretes

Authors: B. Tayebani, N. Hosseinibalam, D. Mostofinejad

Abstract:

Interest in using bacteria in cement materials due to its positive influences has been increased. Cement materials such as mortar and concrete basically suffer from higher porosity and water absorption compared to other building materials such as steel materials. Because of the negative side-effects of certain chemical techniques, biological methods have been proposed as a desired and environmentally friendly strategy for reducing concrete porosity and diminishing water absorption. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria on the behaviour of two types of concretes (light weight aggregate concrete and normal weight concrete). The resistance of specimens to water penetration by testing water absorption and evaluating the electrical resistance of those concretes was examined and compared. As a conclusion, 20% increase in electrical resistance and 10% reduction in water absorption of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and for normal concrete the results show 7% decrease in water absorption and almost 10% increase in electrical resistance.

Keywords: Bacteria, biological method, normal weight concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, water absorption, electrical resistance.

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2593 Absorption of CO2 in EAF Reducing Slag from Stainless Steel Making Process by Wet Grinding

Authors: B.M.N. Nik Hisyamudin, S. Yokoyama, M. Umemoto

Abstract:

In the current study, we have conducted an experimental investigation on the utilization of electronic arc furnace (EAF) reducing slag for the absorption of CO2 via wet grinding method. It was carried out by various grinding conditions. The slag was ground in the vibrating ball mill in the presence of CO2 and pure water under ambient temperature. The reaction behavior was monitored with constant pressure method, and the changes of experimental systems volume as a function of grinding time were measured. It was found that the CO2 absorption occurred as soon as the grinding started. The CO2 absorption was significantly increased in the case of wet grinding compare to the dry grinding. Generally, the amount of CO2 absorption increased as the amount of water, weight of slag and initial pressure increased. However, it was decreased when the amount of water exceeds 200ml and when smaller balls were used. The absorption of CO2 occurred simultaneously with the start of the grinding and it stopped when the grinding was stopped. According to this research, the CO2 reacted with the CaO inside the slag, forming CaCO3.

Keywords: CO2 absorption, EAF reducing slag, vibration ball mill, wet grinding.

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2592 Compressive Strength and Capillary Water Absorption of Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregate

Authors: Yeşim Tosun, Remzi Şahin

Abstract:

This paper presents results of compressive strength, capillary water absorption, and density tests conducted on concrete containing recycled aggregate (RCA) which is obtained from structural waste generated by the construction industry in Turkey. In the experiments, 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of the normal (natural) coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled aggregate. Maximum aggregate particle sizes were selected as 16 mm, 22,4 mm and 31,5 mm; and 0,06%, 0,13% and 0,20% of air-entraining agent (AEA) were used in mixtures. Fly ash and superplasticizer were used as a mineral and chemical admixture, respectively. The same type (CEM I 42.5) and constant dosage of cement were used in the study. Water/cement ratio was kept constant as 0.53 for all mixture. It was concluded that capillary water absorption, compressive strength, and density of concrete decreased with increasing RCA ratio. Increasing in maximum aggregate particle size and amount of AEA also affect the properties of concrete significantly.

Keywords: Capillary water absorption, compressive strength, density, recycled concrete aggregates.

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2591 Breakdown of LDPE Film under Heavy Water Absorption

Authors: Eka PW, T. Okazaki, Y. Murakami, N., Hozumi, M. Nagao

Abstract:

The breakdown strength characteristic of Low Density Polyethylene films (LDPE) under DC voltage application and the effect of water absorption have been studied. Mainly, our experiment was investigated under two conditions; dry and heavy water absorption. Under DC ramp voltage, the result found that the breakdown strength under heavy water absorption has a lower value than dry condition. In order to clarify the effect, the temperature rise of film was observed using non contact thermograph until the occurrence of the electrical breakdown and the conduction current of the sample was also measured in correlation with the thermograph measurement. From the observations, it was shown that under the heavy water absorption, the hot spot in the samples appeared at lower voltage. At the same voltage the temperature of the hot spot and conduction current was higher than that under the dry condition. The measurement result has a good correlation between the existence of a critical field for conduction current and thermograph observation. In case of the heavy water absorption, the occurrence of the threshold field was earlier than the dry condition as result lead to higher of conduction current and the temperature rise appears after threshold field was significantly increased in increasing of field. The higher temperature rise was caused by the higher current conduction as the result the insulation leads to breakdown to the lower field application.

Keywords: Low density polyethylene, heavy water absorption, conduction current, temperature rise.

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2590 Optimum Design of Alkali Activated Slag Concretes for Low Chloride Ion Permeability and Water Absorption Capacity

Authors: Müzeyyen Balçikanli, Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan Tacettin Türker, Okan Karahan, Cengiz Duran Atiş

Abstract:

In this research, effect of curing time (TC), curing temperature (CT), sodium concentration (SC) and silicate modules (SM) on the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability, and water absorption capacity of alkali activated slag (AAS) concretes were investigated. For maximization of compressive strength while for minimization of chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity of AAS concretes, best possible combination of CT, CTime, SC and SM were determined. An experimental program was conducted by using the central composite design method. Alkali solution-slag ratio was kept constant at 0.53 in all mixture. The effects of the independent parameters were characterized and analyzed by using statistically significant quadratic regression models on the measured properties (dependent parameters). The proposed regression models are valid for AAS concretes with the SC from 0.1% to 7.5%, SM from 0.4 to 3.2, CT from 20 °C to 94 °C and TC from 1.2 hours to 25 hours. The results of test and analysis indicate that the most effective parameter for the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity is the sodium concentration.

Keywords: Alkali activation, slag, rapid chloride permeability, water absorption capacity.

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2589 Computer Study of Cluster Mechanism of Anti-greenhouse Effect

Authors: A. Galashev

Abstract:

Absorption spectra of infra-red (IR) radiation of the disperse water medium absorbing the most important greenhouse gases: CO2 , N2O , CH4 , C2H2 , C2H6 have been calculated by the molecular dynamics method. Loss of the absorbing ability at the formation of clusters due to a reduction of the number of centers interacting with IR radiation, results in an anti-greenhouse effect. Absorption of O3 molecules by the (H2O)50 cluster is investigated at its interaction with Cl- ions. The splitting of ozone molecule on atoms near to cluster surface was observed. Interaction of water cluster with Cl- ions causes the increase of integrated intensity of emission spectra of IR radiation, and also essential reduction of the similar characteristic of Raman spectrum. Relative integrated intensity of absorption of IR radiation for small water clusters was designed. Dependences of the quantity of weight on altitude for vapor of monomers, clusters, droplets, crystals and mass of all moisture were determined. The anti-greenhouse effect of clusters was defined as the difference of increases of average global temperature of the Earth, caused by absorption of IR radiation by free water molecules forming clusters, and absorption of clusters themselves. The greenhouse effect caused by clusters makes 0.53 K, and the antigreenhouse one is equal to 1.14 K. The increase of concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere does not always correlate with the amplification of greenhouse effect.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, infrared absorption and Raman spectra, molecular dynamics method, water clusters.

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2588 Control Strategy of Solar Thermal Cooling System under the Indonesia Climate

Authors: Budihardjo Sarwo Sastrosudiro, Arnas Lubis, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin Jusuf

Abstract:

Solar thermal cooling system was installed on Mechanical Research Center (MRC) Building that is located in Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. It is the first cooling system in Indonesia that utilizes solar energy as energy input combined with natural gas; therefore, the control system must be appropriated with the climates. In order to stabilize the cooling capacity and also to maximize the use of solar energy, the system applies some controllers. Constant flow rate and on/off controller are applied for the hot water, chilled water and cooling water pumps. The hot water circulated by pump when the solar radiation is over than 400W/m2, and the chilled water is continually circulated by pump and its temperature is kept constant 7 °C by absorption chiller. The cooling water is also continually circulated until the outlet temperature of cooling tower below than 27 oC. Furthermore, the three-way valve is used to control the hot water for generate vapor on absorption chiller. The system performance using that control system is shown in this study results.

Keywords: Absorption chiller, control system, solar cooling, solar energy.

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2587 Utilization of EAF Reducing Slag from Stainless Steelmaking Process as a Sorbent for CO2

Authors: M. N. N. Hisyamudin, S. Yokoyama, M. Umemoto

Abstract:

In this study, an experimental investigation was carried out to fix CO2 into the electronic arc furnace (EAF) reducing slag from stainless steelmaking process under wet grinding. The slag was ground by the vibrating ball mill with the CO2 and pure water. The reaction behavior was monitored with constant pressure method, and the change of CO2 volume in the experimental system with grinding time was measured. It was found that the CO2 absorption occurred as soon as the grinding started. The CO2 absorption under wet grinding was significantly larger than that under dry grinding. Generally, the amount of CO2 absorption increased as the amount of water, the amount of slag, the diameter of alumina ball and the initial pressure of CO2 increased. However, the initial absorption rate was scarcely influenced by the experimental conditions except for the initial CO2 pressure. According to this research, the CO2 reacted with the CaO inside the slag to form CaCO3.

Keywords: CO2 absorption, EAF reducing slag, vibration ball mill, wet grinding.

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2586 The Experimental Measurement of the LiBr Concentration of a Solar Absorption Machine

Authors: N. Hatraf, L. Merabeti, Z. Neffeh, W. Taane

Abstract:

The excessive consumption of fossil energies (electrical energy) during summer caused by the technological development involves more and more climate warming.

In order to reduce the worst impact of gas emissions produced from classical air conditioning, heat driven solar absorption chiller is pretty promising; it consists on using solar as motive energy which is clean and environmentally friendly to provide cold.

Solar absorption machine is composed by four components using Lithium Bromide /water as a refrigerating couple. LiBr- water is the most promising in chiller applications due to high safety, high volatility ratio, high affinity, high stability and its high latent heat. The lithium bromide solution is constitute by the salt lithium bromide which absorbs water under certain conditions of pressure and temperature however if the concentration of the solution is high in the absorption chillers; which exceed 70%, the solution will crystallize.

The main aim of this article is to study the phenomena of the crystallization and to evaluate how the dependence between the electric conductivity and the concentration which should be controlled.

Keywords: Absorption chillers, crystallization, experimental results, Lithium Bromide solution.

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2585 Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Olesia Mikhailova

Abstract:

In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5% PES waste; (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste; (c) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and bending strength measurements, water absorption test and determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed. The results showed that the addition of sand in a mixture of geopolymer with 5% PES content led to higher compressive strength, while it increased water absorption and reduced thermal conductivity coefficient. The increase of PES addition in geopolymer mortars resulted in a more dense structure, indicated by the increase of strength and thermal conductivity and the decrease of water absorption.

Keywords: Fly ash, geopolymers, polyester waste, composites.

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2584 Treatment of Recycled Concrete Aggregates by Si-Based Polymers

Authors: V. Spaeth, A. Djerbi-Tegguer

Abstract:

The recycling of concrete, bricks and masonry rubble as concrete aggregates is an important way to contribute to a sustainable material flow. However, there are still various uncertainties limiting the widespread use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA). The fluctuations in the composition of grade recycled aggregates and their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete are of particular concern regarding the use of RCA. Most of problems occurring while using recycled concrete aggregates as aggregates are due to higher porosity and hence higher water absorption, lower mechanical strengths, residual impurities on the surface of the RCA forming weaker bond between cement paste and aggregate. So, the reuse of RCA is still limited. Efficient polymer based treatment is proposed in order to reuse RCA easier. The silicon-based polymer treatments of RCA were carried out and were compared. This kind of treatment can improve the properties of RCA such as the rate of water absorption on treated RCA is significantly reduced.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregates, water absorption, silicon-based agent and polymer.

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2583 The Influence of Water Ingress to Aircraft Cabin Components

Authors: Nils Ischdonat

Abstract:

The accomplished study is based on the appointment and identification of ageing effects and according to this absorption of moisture of aircraft cabin components over the life-cycle. In the first step of the study ceiling panels from same age and from the same aircraft cabin have been examined according to weight changes depending on the position in the aircraft cabin. In the second step of the study different aged ceiling panels have been examined concerning deflection, weight changes and the acoustic sound transmission loss. To prove the assumption of water absorption within the study and with the theoretical background from literature and scientific papers, an older test panel was exposed extreme thermal conditions (humidity and temperature) within a climate chamber to show that there is a general ingress of water to cabin components and that this ingress of water leads to the change of different mechanical properties.

Keywords: Aircraft Cabin, water ingress, ageing effects, sound transmission loss

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2582 Performance of Concrete Grout under Aggressive Chloride Environment in Sabah

Authors: S. Imbin, S. Dullah, H. Asrah, P. S. Kumar, M. E. Rahman, M. A. Mannan

Abstract:

Service life of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures in coastal towns of Sabah has been affected very much. Concrete crack, spalling of concrete cover and reinforcement rusting of RC buildings are seen even within 5 years of construction in Sabah. Hence, in this study a new mix design of concrete grout was developed using locally available materials and investigated under two curing conditions and workability, compressive strength, Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT), water absorption, volume of permeable voids (VPV), Sorptivity and 90-days salt ponding test were conducted. The compressive strength of concrete grout at the age 90 days was found to be 44.49 N/mm2 under water curing. It was observed that the percentage of mortar bar length change was below 1% for developed concrete grout. The water absorption of the concrete grout was in between the range of 0.88 % to 3.60 % under two different curing up to the age 90 days. It was also observed that the VPV of concrete was in the range of 0 % to 9.75 and 2.44% to 13.05% under water curing and site curing respectively. It was found that the Sorptivity of the concrete grout under water curing at the age of 28 days is 0.211mm/√min and at the age 90 day are 0.067 mm/√min. The chloride content decreased greatly, 90% after a depth of 15 mm. It was noticed that the site cured samples showed higher chloride contents near surface compared to water cured samples. This investigation suggested that the developed mix design of concrete grout using locally available construction materials can be used for crack repairing of existing RC structures in Sabah.

Keywords: Concrete grout, Salt ponding, Sorptivity, Water absorption.

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2581 Effects of Kenaf and Rice Husk on Water Absorption and Flexural Properties of Kenaf/CaCO3/HDPE and Rice Husk/CaCO3/HDPE Hybrid Composites

Authors: Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Rahmah Mohamed, Mohd Muizz Fahimi M.

Abstract:

Rice husk and kenaf filled with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite were prepared separately using twin-screw extruder at 50rpm. Different filler loading up to 30 parts of rice husk particulate and kenaf fiber were mixed with the fixed 30% amount of CaCO3 mineral filler to produce rice husk/CaCO3/HDPE and kenaf/CaCO3/HDPE hybrid composites. In this study, the effects of natural fiber for both rice husk and kenaf in CaCO3/HDPE composite on physical, mechanical and morphology properties were investigated. Field Emission Scanning Microscope (FeSEM) was used to investigate the impact fracture surfaces of the hybrid composite. The property analyses showed that water absorption increased with the presence of kenaf and rice husk fillers. Natural fibers in composite significantly influence water absorption properties due to natural characters of fibers which contain cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin structures. The result showed that 10% of additional natural fibers into hybrid composite had caused decreased flexural strength, however additional of high natural fiber (>10%) filler loading has proved to increase its flexural strength.

Keywords: Hybrid composites, Water absorption, Mechanical properties.

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2580 Combined Microwaves and Microreactors Plant

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Mitsuhiro Matsuzawa

Abstract:

A pilot plant for continuous flow microwave-assisted chemical reaction combined with microreactors was developed and water heating tests were conducted for evaluation of the developed plant. We developed a microwave apparatus having a single microwave generator that can heat reaction solutions in four reaction fields simultaneously in order to increase throughput. We also designed a four-branch waveguide using electromagnetic simulation, and found that the transmission efficiency at 99%. Finally, we developed the pilot plant using the developed microwave apparatus and conducted water heating tests. The temperatures in the respective reaction fields were controlled within ±1.1 K at 353.2 K. Moreover, the energy absorption rates by the water were about 90% in the respective reaction fields, whereas the energy absorption rate was about 40% when 100 cm3 of water was heated by a commercially available multimode microwave chemical reactor.

Keywords: Microwave, Microreactor, Heating, Electromagnetic Simulation

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2579 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Amine-Based Hybrid Solvent Absorption

Authors: Supitcha Rinprasertmeechai, Sumaeth Chavadej, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

This study was to investigate the performance of hybrid solvents blended between primary, secondary, or tertiary amines and piperazine (PZ) for CO2 removal from flue gas in terms of CO2 absorption capacity and regeneration efficiency at 90 oC. Alkanolamines used in this work were monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA). The CO2 absorption was experimentally examined under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The results show that MEA blend with PZ provided the maximum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.50 mol CO2/mol amine while TEA provided the minimum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.30 mol CO2/mol amine. TEA was easier to regenerate for both first cycle and second cycle with less loss of absorption capacity. The regeneration efficiency of TEA was 95.09 and 92.89 %, for the first and second generation cycles, respectively.

Keywords: CO2 absorption capacity, regeneration efficiency, CO2 removal, flue gas

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2578 Performance Analysis of Absorption Power Cycle under Different Source Temperatures

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The absorption power generation cycle based on the ammonia-water mixture has attracted much attention for efficient recovery of low-grade energy sources. In this paper a thermodynamic performance analysis is carried out for a Kalina cycle using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid for efficient conversion of low-temperature heat source in the form of sensible energy. The effects of the source temperature on the system performance are extensively investigated by using the thermodynamic models. The results show that the source temperature as well as the ammonia mass fraction affects greatly on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle.

Keywords: Ammonia-water mixture, Kalina cycle, low-grade heat source, source temperature.

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2577 Wet Strength Improvement of Pineapple Leaf Paper for Evaporative Cooling Pad

Authors: T. Khampan, N. Thavarungkul, J. Tiansuwan, S. Kamthai

Abstract:

This research aimed to modify pineapple leaf paper (PALP) for using as wet media in the evaporation cooling system by improving wet mechanical property (tensile strength) without compromising water absorption property. Polyamideamineepichorohydrin resin (PAE) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were used to strengthen the paper, and the PAE and CMC ratio of 80:20 showed the optimum wet and dry tensile index values, which were higher than those of the commercial cooling pad (CCP). Compared with CCP, PALP itself and all the PAE/CMC modified PALP possessed better water absorption. The PAE/CMC modified PALP had potential to become a new type of wet media.

Keywords: wet strength, evaporative cooling, pineapple leaves, polyamideamine-epichorohydrin, carboxymethylcellulose.

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2576 Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of Cab Frame with FEM

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty, Zefry Darmawan, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Cab’s frame strength is considered as an important factor in excavator’s operator safety, especially during roll-over. In this study, we use a model of cab frame with different thicknesses and perform elastoplastic numerical analysis by using Finite Element Method (FEM). Deformation mode and energy absorption's of cab’s frame part are investigated on two conditions, with wrinkle and without wrinkle. The occurrence of wrinkle when deforming cab frame can reduce energy absorption, and among 4 parts with wrinkle, the energy absorption significantly decreases in part C. Residual stress that generated upon the bending process of part C is analyzed to confirm it possibility in increasing the energy absorption.

Keywords: ROPS, FEM, hydraulic excavator, cab frame, energy absorption.

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2575 Performance of Ground Clay Bricks as Partial Cement Replacement in Grade 30 Concrete

Authors: Kartini, K., Rohaidah, M.N., Zuraini, ZA.

Abstract:

Demolitions of buildings have created a lot of waste and one of it is clay bricks. The waste clay bricks were ground to roughly cement fineness and used to partially replaced cement at 10%, 20% and 30% with w/b ratio of 0.6 and tested at 7, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days. The result shows that the compressive strength of GCB concrete increases over age however, decreases as the level of replacements increases. It was also found that 10% replacement of GCB gave the highest compressive strength, however for optimum replacement, 30% was chosen as it still attained strength of grade 30 concrete. In terms of durability performances, results show that GCB replacement up to 30% was found to be efficient in reducing water absorption as well as water permeability. These studies show that GCB has the potential to be used as partial cement replacement in making concrete.

Keywords: Compressive Strength, Ground Clay Bricks, Partial Cement Replacement, Water Absorption and Permeability

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2574 Optimum Design of an Absorption Heat Pump Integrated with a Kraft Industry using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: B. Jabbari, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

In this study the integration of an absorption heat pump (AHP) with the concentration section of an industrial pulp and paper process is investigated using pinch technology. The optimum design of the proposed water-lithium bromide AHP is then achieved by minimizing the total annual cost. A comprehensive optimization is carried out by relaxation of all stream pressure drops as well as heat exchanger areas involving in AHP structure. It is shown that by applying genetic algorithm optimizer, the total annual cost of the proposed AHP is decreased by 18% compared to one resulted from simulation.

Keywords: Absorption Heat Pump, Genetic Algorithm, Kraft Industry, Pinch Technology

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2573 Possible Utilization of Cigarette Butts in Light- Weight Fired Clay Bricks

Authors: Aeslina Abdul Kadir, Abbas Mohajerani

Abstract:

Over a million tonnes of cigarette butts (CBs) are produced worldwide annually. These CBs accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters and pose a serious environmental risk. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Properties including compressive strength, flexural strength, density, water absorption and thermal conductivity of fired clay bricks are reported and discussed. Furthermore, leaching of heavy metals from the manufactured clay bricks was tested. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by about 8 – 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. The compressive strength of bricks tested was 12.57, 5.22 and 3.00 MPa for 2.5, 5.0 and 10 % CB content respectively. Water absorption and initial rate of absorption values increased as density, and hence porosity, of bricks decreased with increasing CB volume. The leaching test results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.

Keywords: Cigarette butts, Fired clay bricks, Light bricks, Recycling waste, Thermal conductivity.

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2572 Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of a LaNi5 Water Pumping System

Authors: Miled Amel, Ben Maad Hatem, Askri Faouzi, Ben Nasrallah Sassi

Abstract:

Metal hydride water pumping system uses hydrogen as working fluid to pump water for low head and high discharge. The principal operation of this pump is based on the desorption of hydrogen at high pressure and its absorption at low pressure by a metal hydride. This work is devoted to study a concept of the dynamic behavior of a metal hydride pump using unsteady model and LaNi5 as hydriding alloy. This study shows that with MHP, it is possible to pump 340l/kg-cycle of water in 15 000s using 1 Kg of LaNi5 at a desorption temperature of 360 K, a pumping head equal to 5 m and a desorption gear ratio equal to 33. This study reveals also that the error given by the steady model, using LaNi5 is about 2%.A dimensional mathematical model and the governing equations of the pump were presented to predict the coupled heat and mass transfer within the MHP. Then, a numerical simulation is carried out to present the time evolution of the specific water discharge and to test the effect of different parameters (desorption temperature, absorption temperature, desorption gear ratio) on the performance of the water pumping system (specific water discharge, pumping efficiency and pumping time). In addition, a comparison between results obtained with steady and unsteady model is performed with different hydride mass. Finally, a geometric configuration of the reactor is simulated to optimize the pumping time.

Keywords: Dynamic behavior, unsteady model, LaNi5, performance of the water pumping system.

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2571 Dynamic Shear Energy Absorption of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Authors: Robert J. Thomas, Colton Bedke, Andrew Sorensen

Abstract:

The exemplary mechanical performance and durability of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has led to its rapid emergence as an advanced cementitious material. The uncharacteristically high mechanical strength and ductility of UHPC makes it a promising potential material for defense structures which may be subject to highly dynamic loads like impact or blast. However, the mechanical response of UHPC under dynamic loading has not been fully characterized. In particular, there is a need to characterize the energy absorption of UHPC under high-frequency shear loading. This paper presents preliminary results from a parametric study of the dynamic shear energy absorption of UHPC using the Charpy impact test. UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in the range of 100-150 MPa exhibited dynamic shear energy absorption in the range of 0.9-1.5 kJ/m. Energy absorption is shown to be sensitive to the water/cement ratio, silica fume content, and aggregate gradation. Energy absorption was weakly correlated to compressive strength. Results are highly sensitive to specimen preparation methods, and there is a demonstrated need for a standardized test method for high frequency shear in cementitious composites.

Keywords: Charpy impact test, dynamic shear, impact loading, ultra-high performance concrete.

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2570 Processing, Morphological, Thermal and Absorption Behavior of PLA/Thermoplastic Starch/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Esmat Jalalvandi, Rohah Abd. Majid, Taravat Ghanbari

Abstract:

Thermoplastic starch, polylactic acid glycerol and maleic anhydride (MA) were compounded with natural montmorillonite (MMT) through a twin screw extruder to investigate the effects of different loading of MMT on structure, thermal and absorption behavior of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that sample with MMT loading 4phr exhibited exfoliated structure while sample that contained MMT 8 phr exhibited intercalated structure. FESEM images showed big lump when MMT loading was at 8 phr. The thermal properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that MMT increased melting temperature and crystallization temperature of matrix but reduction in glass transition temperature was observed Meanwhile the addition of MMT has improved the water barrier property. The nanosize MMT particle is also able to block a tortuous pathway for water to enter the starch chain, thus reducing the water uptake and improved the physical barrier of nanocomposite.

Keywords: Montmorillonite, Nanocomposite, Polylactic acid, Starch.

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2569 Hypoglycemic Activity of Water Soluble Polysaccharides of Yam (Dioscorea hispida Dents) Prepared by Aqueous, Papain, and Tempeh Inoculum Assisted Extractions

Authors: Teti Estiasih, Harijono, Weny Bekti Sunarharum, Atina Rahmawati

Abstract:

This research studied the hypoglycemic effect of water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) extracted from yam (Dioscorea hispida) tuber by three different methods: aqueous extraction, papain assisted extraction, and tempeh inoculums assisted extraction. The two later extraction methods were aimed to remove WSP binding protein to have more pure WSP. The hypoglycemic activities were evaluated by means in vivo test on alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats, glucose response test (GRT), in situ glucose absorption test using everted sac, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis. All yam WSP extracts exhibited ability to decrease blood glucose level in hyperglycemia condition as well as inhibited glucose absorption and SCFA formation. The order of hypoglycemic activity was tempeh inoculums assisted- >papain assisted- >aqueous WSP extracts. GRT and in situ glucose absorption test showed that order of inhibition was papain assisted- >tempeh inoculums assisted- >aqueous WSP extracts. Digesta of caecum of yam WSP extracts oral fed rats had more SCFA than control. Tempeh inoculums assisted WSP extract exhibited the most significant hypoglycemic activity.

Keywords: hypoglycemic activity, papain, tempeh inoculums, water soluble polysaccharides, yam (Discorea hispida)

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2568 Atmosphere Water Vapour As Main Sweet Water Resource in the Arid Zones of Central Asia

Authors: S.I.Nikolaeva, Yu.V. Petrov, L.Ye.Skipnikova

Abstract:

It has been shown that the solution of water shortage problem in Central Asia closely connected with inclusion of atmosphere water vapour into the system of response and water resources management. Some methods of water extraction from atmosphere have been discussed.

Keywords: potable water, water resources, water problems, water scarcity.

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2567 Thermodynamic Analysis of an Ejector-Absorption Refrigeration Cycle with Using NH3-H2O

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi, Sayed Sina Rezaei, Abbas Aghagoli

Abstract:

In this paper, the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is presented. This article deals with the thermodynamic simulation and the first and second law analysis of an ammonia-water. The effects of parameters such as condenser, absorber, generator, and evaporator temperatures have been investigated. The influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient and exergy efficiency of this cycle has been studied. The results show that when the temperature of different parts increases, the performance coefficient and the exergy efficiency of the cycle decrease, except for evaporator and generator, that causes an increase in coefficient of performance (COP). According to the results, absorber and ejector have the highest exergy losses in the studied conditions.

Keywords: Absorption refrigeration, COP, ejector, exergy efficiency.

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