Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32302
The Comparation of Limits of Detection of Lateral Flow Immunochromatographic Strips of Different Types of Mycotoxins

Authors: X. Zhao, F. Tian


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolic products of fungi. These are poisonous, carcinogens and mutagens in nature and pose a serious health threat to both humans and animals, causing severe illnesses and even deaths. The rapid, simple and cheap detection methods of mycotoxins are of immense importance and in great demand in the food and beverage industry as well as in agriculture and environmental monitoring. Lateral flow immunochromatographic strips (ICSTs) have been widely used in food safety, environment monitoring. 46 papers were identified and reviewed on Google Scholar and Scopus for their limit of detection and nanomaterial on Lateral flow ICSTs on different types of mycotoxins. The papers were dated 2001-2021. 25 papers were compared to identify the lowest limit of detection of among different mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1: 10, Zearalenone: 5, Fumonisin B1: 5, Trichothecene-A: 5). Most of these highly sensitive strips are competitive. Sandwich structures are usually used in large scale detection. In conclusion, the limit of detection of Aflatoxin B1 is the lowest among these mycotoxins. Gold-nanoparticle based immunochromatographic test strips have the lowest limit of detection. Five papers involve smartphone detection and they all detect aflatoxin B1 with gold nanoparticles.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, limit of detection, gold nanoparticle, lateral flow immunochromatographic strips, mycotoxins, smartphone.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 256


[1] B. S. Delmulle, S. M. De Saeger, L. Sibanda, I. Barna-Vetro, and V. Peteghem, Development of an immunoassay-based lateral flow dipstick for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 in pig feed,” J Agric Food Chem, vol. 53, pp. 3364-3368, May 2005.
[2] A. Borzekowski, R. Anggriawan, M. Auliyati, H.J. Kunte, M. Koch, S. Rohn, P. Karlovsky, and R. Maul, “Formation of Zearalenone Metabolites in Tempeh Fermentation,” Molecules, vol. 24, 2697, July 2019.
[3] A. Rogowska, P. Pomastowski; G. Sagandykova; and B. Buszewski, “Zearalenone and its metabolites: Effect on human health, metabolism and neutralisation methods,” Toxicon, vol. 162, pp. 46-56, April 2019.
[4] R. Krska and A. Molinelli, “Rapid test strips for analysis of mycotoxins in food and feed,” Anal Bioanal Chem, vol. 393, pp. 67–71, Oct. 2009.
[5] O. A. Cornely, "Aspergillus to Zygomycetes: Causes, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment of Invasive Fungal Infections,” Infection, vol. 36, pp. 296-313, July 2008.
[6] L. Perincherry, J. Lalak-Kanczugowska and L. Stepien, “Fusarium-Produced Mycotoxins in Plant-Pathogen Interactions,” Toxins, vol. 11, p. 664, Nov. 2019.
[7] S. Yu, B. Jia, N. Liu, D. Yu and A. Wu, “Evaluation of the Individual and Combined Toxicity of Fumonisin Mycotoxins in Human Gastric,” Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 21, p. 5917, Aug. 2020.
[8] M. Adhikari, B. Negi, N. Kaushik, A. Adhikari, A. A. Al-Khedhairy, N. K. Kaushik, and E. H. Choi, “T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 20, pp: 33933-33952, Feb. 2017.
[9] A. E. Urusov, A. V. Petrakova, M. K. Gubaydullina, A, V. Zherdev, S. A. Eremin, D. Kong, L. Liu, C. Xu, and B. B. Dzantiev, “High-sensitivity immunochromatographic assay for fumonisin B1 based on indirect antibody labelling”, Biotechnol Lett., vol. 39, pp. 751–758, Feb. 2017.
[10] X. Li, P. Li, Q. Zhang, R. Li, W. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. Ding, and X. Tang, “Multi-component immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of aflatoxin B 1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in agro-food”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 49, pp. 426-432, May 2013.
[11] European Commission Regulation No 1881/2006 of 17 August 2006 on the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 and fumonisins in products intended for animal feeding. Off. J. L., vol. 364: pp. 5–24, Aug. 2006.
[12] European Commission. Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC of 17 August 2006 on the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 and fumonisins in products intended for animal feeding. Off. J. L., vol. 229, pp. 7–9, Aug. 2006.
[13] J. Liu and T. Applegate, "Zearalenone (ZEN) in Livestock and Poultry: Dose, Toxicokinetics, Toxicity and Estrogenicity", Toxins, 12, 377, June, 2020.
[14] T. Bertuzzi, M. C. Leggieri, P. Battilani and A. Pietri, "Co-occurrence of type A and B trichothecenes and zearalenone in wheat grown in northern Italy over the years 2009–2011", Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 273–281, May 2014.
[15] D. C. Tan, G. R. Flematti, E. L. Ghisalberti, K. Sivasithamparam, S. Chakraborty, F. Obanor, and M. J. Barbetti, "Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species associated with annual legume pastures and ‘sheep feed refusal disorders’ in Western Australia", Mycotox. Res, vol. 27, pp. 123–135, Jan. 2011.
[16] "National Strategy for Women and Girls 2017-2020: creating a better society for all", Department of Justice and Equality, Apr. 2017.
[17] M. Sajid, A. Kawde, and M. Daud, "Designs, formats and applications of lateral flow assay: A literature review”, Journal of Saudi Chemical Societym, vol. 19, pp. 689-705, Jan.2015.
[18] P. Sanguansri, and M. A. "Augustin, Nanoscale materials development-a food industry perspective", Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 17 pp. 547-556, May 2006.
[19] J. Xie, X.Zhao, S. Sun, and S. Song, "Effect of shell phase composition on the dielectric property and energy density of core-shell structured BaTiO3 particles modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites", J Appl Polym Sci., vol. 138, pp. e50486. May 2021.
[20] W. Shim, M. J. Kim, H. Mun, and M. Kim, "An aptamer-based dipstick assay for the rapid and simple detection of aflatoxin B1 ", Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 62, pp. 288-294, July 2014.
[21] W. Lu, K. Wang, K.Xiao, W. Qin, Y. Hou, H.Xu, X. Yan, Y. Chen, D. Cui, and J. He, "Dual immunomagnetic nanobeads-based lateral flow test strip for simultaneous quantitative detection of carcinoembryonic antigen and neuron specific enolase", Scientific Reports, vol. 7, pp. 42414, Feb. 2017.
[22] B. Ngom, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and D. Bi, "Development and application of lateral flow test strip technology for detection of infectious agents and chemical contaminants: a review ", Anal Bioanal Chem, vol. 397, pp. 1113–1135, Apr. 2010.
[23] Sojinrin, K. Liu, K. Wang, D. Cui, H. J. Byrne, J. F. Curtin and F. Tian, “Developing Gold Nanoparticles-Conjugated Aflatoxin B1 Antifungal Strips”, Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 20, pp. 6260, Dec. 2019.
[24] Y. Ji, M. Ren, Y. Li, Z. Huang, M. Shu, H. Yang, Y. Xiong, and Y. Xu,” Detection of aflatoxin B 1 with immunochromatographic test strips: Enhanced signal sensitivity using gold nanoflowers”, Talanta, vol. 142 pp. 206-212, Apr. 2015.
[25] A. E. Urusov, A. V. Zherdev, and B. B. Dzantiev, “Use of gold nanoparticle-labeled secondary antibodies to improve the sensitivity of an immunochromatographic assay for aflatoxin B1”, Microchim Acta, vol. 181, pp. 1939–1946, Nov. 2014.
[26] F. D. Nardo, E. Alladio, C. Baggiani, S. Cavalera, C. Giovannoli, G. Spano, and L. Anfossi, “Colour-encoded lateral flow immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of aflatoxin B1 and type-B fumonisins in a single Test line”, Talanta, vol. 192, pp. 288–294, Jan. 2019.
[27] X. Sun, X. Zhao, J. Tang, X. Gu, J. Zhou and F.S. Chu, “Development of an immunochromatographic assay for detection of aflatoxin B1 in foods”, Food Control, vol. 17, pp. 256–262, Jan. 2006.
[28] T. Sergeyeva, D. Yarynka, E. Piletska, R. Linnik, O. Zaporozhets, O. Brovko, S. Piletsky and A. Elskaya, “Development of a smartphone-based biomimetic sensor for aflatoxin B1 detection using molecularly imprinted polymer membranes”, Talanta, vol. 201, pp. 204–210, Apr. 2019.
[29] Z. Pan, “Detection Technology of Aflatoxin Content Based on Smart Phone”, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 440, pp. 022049, July 2020.
[30] S. Lee, G. Kim, and J. Moon, “Performance Improvement of the One-Dot Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Aflatoxin B1 by Using a Smartphone-Based Reading System”, Sensors, vol. 13, pp. 5109-5116, Apr. 2013.
[31] X. Wang, R. Niessner, and D. Knopp, “Controlled growth of immunogold for amplified optical detection of aflatoxin B1”, Analyst, vol. 140, pp. 1453, Jan.2015.
[32] L. M. Kawashima, A. P. Vieira, and L. M. Valente-Soares, “Fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A in beers made in Brazil”, Cienc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, vol. 27, pp. 317-323, June 2007.
[33] Z, Wang, H. Li, C. Li, Q. Yu, J. Shen, and S. D. Saeger, “Development and Application of a Quantitative Fluorescence-Based Immunochromatographic Assay for Fumonisin B 1 in Maize”, J. Agric. Food Chem. vol. 62, pp. 6294−6298, Aug. 2014.
[34] A. E. Urusov, A. V. Petrakova, M. K. Gubaydullina, A, V. Zherdev, S. A. Eremin, D. Kong, L. Liu, C. Xu, and B. B. Dzantiev, “High-sensitivity immunochromatographic assay for fumonisin B1 based on indirect antibody labelling”, Biotechnol Lett., vol. 39, pp. 751–758, Feb. 2017.
[35] W. Ren, Y. Xu, Z. Huang, Y. La, Z. Tua, L. Zou, Q. He, J. Fu, S. Liu, and B. D. Hammock, “Single-chain variable fragment antibody-based immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of fumonisin B1 in maize samples”, Food Chemistry, vol. 319, pp. 126546, Mar. 2020.
[36] M. Venkataramana, K. Navya, S. Chandranayaka, S. R. Priyanka, H. S. Murali, and H. V. Batra, “Development and validation of an immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of fumonisin B1 from cereal samples” J Food Sci Technol, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1920–1928, Sep. 2014.
[37] X. Tang, P. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhang, W. Zhang, and J. Jiang, "Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunochromatographic Assay Developed Using Two Idiotypic Nanobodies for Rapid, Quantitative, and Simultaneous Detection of Aflatoxin and Zearalenone in Maize and Its Products", Anal. Chem. vol. 89, pp. 11520-11528, Sep. 2017,
[38] X. Hong, Y. Mao, C. Yang, Z. Liu, M. Li and D. Du, "Contamination of Zearalenone from China in 2019 by a Visual and Digitized Immunochromatographic Assay", Toxins, vol. 12, pp. 52, Aug. 2020.
[39] D. Wang, Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Yu, H. Li, J. Jiang and P. Li, "Rapid and sensitive double-label based immunochromatographic assay for zearalenone detection in cereals", Electrophoresis, vol. 39, pp. 2125–2130. June 2018,
[40] X. Zhang, K. He, Y. Fang, T. Cao, N. Paudyal, X. Zhang, H. Song, X. Li, and W. Fang, "Dual flow immunochromatographic assay for rapid and simultaneous quantitative detection of ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn, wheat, and feed samples", J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol), vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 871-883, Oct. 2018.
[41] Y. Sun, G. Xing, J. Yang, F. Wang, R. Deng, G. Zhang, X. Hu, and Y. Zhang, "Development of an immunochromatographic test strip for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative detection of ochratoxin A and zearalenone in cereal", J Sci Food Agric, vol. 96, pp. 3673–3678, Jan. 2016.
[42] Z. Qie, J. Shi, W. Yan, Z. Gao, W. Meng, R. Xiao and S. Wang Immunochromatographic assay for T-2 toxin based on luminescent quantum dot beads", RSC Adv., vol. 9, pp. 38697–38702, Nov. 2019.
[43] A. E. Urusov, A. V. Petrakova, A. V. Bartosh, M. K. Gubaydullina, A. V. Zherdev, and B. B. Dzantiev, "Immunochromatographic Assay of T-2 Toxin using Labeled Anti-Species Antibodies", Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 594–599, Apr. 2017.
[44] A. V. Petrakovaa, A. E. Urusova, M. V. Voznyakb, A. V. Zherdeva, and B. B. Dzantiev, "Immunochromatographic test system for the detection of T-2 toxin", Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 688–694, June 2015.
[45] X. Zhang, X. Yu, K. Wen, C. Li, G. M. Mari, H. Jiang, W. Shi, J. Shen, and Z. Wang, "Multiplex Lateral Flow Immunoassays Based on Amorphous Carbon Nanoparticles for Detecting Three Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize", J. Agric. Food Chem, vol. 65, pp. 8063−8071, Aug. 2017,
[46] A. V. Petrakova, A. E. Urusov, A. V. Zherdev, B. B. Dzantiev, "Gold nanoparticles of different shape for bicolor lateral flow test", Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 568, pp. 7–13, Dec. 2018.