Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: triaxial

37 A 3 Dimensional Simulation of the Repeated Load Triaxial Test

Authors: Bao Thach Nguyen, Abbas Mohajerani

Abstract:

A typical flexible pavement structure consists of the surface, base, sub-base and subgrade soil. The loading traffic is transferred from the top layer with higher stiffness to the layer below with less stiffness. Under normal traffic loading, the behaviour of flexible pavement is very complex and can be predicted by using the repeated load triaxial test equipment in the laboratory. However, the nature of the repeated load triaxial testing procedure is considered time-consuming, complicated and expensive, and it is a challenge to carry out as a routine test in the laboratory. Therefore, the current paper proposes a numerical approach to simulate the repeated load triaxial test by employing the discrete element method. A sample with particle size ranging from 2.36mm to 19.0mm was constructed. Material properties, which included normal stiffness, shear stiffness, coefficient of friction, maximum dry density and particle density, were used as the input for the simulation. The sample was then subjected to a combination of deviator and confining stress and it was found that the discrete element method is able to simulate the repeated load triaxial test in the laboratory.

Keywords: Discrete element method, repeated load triaxial, pavement materials.

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36 Effect of Scalping on the Mechanical Behavior of Coarse Soils

Authors: Nadine Ali Hassan, Ngoc Son Nguyen, Didier Marot, Fateh Bendahmane

Abstract:

This paper aims at presenting a study of the effect of scalping methods on the mechanical properties of coarse soils by resorting to numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM) and experimental triaxial tests. Two reconstitution methods are used, designated as scalping method and substitution method. Triaxial compression tests are first simulated on a granular materials with a grap graded particle size distribution by using the DEM. We study the effect of these reconstitution methods on the stress-strain behavior of coarse soils with different fine contents and with different ways to control the densities of the scalped and substituted materials. Experimental triaxial tests are performed on original mixtures of sands and gravels with different fine contents and on their corresponding scalped and substituted samples. Numerical results are qualitatively compared to experimental ones. Agreements and discrepancies between these results are also discussed.

Keywords: Coarse soils, scalping, substitution, discrete element method, triaxial test.

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35 Probabilistic Simulation of Triaxial Undrained Cyclic Behavior of Soils

Authors: Arezoo Sadrinezhad, Kallol Sett, S. I. Hariharan

Abstract:

In this paper, a probabilistic framework based on Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) approach has been applied to simulate triaxial cyclic constitutive behavior of uncertain soils. The framework builds upon previous work of the writers, and it has been extended for cyclic probabilistic simulation of triaxial undrained behavior of soils. von Mises elastic-perfectly plastic material model is considered. It is shown that by using probabilistic framework, some of the most important aspects of soil behavior under cyclic loading can be captured even with a simple elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model.

Keywords: Elasto-plasticity, uncertainty, soils, Fokker-Planck equation, Fourier Spectral method, Finite Difference method.

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34 Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.

Keywords: Soil improvement, waste bottle chips, reinforcement, silt, Triaxial test.

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33 Effect of Oil Contamination on the Liquefaction Behavior of Sandy

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. M. Shojaedin

Abstract:

Oil leakage from the pipelines and the tanks carrying them, or during oil extraction, could lead to the changes in the characteristics and properties of the soil. In this paper, conducting a series of experimental cyclic triaxial tests, the effects of oil contamination on the liquefaction potential of sandy soils is investigated. The studied specimens are prepared by mixing the Firoozkuh sand with crude oil in 4, 8 and 12 percent by soil dry weight. The results show that the oil contamination up to 8% causes an increase in the soil liquefaction resistance and then with increase in the contamination, the liquefaction resistance decreases.

Keywords: Cyclic triaxial test, Liquefaction resistance, Oil contamination, Sandy soil.

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32 Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model

Authors: Le Ngoc Hung, Abriak Nor Edine, Binetruy Christophe, Benzerzour Mahfoud, Shahrour Isam, Patrice Rivard

Abstract:

Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these industrial by-products result from the incineration of various domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ash is mainly used in road engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom ash is studied with triaxial tests. After, analysis of the experiment results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to describe the evolution of material under the influence of external mechanical actions.

Keywords: Bottom ash, granular material, triaxial test, mechanical behavior, simulation, Mohr-Coulomb model, CESARLCPC.

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31 Effect of Bamboo Chips in Cemented Sand Soil on Permeability and Mechanical Properties in Triaxial Compression

Authors: Sito Ismanti, Noriyuki Yasufuku

Abstract:

Cement utilization to improve the properties of soil is a well-known method applied in field. However, its addition in large quantity must be controlled. This study presents utilization of natural and environmental-friendly material mixed with small amount of cement content in soil improvement, i.e. bamboo chips. Absorbability, elongation, and flatness ratio of bamboo chips were examined to investigate and understand the influence of its characteristics in the mixture. Improvement of dilation behavior as a problem of loose and poorly graded sand soil is discussed. Bamboo chips are able to improve the permeability value that affects the dilation behavior of cemented sand soil. It is proved by the stress path as the result of triaxial compression test in the undrained condition. The effect of size and content variation of bamboo chips, as well as the curing time variation are presented and discussed.  

Keywords: Bamboo chips, permeability, mechanical properties, triaxial compression.

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30 Stress versus Strain Behavior of Geopolymer Cement under Triaxial Stress Conditions in Saline and Normal Water

Authors: Haider M. Giasuddin, Jay G. Sanjayan, P. G. Ranjith

Abstract:

Geopolymer cement was evaluated as wellbore sealing material for carbon dioxide geosequestration application. Curing of cement system in saline water and strength testing in triaxial stress state condition under lateral confinement is relevant to primary cementing in CO2 geosequestration wellbore in saline aquifer. Geopolymer cement was cured in saline water (both at ambient conditions for 28 days and heated (60°C) conditions for 12 hours) and tested for triaxial strength at different levels of lateral confinement. Normal water and few other curing techniques were also studied both for geopolymer and API ‘G’ cement. Results reported were compared to evaluate the suitability of saline water for curing of geopolymer cement. Unconfined compression test results showed higher strength for curing in saline water than normal water. Besides, testing strength under lateral confinement demonstrated the material failure behavior from brittle to plastic.

Keywords: Fly ash, Geopolymer, Geosequestration, Saline water, Strength, Traiaxial test.

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29 Reinforcement Effect on Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sand

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Alibolandi

Abstract:

Dynamic behavior of soil are evaluated relative to a number of factors including: strain level, density, number of cycles, material type, fine content, geosynthetic inclusion, saturation, and effective stress .This paper investigate the dynamic behavior of saturated reinforced sand under cyclic stress condition. The cyclic triaxial tests are conducted on remolded specimens under various CSR which reinforced by different arrangement of non-woven geotextile. Aforementioned tests simulate field reinforced saturated deposits during earthquake or other cyclic loadings. This analysis revealed that the geotextile arrangement played dominant role on dynamic soil behavior and as geotextile close to top of specimen, the liquefaction resistance increased.

Keywords: Dynamic Behavior, Reinforced Sand, Triaxial Test, Non-woven Geotextile.

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28 Experimental Investigation on the Shear Strength Parameters of Sand-Slag Mixtures

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has a positive influence on the environment by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and issues associated with waste disposal. Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is a by-product of the iron and steel industry, with millions of tons of slag being annually produced worldwide. Slag has been widely used in structural engineering and for stabilizing clay soils; however, studies on the effect of slag on sandy soils are scarce. This article investigates the effect of slag content on shear strength parameters through direct shear tests and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on mixtures of Perth sand and slag. For this purpose, sand-slag mixtures, with slag contents of 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of samples, were tested with direct shear tests under three normal stress values, namely 100 kPa, 150 kPa, and 200 kPa. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed under a single confining pressure of 100 kPa and relative density of 80%. The internal friction angles and shear stresses of the mixtures were determined via the direct shear tests, demonstrating that shear stresses increased with increasing normal stress and the internal friction angles and cohesion increased with increasing slag. There were no significant differences in shear stresses parameters when slag content rose from 4% to 6%. The unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests demonstrated that shear strength increased with increasing slag content.

Keywords: Direct shear, shear strength, slag, UU test.

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27 Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands

Authors: Saeed Talamkhani, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

Abstract:

In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.

Keywords: Clayey sand, liquefaction, triaxial test, undrained shear strength.

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26 Effect of Low Plastic Clay Quantity on Behavioral Characteristics of Loose Sand

Authors: Roza Rahbari

Abstract:

After the Nigatta earthquake in Japan, in 1960, the liquefaction and its related hazards, moved to the thick of matter. Most of the research have been carried out on clean sands and silty sands so far, in order to study the effect of fine particles, confinement pressures, density and so on. However, because of this delusion that adhesiveness of clay prevents the liquefaction in sand, studies on clayey sands have not been taken seriously. However, several liquefactions happened in clayey sands in recent years, and lead to the necessity of more studies in this field. The studies which were carried out so far focused on high plastic clays. In this paper, the effect of low plasticity clays on the behavioral characteristics of sands is discussed. Thus, some triaxial tests were carried out on clean sands and clayey sands with different percentages of added clay. Specimens were compacted in various densities to study the effect of quantity of clay on various densities, too. Based on the findings, the amount of clay affects the behavior of sand greatly and leads to substantial changes in peak bearing capacity and steady state values.

Keywords: Liquefaction, clay, sand, triaxial, monotonic.

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25 Experimental Determination of Shear Strength Properties of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregates Using Direct Shear and Triaxial Tests

Authors: Mahsa Shafaei Bajestani, Mahmoud Yazdani, Aliakbar Golshani

Abstract:

Artificial lightweight aggregates have a wide range of applications in industry and engineering. Nowadays, the usage of this material in geotechnical activities, especially as backfill in retaining walls has been growing due to the specific characteristics which make it a competent alternative to the conventional geotechnical materials. In practice, a material with lower weight but higher shear strength parameters would be ideal as backfill behind retaining walls because of the important roles that these parameters play in decreasing the overall active lateral earth pressure. In this study, two types of Light Expanded Clay Aggregates (LECA) produced in the Leca factory are investigated. LECA is made in a rotary kiln by heating natural clay at different temperatures up to 1200 °C making quasi-spherical aggregates with different sizes ranged from 0 to 25 mm. The loose bulk density of these aggregates is between 300 and 700 kN/m3. The purpose of this research is to determine the stress-strain behavior, shear strength parameters, and the energy absorption of LECA materials. Direct shear tests were conducted at five normal stresses of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 kPa. In addition, conventional triaxial compression tests were operated at confining pressures of 50, 100, and 200 kPa to examine stress-strain behavior. The experimental results show a high internal angle of friction and even a considerable amount of nominal cohesion despite the granular structure of LECA. These desirable properties along with the intrinsic low density of these aggregates make LECA as a very proper material in geotechnical applications. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that lightweight aggregates may have high energy absorption that is excellent alternative material in seismic isolations.

Keywords: Expanded clay, direct shear test, triaxial test, shear properties, energy absorption.

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24 Model Studies on Shear Behavior of Reinforced Reconstituted Clay

Authors: B. A. Mir, A. Juneja

Abstract:

In this paper, shear behavior of reconstituted clay reinforced with varying diameter of sand compaction piles with area replacement-ratio (as) of 6.25, 10.24, 16, 20.25 and 64% in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay specimens is modeled using consolidated drained and undrained triaxial tests under different confining pressures ranging from 50kPa to 575kPa. The test results show that the stress-strain behavior of the clay was highly influenced by the presence of SCP. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of the clay, resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the unreinforced clay due to increased reinforcement area ratio. In addition, SCP also acts as vertical drain in the clay thus accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressures that are generated during loading by shortening the drainage path and activating radial drainage, thereby reducing post-construction settlement. Thus, sand compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of soft clays.

Keywords: Reconstituted clay, SCP, shear strength, stress-strain response, triaxial tests.

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23 Computer Simulation of Low Volume Roads Made from Recycled Materials

Authors: Aleš Florian, Lenka Ševelová

Abstract:

Low volume roads are widely used all over the world. To improve their quality the computer simulation of their behavior is proposed. The FEM model enables to determine stress and displacement conditions in the pavement and/or also in the particular material layers. Different variants of pavement layers, material used, humidity as well as loading conditions can be studied. Among others, the input information about material properties of individual layers made from recycled materials is crucial for obtaining results as exact as possible. For this purpose the cyclic-load triaxial test machine testing of cyclic-load performance of materials is a promising test method. The test is able to simulate the real traffic loading on particular materials taking into account the changes in the horizontal stress conditions produced in particular layers by crossings of vehicles. Also the test specimen can be prepared with different amount of water. Thus modulus of elasticity (Young modulus) of different materials including recycled ones can be measured under the different conditions of horizontal and vertical stresses as well as under the different humidity conditions. Using the proposed testing procedure the modulus of elasticity of recycled materials used in the newly built low volume road is obtained under different stress and humidity conditions set to standard, dry and fully saturated level. Obtained values of modulus of elasticity are used in FEA.

Keywords: FEA, FEM, geotechnical materials, low volume roads, pavement, triaxial test, Young modulus.

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22 Effect of Fines on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was experimentally examined in the present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities (10, 50, and 90%), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures (100, 150, and 200 kPa). The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (bentonite and slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.  

Keywords: Bentonite, brittleness index, liquefaction, slag.

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21 Curing Time Effect on Behavior of Cement Treated Marine Clay

Authors: H. W. Xiao, F. H. Lee

Abstract:

Cement stabilization has been widely used for improving the strength and stiffness of soft clayey soils. Cement treated soil specimens used to investigate the stress-strain behaviour in the laboratory study are usually cured for 7 days. This paper examines the effects of curing time on the strength and stress strain behaviour of cement treated marine clay under triaxial loading condition. Laboratory-prepared cement treated Singapore marine clay with different mix proportion S-C-W (soil solid-cement solid-water) and curing time (7 days to 180 days) was investigated through conducting unconfined compressive strength test and triaxial test. The results show that the curing time has a significant effect on the unconfined compressive strength u q , isotropic compression behaviour and stress strain behaviour. Although the primary yield loci of the cement treated soil specimens with the same mix proportion expand with curing time, they are very narrowly banded and have nearly the same shape after being normalized by isotropic compression primary stress ' py p . The isotropic compression primary yield stress ' py p was shown to be linearly related to unconfined compressive strength u q for specimens with different curing time and mix proportion. The effect of curing time on the hardening behaviour will diminish with consolidation stress higher than isotropic compression primary yield stress but its damping rate is dependent on the cement content.

Keywords: Cement treated soil, curing time effect, hardening behaviour, isotropic compression primary yield stress, unconfined compressive strength.

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20 Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis of a High Performance Nickel-Based Superalloy

Authors: P. Selva, B. Lorrain, J. Alexis, A. Seror, A. Longuet, C. Mary, F. Denard

Abstract:

Over the past four decades, the fatigue behavior of nickel-based alloys has been widely studied. However, in recent years, significant advances in the fabrication process leading to grain size reduction have been made in order to improve fatigue properties of aircraft turbine discs. Indeed, a change in particle size affects the initiation mode of fatigue cracks as well as the fatigue life of the material. The present study aims to investigate the fatigue behavior of a newly developed nickel-based superalloy under biaxial-planar loading. Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) tests are performed at different stress ratios so as to study the influence of the multiaxial stress state on the fatigue life of the material. Full-field displacement and strain measurements as well as crack initiation detection are obtained using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. The aim of this presentation is first to provide an in-depth description of both the experimental set-up and protocol: the multiaxial testing machine, the specific design of the cruciform specimen and performances of the DIC code are introduced. Second, results for sixteen specimens related to different load ratios are presented. Crack detection, strain amplitude and number of cycles to crack initiation vs. triaxial stress ratio for each loading case are given. Third, from fractographic investigations by scanning electron microscopy it is found that the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation does not depend on the triaxial stress ratio and that most fatigue cracks initiate from subsurface carbides.

Keywords: Cruciform specimen, multiaxial fatigue, Nickelbased superalloy.

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19 Influence of Hydraulic Hysteresis on Effective Stress in Unsaturated Clay

Authors: Anuchit Uchaipichat

Abstract:

A comprehensive program of laboratory testing on a compacted kaolin in a modified triaxial cell was perform to investigate the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on effective stress in unsaturated soils. The test data are presented on a range of constant suction shear tests along wetting and drying paths. The values of effective stress parameter χ at different matric suction were determined using the test results. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis phenomenon on the effective stress was observed. The values of effective stress parameter χ obtained from the experiments were compared with those obtained from the expressions proposed in literature.

Keywords: Unsaturated soils, Hydraulic hysteresis, Effectivestress

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18 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii

Abstract:

In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: Small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand.

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17 Bone Ash Impact on Soil Shear Strength

Authors: G. M. Ayininuola, A. O. Sogunro

Abstract:

Most failures of soil have been attributed to poor shear strength. Consequently, the present paper investigated the suitability of cattle bone ash as a possible additive to improve the shear strength of soils. Four soil samples were collected and stabilized with prepared bone ash in proportions of 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15% and 20% by dry weight. Chemical analyses of the bone ash; followed by classification, compaction, and triaxial shear tests of the treated soil samples were conducted. Results obtained showed that bone ash contained high proportion of calcium oxide and phosphate. Addition of bone ash to soil samples led to increase in soil shear strengths within the range of 22.40% to 105.18% over the strengths of the respective control tests. Conversely, all samples attained maximum shear strengths at 7% bone ash stabilization. The use of bone ash as an additive will therefore improve the shear strength of soils; however, using bone ash quantities in excess of 7% may not yield ample results.

Keywords: Bone ash, Shear strength, Stabilization, Soil.

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16 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Cylindrical Bars with Circumferential Flat-Bottom Groove under Static Tension

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

Using finite element method (FEM), the elastic new strain-concentration factor (SNCF) of cylindrical bars with circumferential flat-bottom groove is studied. This new SNCF has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant groove depth with net section and gross diameters of 10.0 and 16.7 mm, respectively. The length of flatness ao has been varied form 0.0 ~12.5 mm to study the elastic SNCF of this type of geometrical irregularities. The results that the elastic new SNCF rapidly drops from its elastic value of the groove with ao = 0.0, i.e. circumferential U-notch, and reaches minimum value at ao = 2 mm. After that the elastic new SNCF becomes nearly constant with increasing flatness length (ao). The value of tensile load at yielding at the groove root increases with increasing ao. The current results show that severity of the notch decreases with increasing flatness length ao.

Keywords: Bar, groove, strain, tension

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15 Lateral Behavior of Concrete

Authors: Ali Khajeh Samani, Mario M. Attard

Abstract:

Lateral expansion is a factor defining the level of confinement in reinforced concrete columns. Therefore, predicting the lateral strain relationship with axial strain becomes an important issue. Measuring lateral strains in experiments is difficult and only few report experimental lateral strains. Among the existing analytical formulations, two recent models are compared with available test results in this paper with shortcomings highlighted. A new analytical model is proposed here for lateral strain axial strain relationship and is based on the supposition that the concrete behaves linear elastic in the early stages of loading and then nonlinear hardening up to the peak stress and then volumetric expansion. The proposal for the lateral strain axial strain relationship after the peak stress is mainly based on the hypothesis that the plastic lateral strain varies linearly with the plastic axial strain and it is shown that this is related to the lateral confinement level.

Keywords: Confined Concrete, Lateral Strain, Triaxial test, Postpeak behavior

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14 Effects of the Sintering Process on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelain from Ugandan Ceramic Minerals

Authors: Peter W. Olupot, Stefan Jonsson, Joseph K. Byaruhanga

Abstract:

Porcelain specimens were fired at 6C/min to 1250C (dwell time 0.5-3h) and cooled at 6C/min to room temperature. Additionally, three different slower firing/cooling cycles were tried. Sintering profile and effects on MOR, crystalline phase content and morphology were investigated using dilatometry, 4-point bending strength, XRD and FEG-SEM respectively. Industrial-sized specimens prepared using the promising cycle were tested basing on the ANSI standards. Increasing dwell time from 1h to 3h at peak temperature of 1250C resulted in neither a significant effect on the quartz and mullite content nor MOR. Reducing the firing/cooling rate to below 6C/min, for peak temperature of 1250C (dwell time of 1h) does not result in improvement of strength of porcelain. The industrial sized specimen exhibited flashover voltages of 20.3kV (dry) and 9.3kV (wet) respectively, transverse strength of 12.5kN and bulk density of 2.27g/cm3, which are satisfactory. There was however dye penetration during porosity test. KeywordsDwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

Keywords: Dwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

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13 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Notched Bars under Combined Loading of Static Tension and Pure Bending

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

The effect of notch depth on the elastic new strainconcentration factor (SNCF) of rectangular bars with single edge Unotch under combined loading is studied here. The finite element method (FEM) and super position technique are used in the current study. This new SNCF under combined loading of static tension and pure bending has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant gross thickness of 16.7 mm and net section thickness varied to give net-to-gross thickness ratio ho/Ho from 0.2 to 0.95. The results indicated that the elastic SNCF for combined loading increases with increasing notch depth up to ho/Ho = 0.7 and sharply decreases with increasing notch depth. It is also indicated that the elastic SNCF of combined loading is greater than that of pure bending and less than that of the static tension for 0.2 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.7. However, the elastic SNCF of combined loading is the elastic SNCF for static tension and less than that of pure bending for shallow notches (i.e. 0.8 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.95).

Keywords: Bar, notch, strain, tension, bending

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12 Strength Characteristics of Shallow Gassy Sand in the Hangzhou Bay

Authors: Wang Yong, Kong Ling-Wei, Guo Ai-Guo

Abstract:

In view of geological origin, formation of the shallow gas reservoir of the Hangzhou Bay, northern Zhejiang Province, eastern China, and original occurrence characteristics of the gassy sand are analyzed. Generally, gassy sand in scale gas reservoirs is in the state of residual moisture content and the approximate scope of initial matric suction of sand ranges about from 0kPa to100kPa. Results based on GDS triaxial tests show that the classical shear strength formulas of unsaturated soil can not effectively describe basic strength characteristics of gassy sand; the relationship between apparent cohesion and matric suction of gassy sand agrees well with the power function, which can reasonably be used to describe the strength of gassy sand. In the stress path of gas release, shear strength of gassy sand will increase and experimental results show the formula proposed in this paper can effectively predict the strength increment. When saturated strength indexes of the sand are used in engineering design, moderate reduction should be considered.

Keywords: Gassy sand, Gas release, Occurrence characteristics, strength

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11 Soil Stress State under Tractive Tire and Compaction Model

Authors: Prathuang Usaborisut, Dithaporn Thungsotanon

Abstract:

Soil compaction induced by a tractor towing trailer becomes a major problem associated to sugarcane productivity. Soil beneath the tractor’s tire is not only under compressing stress but also shearing stress. Therefore, in order to help to understand such effects on soil, this research aimed to determine stress state in soil and predict compaction of soil under a tractive tire. The octahedral stress ratios under the tires were higher than one and much higher under higher draft forces. Moreover, the ratio was increasing with increase of number of tire’s passage. Soil compaction model was developed using data acquired from triaxial tests. The model was then used to predict soil bulk density under tractive tire. The maximum error was about 4% at 15 cm depth under lower draft force and tended to increase with depth and draft force. At depth of 30 cm and under higher draft force, the maximum error was about 16%.

Keywords: Draft force, soil compaction model, stress state, tractive tire.

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10 The Effect of Confinement Shapes on Over-Reinforced HSC Beams

Authors: Ross Jeffry, Muhammad N. S. Hadi

Abstract:

High strength concrete (HSC) provides high strength but lower ductility than normal strength concrete. This low ductility limits the benefit of using HSC in building safe structures. On the other hand, when designing reinforced concrete beams, designers have to limit the amount of tensile reinforcement to prevent the brittle failure of concrete. Therefore the full potential of the use of steel reinforcement can not be achieved. This paper presents the idea of confining concrete in the compression zone so that the HSC will be in a state of triaxial compression, which leads to improvements in strength and ductility. Five beams made of HSC were cast and tested. The cross section of the beams was 200×300 mm, with a length of 4 m and a clear span of 3.6 m subjected to four-point loading, with emphasis placed on the midspan deflection. The first beam served as a reference beam. The remaining beams had different tensile reinforcement and the confinement shapes were changed to gauge their effectiveness in improving the strength and ductility of the beams. The compressive strength of the concrete was 85 MPa and the tensile strength of the steel was 500 MPa and for the stirrups and helixes was 250 MPa. Results of testing the five beams proved that placing helixes with different diameters as a variable parameter in the compression zone of reinforced concrete beams improve their strength and ductility.

Keywords: Confinement, ductility, high strength concrete, reinforced concrete beam.

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9 A Ring-Shaped Tri-Axial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Beibei Han, Yong-Jin Yoon, Muhammad Hamidullah, Angel Tsu-Hui Lin, Woo-Tae Park

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of a ring-shaped tri-axial fore sensor that can be incorporated into the tip of a guidewire for use in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The designed sensor comprises a ring-shaped structure located at the center of four cantilever beams. The ringdesign allows surgical tools to be easily passed through which largely simplified the integration process. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are used aspiezoresistive sensing elementsembeddedon the four cantilevers of the sensor to detect the resistance change caused by the applied load.An integration scheme with new designed guidewire tip structure having two coils at the distal end is presented. Finite element modeling has been employed in the sensor design to find the maximum stress location in order to put the SiNWs at the high stress regions to obtain maximum output. A maximum applicable force of 5 mN is found from modeling. The interaction mechanism between the designed sensor and a steel wire has been modeled by FEM. A linear relationship between the applied load on the steel wire and the induced stress on the SiNWs were observed.

Keywords: Triaxial MEMS force sensor, Ring shape, Silicon Nanowire, Minimally invasive surgery.

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8 Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Rudsar Sandy Soil Stabilized with Waste Rubber Chips

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

The use of waste rubber chips not only can be of great importance in terms of the environment, but also can be used to increase the shear strength of soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the internal friction angle of liquefiable sandy soil using waste rubber chips. For this purpose, the geotechnical properties of unmodified and modified soil samples by waste lining rubber chips have been evaluated and analyzed by performing the triaxial consolidated drained test. In order to prepare the laboratory specimens, the sandy soil in part of Rudsar shores in Gilan province, north of Iran with high liquefaction potential has been replaced by two percent of waste rubber chips. Samples have been compressed until reaching the two levels of density of 15.5 and 16.7 kN/m3. Also, in order to find the optimal length of chips in sandy soil, the rectangular rubber chips with the widths of 0.5 and 1 cm and the lengths of 0.5, 1, and 2 cm were used. The results showed that the addition of rubber chips to liquefiable sandy soil greatly increases the shear resistance of these soils. Also, it can be seen that decreasing the width and increasing the length-to-width ratio of rubber chips has a direct impact on the shear strength of the modified soil samples with rubber chips.

Keywords: Improvement, shear strength, internal friction angle, sandy soil, rubber chip.

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