Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 341

Search results for: Gold nanoparticles

341 Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Na-Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: F. Ammari, M. Chenouf

Abstract:

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nanoparticles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used Na-montmorillonite for gold nanoparticles stabilization; various gold loading percentage 1, 2 and 5% were used for gold nanoparticles preparation. The gold nanoparticles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nanoparticles stabilized in Na-montmorillonite were used as catalysts for the reduction of 4- nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature. The UV-Vis results confirmed directly the gold nanoparticles formation. The XRD and N2 adsorption results showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the pores of montmorillonite with an average size of 5 nm obtained on samples with 2% gold loading percentage. The gold particles size increased with the increase of gold loading percentage. The reduction reaction of 4- nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au-Namontmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 9 min for 1%Au-Na-montmorillonite and within 3 min for 2%Au-Na-montmorillonite.

Keywords: Chemical reduction, gold, montmorillonite, nanoparticles, 4-nitrophenol.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1892
340 Semiconductor Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Photodegradation of Rhodamine B

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari, Abdulaziz Bagabas

Abstract:

Rhodamine B (RB) is a toxic dye used extensively in textile industry, which must be remediated before its drainage to environment. In the present study, supported gold nanoparticles on commercially available titania and zincite were successfully prepared and then their activity on the photodegradation of RB under UV A light irradiation were evaluated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by ICP, BET, XRD, and TEM. Kinetic results showed that Au/TiO2 was an inferior photocatalyst to Au/ZnO. This observation could be attributed to the strong reflection of UV irradiation by gold nanoparticles over TiO2 support.

Keywords: Supported AuNPs, Semiconductor photocatalyst, Photodegradation, Rhodamine B.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2065
339 Preparation and Characterization of Self Assembled Gold Nanoparticles on Amino Functionalized SiO2 Dielectric Core

Authors: M.E.khosroshahi , M.S.Nourbakhsh

Abstract:

Wet chemistry methods are used to prepare the SiO2/Au nanoshells. The purpose of this research was to synthesize gold coated SiO2 nanoshells for biomedical applications. Tunable nanoshells were prepared by using different colloidal concentrations. The nanoshells are characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FTIR results confirmed the functionalization of the surfaces of silica nanoparticles with NH2 terminal groups. A tunable absorption was observed between 470-600 nm with a maximum range of 530-560 nm. Based on the XRD results three main peaks of Au (111), (200) and (220) were identified. Also AFM results showed that the silica core diameter was about 100 nm and the thickness of gold shell about 10 nm.

Keywords: Gold nanoshells, Synthesis, UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, AFM

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3069
338 The Antibacterial Efficacy of Gold Nanoparticles Derived from Gomphrena celosioides and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) Leaves on Selected Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: M. E. Abalaka, S. Y. Daniyan, S. O. Adeyemo, D. Damisa

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained increasing interest in recent times. This is greatly due to their special features, which include unusual optical and electronic properties, high stability and biological compatibility, controllable morphology and size dispersion, and easy surface functionalization. In typical synthesis, AuNPs were produced by reduction of gold salt AuCl4 in an appropriate solvent. A stabilizing agent was added to prevent the particles from aggregating. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of gold nanoparticles was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas pneumonia using the disk diffusion method in a Müeller–Hinton Agar. The Au-NPs were effective against all bacteria tested. That the Au-NPs were successfully synthesized in suspension and were used to study the antibacterial activity of the two medicinal plants against some bacterial pathogens suggests that Au-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and may be an effective tool in medical field. The study clearly showed that the Au-NPs exhibiting inhibition towards the tested pathogenic bacteria in vitro could have the same effects in vivo and thus may be useful in the medical field if well researched into.

Keywords: Gold Nanoparticles, Gomphrena celesioides, Prunus amygdalus, Pathogens.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3588
337 Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms

Authors: L. Steponavičiūtė, L. Steponavičienė

Abstract:

Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13 nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5 nm size nanoparticles.

Keywords: Ecosystems, ecotoxicology, nanomaterials, nanoparticles.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1274
336 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer

Abstract:

Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2 and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: Bilirubin oxidase, Enzymatic fuel cell, Glucose oxidase, Nanoparticles.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2120
335 A Mathematical Investigation of the Turkevich Organizer Theory in the Citrate Method for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Emmanuel Agunloye, Asterios Gavriilidis, Luca Mazzei

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles are commonly synthesized by reducing chloroauric acid with sodium citrate. This method, referred to as the citrate method, can produce spherical gold nanoparticles (NPs) in the size range 10-150 nm. Gold NPs of this size are useful in many applications. However, the NPs are usually polydisperse and irreproducible. A better understanding of the synthesis mechanisms is thus required. This work thoroughly investigated the only model that describes the synthesis. This model combines mass and population balance equations, describing the NPs synthesis through a sequence of chemical reactions. Chloroauric acid reacts with sodium citrate to form aurous chloride and dicarboxy acetone. The latter organizes aurous chloride in a nucleation step and concurrently degrades into acetone. The unconsumed precursor then grows the formed nuclei. However, depending on the pH, both the precursor and the reducing agent react differently thus affecting the synthesis. In this work, we investigated the model for different conditions of pH, temperature and initial reactant concentrations. To solve the model, we used Parsival, a commercial numerical code, whilst to test it, we considered various conditions studied experimentally by different researchers, for which results are available in the literature. The model poorly predicted the experimental data. We believe that this is because the model does not account for the acid-base properties of both chloroauric acid and sodium citrate.

Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, Citrate method, Turkevich organizer theory, population balance modelling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 781
334 Gold Nanoparticle: Synthesis, Characterization, Clinico-Pathological, Pathological, and Bio-Distribution Studies in Rabbits

Authors: M. M. Bashandy, A. R. Ahmed, M. El-Gaffary, Sahar S. Abd El-Rahman

Abstract:

This study evaluated the acute toxicity and tissue distribution of intravenously administered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in male rabbits. Rabbits were exposed to single dose of AuNPs (300 μg/ kg). Toxic effects were assessed via general behavior, hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathological examination of various rabbits’ organs. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine gold concentrations in tissue samples collected at predetermined time intervals. After one week, AuNPs exerted no obvious acute toxicity in rabbits. However, inflammatory reactions were observed in liver, lungs and kidneys accompanied with mild absolute neutrophilia and significant monocytosis. The highest gold levels were found in the spleen and liver followed by lungs, and kidneys. These results indicated that AuNPs could be distributed extensively to various tissues in the body, but primarily in the spleen and liver.

Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, toxicity, pathology, hematology, liver function, kidney function.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1607
333 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim

Abstract:

In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, plasmonic, plasmon-plasmon interaction, plasmonic photodetector.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 220
332 Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid

Authors: Zhazgul Kelgenbaeva, Emil Omurzak, Saadat Sulaimankulova, Tsutomu Mashimo

Abstract:

Spherical shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) and [email protected] nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Fe electrodes immersed in water with CTAB surfactant and HAuCl4 solution using simple method-pulsed plasma in liquid, without the use of dopants or special conditions for stabilization. Vibrating sample magnetometer indicated ferromagnetic behavior of particles at room temperature with coercivity and saturation magnetization of (Hc=105 Oe, Ms=6.83 emu/g) for Fe3O4 and (Hc=175, Ms=3.56emu/g) for [email protected] nanoparticles. Structure and morphology of nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis and HR-TEM measurements. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was indicated using a XTT assay to be very low (cell viability: 98-89% with Fe3O4 and 99-91% for [email protected] NPs).

Keywords: Magnetite, Gold coated magnetite, Nanoparticles, Pulsed Plasma in Liquid, Cytotoxicity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2164
331 Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Functionalisation for Biomolecular Attachment

Authors: Hendriëtte van der Walt, Lesley Chown, Richard Harris, Ndabenhle Sosibo, Robert Tshikhudo

Abstract:

The use of magnetic and magnetic/gold core/shell nanoparticles in biotechnology or medicine has shown good promise due to their hybrid nature which possesses superior magnetic and optical properties. Some of these potential applications include hyperthermia treatment, bio-separations, diagnostics, drug delivery and toxin removal. Synthesis refinement to control geometric and magnetic/optical properties, and finding functional surfactants for biomolecular attachment, are requirements to meet application specifics. Various high-temperature preparative methods were used for the synthesis of iron oxide and gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Different surface functionalities, such as 11-aminoundecanoic and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, were introduced on the surface of the particles to facilitate further attachment of biomolecular functionality and drug-like molecules. Nanoparticle thermal stability, composition, state of aggregation, size and morphology were investigated and the results from techniques such as Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis are discussed.

Keywords: Core/shell, Iron oxide, Gold coating, Nanoparticles.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2733
330 Profile Controlled Gold Nanostructures Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Xiaodong Zhou, Nan Zhang

Abstract:

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is the coherent oscillation of conductive electrons confined in noble metallic nanoparticles excited by electromagnetic radiation, and nanosphere lithography (NSL) is one of the cost-effective methods to fabricate metal nanostructures for LSPR. NSL can be categorized into two major groups: dispersed NSL and closely pack NSL. In recent years, gold nanocrescents and gold nanoholes with vertical sidewalls fabricated by dispersed NSL, and silver nanotriangles and gold nanocaps on silica nanospheres fabricated by closely pack NSL, have been reported for LSPR biosensing. This paper introduces several novel gold nanostructures fabricated by NSL in LSPR applications, including 3D nanostructures obtained by evaporating gold obliquely on dispersed nanospheres, nanoholes with slant sidewalls, and patchy nanoparticles on closely packed nanospheres, all of which render satisfactory sensitivity for LSPR sensing. Since the LSPR spectrum is very sensitive to the shape of the metal nanostructures, formulas are derived and software is developed for calculating the profiles of the obtainable metal nanostructures by NSL, for different nanosphere masks with different fabrication conditions. The simulated profiles coincide well with the profiles of the fabricated gold nanostructures observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), which proves that the software is a useful tool for the process design of different LSPR nanostructures.

Keywords: Nanosphere lithography, localized surface plasmonresonance, biosensor, simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1676
329 Study of Optical Properties of a Glutathione Capped Gold Nanoparticles Using Linker (MHDA) by Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

Authors: A. Deręgowska, J. Depciuch, R. Wojnarowska, J. Polit, D. Broda, H. Nechai, M. Gonchar, and E. Sheregii

Abstract:

16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) and tripeptide glutathione conjugated with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are characterized by Fourier Transform InfaRared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique based on FTIR spectroscopy has become an important tool in biophysics, which is perspective for the study of organic compounds. FTIR-spectra of MHDA shows the line at 2500 cm-1 attributed to thiol group which is modified by presence of Au-NPs, suggesting the formation of bond between thiol group and gold. We also can observe the peaks originate from characteristic chemical group. A Raman spectrum of the same sample is also promising. Our preliminary experiments confirm that SERS-effect takes place for MHDA connected with Au-NPs and enable us to detected small number (less than 106 cm-2) of MHDA molecules. Combination of spectroscopy methods: FTIR and SERS – enable to study optical properties of Au- NPs and immobilized bio-molecules in context of a bio-nano-sensors.

Keywords: Glutathione; gold nanoparticles, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, MHDA, surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3687
328 Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex

Authors: S. Ashrafpour, T. Tohidi Moghadam, B. Ranjbar

Abstract:

Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 μM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme- AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.

Keywords: Nanocarrier, Nanoparticles, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Quenching Fluorescence.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2275
327 Using Data Mining Methodology to Build the Predictive Model of Gold Passbook Price

Authors: Chien-Hui Yang, Che-Yang Lin, Ya-Chen Hsu

Abstract:

Gold passbook is an investing tool that is especially suitable for investors to do small investment in the solid gold. The gold passbook has the lower risk than other ways investing in gold, but its price is still affected by gold price. However, there are many factors can cause influences on gold price. Therefore, building a model to predict the price of gold passbook can both reduce the risk of investment and increase the benefits. This study investigates the important factors that influence the gold passbook price, and utilize the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) to build the predictive model. This method can not only obtain the significant variables but also perform well in prediction. Finally, the significant variables of gold passbook price, which can be predicted by GMDH, are US dollar exchange rate, international petroleum price, unemployment rate, whole sale price index, rediscount rate, foreign exchange reserves, misery index, prosperity coincident index and industrial index.

Keywords: Gold price, Gold passbook price, Group Method ofData Handling (GMDH), Regression.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2049
326 Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Skin Laser Soldering using Au Coated SiO2 Nanoshells

Authors: M.S.Nourbakhsh, M.E.khosroshahi

Abstract:

Gold coated silica core nanoparticles have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes, allowing nanoshells to be tailored for particular applications. The purposes of this study was to synthesize and use different concentration of gold nanoshells as exogenous material for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentration of gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength σt due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σt of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells, Ns and decreasing Vs. It is therefore important to consider the trade off between the scan velocity and the surface temperature for achieving an optimum operating condition. In our case this corresponds to σt =1610 gr/cm2 at I~ 60 Wcm-2, T ~ 65ºC, Ns =10 and Vs=0.2mms-1.

Keywords: Tissue soldering, Diode laser, Gold Nanoshells, Tensile strength

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1302
325 Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Pavel Kopel, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek

Abstract:

To ensure targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier with encapsulated doxorubicin drug, we used a peptide linker based on a protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies. To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (APODOX) was coated either with gold nanoparticles (APODOX-Nano) or gold(III) chloride hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (APODOX-HAu). The reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin fluorescent properties and probably accompanied with the loss of its biological activity. Fluorescent properties of APODOX-Nano were similar to the unmodified APODOX; therefore it was more suited for the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified with antibodies, ELISA-like method was used with the surface of microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG antibodies). To these wells, the nanocarrier was applied. APODOX without the modification showed 5× lower affinity to the antigen than APODOX-Nano modified gold and targeting antibodies (human IgG antibodies).

Keywords: Antibody targeting, apoferritin, doxorubicin, nanocarrier.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1857
324 Placer Gold Deposits in Madari Gold Mine, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: Orientation, Source and Distribution

Authors: Tarek Sedki

Abstract:

Madari gold mine is delineated by latitudes 22° 30' 29" and 22° 32' 33" N and longitudes 36° 24' 03" and 35°11' 44" E. Geologically, Madari rock units are classified into dismembered ophiolites, arc volcanic assemblage, syntectonic metagabbro-diorites and Mineralized quartz diorite and granodiorite. Deposition of gold in area occurred as a direct result of weathering of nearby gold-bearing veins. Main concentrations of gold are supposed to ensue close to the bed rock. Nevertheless, the several shallow channel-fill features covering lag deposits, arising throughout the alluvial fan sequence would definitely contain a percentage of the finer gold due to the limited washing and sorting capacity of the uncommon flood events. Gold deposits arise as disseminated and separate gold with limited pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite everywhere veins in the wall rocks and lode gold deposits in quartz veins. In places, the wall rocks, in near district of the quartz vein, are grieved strong silicification, chloritization and pyritization as a result of a metasomatic alteration due to purification of external hydrothermal fluids. Quartz veins are mostly steeply dipping and display banding features and frequently sheared and brecciated.

Keywords: Madari gold mine, placer deposits, southern eastern desert, gold mineralization, quartz veins.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 169
323 The Effects of Sodium Chloride in the Formation of Size and Shape of Gold (Au)Nanoparticles by Microwave-Polyol Method for Mercury Adsorption

Authors: Mawarni F. Mohamad, Khairul S.N. Kamarudin, Nik N.F.N.M. Fathilah, Mohamad M. Salleh

Abstract:

Mercury is a natural occurring element and present in various concentrations in the environment. Due to its toxic effects, it is desirable to research mercury sensitive materials to adsorb mercury. This paper describes the preparation of Au nanoparticles for mercury adsorption by using a microwave (MW)-polyol method in the presence of three different Sodium Chloride (NaCl) concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mM). Mixtures of spherical, triangular, octahedral, decahedral particles and 1-D product were obtained using this rapid method. Sizes and shapes was found strongly depend on the concentrations of NaCl. Without NaCl concentration, spherical, triangular plates, octahedral, decahedral nanoparticles and 1D product were produced. At the lower NaCl concentration (10 mM), spherical, octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were present, while spherical and decahedral nanoparticles were preferentially form by using 20 mM of NaCl concentration. Spherical, triangular plates, octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were obtained at the highest NaCl concentration (30 mM). The amount of mercury adsorbed using 20 ppm mercury solution is the highest (67.5 %) for NaCl concentration of 30 mM. The high yield of polygonal particles will increase the mercury adsorption. In addition, the adsorption of mercury is also due to the sizes of the particles. The sizes of particles become smaller with increasing NaCl concentrations (size ranges, 5- 16 nm) than those synthesized without addition of NaCl (size ranges 11-32 nm). It is concluded that NaCl concentrations affects the formation of sizes and shapes of Au nanoparticles thus affects the mercury adsorption.

Keywords: Adsorption, Au Nanoparticles, Mercury, SodiumChloride.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3383
322 Ecotoxicity Evaluation and Suggestion of Remediation Method of ZnO Nanoparticles in Aqueous Phase

Authors: Hyunsang Kim, Younghun Kim, Younghee Kim, Sangku Lee

Abstract:

We investigated ecotoxicity and performed experiment for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. Short term exposure of hatching test using fertilized eggs (O. latipes) showed deformity in 5ppm of ZnO nanoparticles solution. And in 10ppm ZnO nanoparticles solution delayed hatching was observed. Hereine, chemical precipitation method was suggested for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. The precipitated ZnO nanoparticles showed the form of ZnS after addition of Na2S, and the form of Zn3(PO4)2 for Na2HPO4. The removal efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in water was closed to 100% for two cases. In ecotoxicity evaluation of as-precipitated ZnS and Zn3(PO4)2, they did not cause any acute toxicity for D. magna. It is noted that this precipitation treatment of ZnO is effective to reduce the potential cytotoxicity.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, ZnS, Zn3(PO4)2, ecotoxicity evaluation, chemical precipitation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1562
321 Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cancer Detection with MRI

Authors: A. Taqaddas

Abstract:

Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential to overcome many of the shortcomings of the present diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used in cancer diagnosis and treatment. This Literature review discusses the use of Magnetic Nanoparticles focusing mainly on Iron oxide based MNPs in cancer imaging using MRI.

Keywords: Cancer, Imaging, Magnetic Nanoparticles, MRI.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2915
320 Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Hydrophobic Nanosensor for Lysozyme Detection

Authors: F. Yilmaz, Y. Saylan, A. Derazshamshir, S. Atay, A. Denizli

Abstract:

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor was developed to detect lysozyme enzyme by functionalizing its gold surface with the attachment of poly(methacroyl-L-phenylalanine) (PMAPA) nanoparticles. PMAPA was chosen as a hydrophobic matrix. The hydrophobic nanoparticles were synthesized by micro-emulsion polymerization method. Hydrophobic QCM nanosensor was tested for real time detection of lysozyme enzyme from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using lysozyme solutions with different concentrations. The responses related with mass (Δm) and frequency (Δf) shifts were used to evaluate adsorption properties. 

 

Keywords: HIC, lysozyme, nanosensor, QCM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1930
319 Synthesis of Bimetallic Fe/Cu Nanoparticles with Different Copper Loading Ratios

Authors: May Thant Zin, Josephine Borja, Hirofumi Hinode, Winarto Kurniawan

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has multiple and enormous advantages for all application. Therefore, this research is carried out to synthesize and characterize bimetallic iron with copper nanoparticles. After synthesizing nano zero valent iron by reduction of ferric chloride by sodium borohydride under nitrogen purging environment, bimetallic iron with copper nanoparticles are synthesized by varying different loads of copper chloride. Due to different standard potential (E0) values of copper and iron, copper is coupled with iron at (Cu to Fe ratio of 1:5, 1:6.7, 1:10, 1:20). It is found that the resulted bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are composing phases of iron and copper. According to the diffraction patterns indicating the state of chemical combination of the bimetallic nanoparticles, the particles are well-combined and crystalline sizes are less than 1000Ao (or 100nm). Specifically, particle sizes of synthesized bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are ranging from 44.583 nm to 85.149 nm.

Keywords: Bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles, Loading ratio, Synthesis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5248
318 Beijerinckia indica Extracellular Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Clinical Pathogens

Authors: Gopalu Karunakaran, Matheswaran Jagathambal, Nguyen Van Minh, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Denis Kuznetsov

Abstract:

This work investigated the use of Beijerinckia indica extracellular extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by different methods, such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, and TEM analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by the change in color from light yellow to dark brown. The absorbance peak obtained at 430 nm confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The XRD analysis showed the cubic crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR revealed the presence of groups that acts as stabilizing and reducing agents for silver nanoparticles formation. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by TEM analysis. These nanoparticles were found to inhibit pathogenic bacterial strains. This work proved that the bacterial extract is a potential eco-friendly candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with promising antibacterial and antioxidant properties. 

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Beijerinckia indica, characterisation, extracellular extracts, silver nanoparticles.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 812
317 Antifungal Activity of Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Fungus (Phomopsis sp.) in Soybean Seeds

Authors: J. E. Mendes, L.Abrunhosa, J. A. Teixeira, E. R. de Camargo, C. P. de Souza, J. D. C. Pessoa

Abstract:

Among the many promising nanomaterials with antifungal properties, metal nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles) stand out due to their high chemical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Phomopsis sp. AgNPs were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. The synthesized AgNPs have further been characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, Biophysical techniques like Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the prepared silver colloidal nanoparticles was about 52 nm. Absolute inhibitions (100%) were observed on treated with a 270 and 540 µg ml-1 concentration of AgNPs. The results from the study of the AgNPs antifungal effect are significant and suggest that the synthesized silver nanoparticles may have an advantage compared with conventional fungicides.

Keywords: Antifungal activity, Phomopsis sp., Seeds, Silver Nanoparticles, Soybean.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1889
316 Bactericidal Properties of Carbohydrate-Stabilized Platinum Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Saeed Rezaei-Zarchi

Abstract:

Platinum oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple hydrothermal route and chemical reduction using carbohydrates (Fructose and sucrose) as the reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystallite size of these nanoparticles was evaluated from X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and was found to be 10 nm as shown in figure 1, which is the demonstration of EM bright field and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of carbohydrates on the morphology of the nanoparticles was studied using TEM (Figure 1). The nanoparticles (100 μg/ml) were administered to the Pseudomonas Stutzeri and Lactobacillus cultures and the incubation was done at 35 oC for 24 hours. The nanocomposites exhibited interesting inhibitory as well as bactericidal activity against P. Stutzeri and and Lactobacillus species. Incorporation of nanoparticles also increased the thermal stability of the carbohydrates.

Keywords: Platinum oxide, P. Stutzeri, Lactobacillus, bactericidal effect.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1899
315 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: W. Wonsawat

Abstract:

Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: Basil leaves, Silver Nanoparticles, Green Synthesis, Plant Extract.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4283
314 Synthesis of Sterile and Pyrogen Free Biogenic Magnetic Nanoparticles: Biotechnological Potential of Magnetotactic Bacteria for Production of Nanomaterials

Authors: Saeid Ghorbanzadeh-Mashkani, Parisa Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, Ahmad Nozad-Golikand, Rouha Kasra-Kermanshahi, Mohammad-Reza Davarpanah

Abstract:

Today, biogenic magnetite nanoparticles among magnetic nanoparticles have unique attracted attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications in various fields such as therapeutic and diagnostic. A well known example of these biogenic nanoparticles is magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria. In this research, we used two different types of technique for the isolation and purification of magnetosome nanoparticles from the isolated magnetotactic bacterial cells, heat-alkaline treatment and sonication. Also we evaluated pyrogen content and sterility of synthesized the isolated individual magnetosome by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and direct impedimetric method respectively.

Keywords: Biogenic magnetic nanoparticles, Magnetosome, Magnetotactic bacteria, Nanobiotechnology

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2533
313 Size Control of Nanoparticles Using a Microfluidic Device

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Erika Katayama, Mitsuhiro Matsuzawa

Abstract:

We have developed a microfluidic device system for the continuous producting of nanoparticles, and we have clarified the relationship between the mixing performance of reactors and the particle size. First, we evaluated the mixing performance of reactors by carring out the Villermaux–Dushman reaction and determined the experimental conditions for producing AgCl nanoparticles. Next, we produced AgCl nanoparticles and evaluated the mixing performance and the particle size. We found that as the mixing performance improves the size of produced particles decreases and the particle size distribution becomes sharper. We produced AgCl nanoparticles with a size of 86 nm using the microfluidic device that had the best mixing performance among the three reactors we tested in this study; the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the size distribution of the produced nanoparticles was 26.1%.

Keywords: Microfluidic, Mixing, Nanoparticle, Silver Chloride.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2372
312 Microfluidic Plasmonic Bio-Sensing of Exosomes by Using a Gold Nano-Island Platform

Authors: Srinivas Bathini, Duraichelvan Raju, Simona Badilescu, Muthukumaran Packirisamy

Abstract:

A bio-sensing method, based on the plasmonic property of gold nano-islands, has been developed for detection of exosomes in a clinical setting. The position of the gold plasmon band in the UV-Visible spectrum depends on the size and shape of gold nanoparticles as well as on the surrounding environment. By adsorbing various chemical entities, or binding them, the gold plasmon band will shift toward longer wavelengths and the shift is proportional to the concentration. Exosomes transport cargoes of molecules and genetic materials to proximal and distal cells. Presently, the standard method for their isolation and quantification from body fluids is by ultracentrifugation, not a practical method to be implemented in a clinical setting. Thus, a versatile and cutting-edge platform is required to selectively detect and isolate exosomes for further analysis at clinical level. The new sensing protocol, instead of antibodies, makes use of a specially synthesized polypeptide (Vn96), to capture and quantify the exosomes from different media, by binding the heat shock proteins from exosomes. The protocol has been established and optimized by using a glass substrate, in order to facilitate the next stage, namely the transfer of the protocol to a microfluidic environment. After each step of the protocol, the UV-Vis spectrum was recorded and the position of gold Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) band was measured. The sensing process was modelled, taking into account the characteristics of the nano-island structure, prepared by thermal convection and annealing. The optimal molar ratios of the most important chemical entities, involved in the detection of exosomes were calculated as well. Indeed, it was found that the results of the sensing process depend on the two major steps: the molar ratios of streptavidin to biotin-PEG-Vn96 and, the final step, the capture of exosomes by the biotin-PEG-Vn96 complex. The microfluidic device designed for sensing of exosomes consists of a glass substrate, sealed by a PDMS layer that contains the channel and a collecting chamber. In the device, the solutions of linker, cross-linker, etc., are pumped over the gold nano-islands and an Ocean Optics spectrometer is used to measure the position of the Au plasmon band at each step of the sensing. The experiments have shown that the shift of the Au LSPR band is proportional to the concentration of exosomes and, thereby, exosomes can be accurately quantified. An important advantage of the method is the ability to discriminate between exosomes having different origins.

Keywords: Exosomes, gold nano-islands, microfluidics, plasmonic biosensing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 682