Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Mercury

28 Tests and Comparison of Two Mobile Industrial Analytical Systems for Mercury Speciation in Flue Gas

Authors: Karel Borovec, Jerzy Gorecki, Tadeas Ochodek

Abstract:

Combustion of solid fuels is one of the main sources of mercury in the environment. To reduce the amount of mercury emitted to the atmosphere, it is necessary to modify or optimize old purification technologies or introduce the new ones. Effective reduction of mercury level in the flue gas requires the use of speciation systems for mercury form determination. This paper describes tests and provides comparison of two industrial portable and continuous systems for mercury speciation in the flue gas: Durag HM-1400 TRX with a speciation module and the Portable Continuous Mercury Speciation System based on the SGM-8 mercury speciation set, made by Nippon Instruments Corporation. Additionally, the paper describes a few analytical problems that were encountered during a two-year period of using the systems.

Keywords: Mercury determination, speciation, continuous measurement, flue gas.

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27 Mercury Removal Techniques for Industrial Waste Water

Authors: Amir Shafeeq, Ayyaz Muhammad, Waqas Sarfraz, Ali Toqeer, Shazib Rashid, M. K. Rafiq

Abstract:

The current work focuses on rephrasing the harmful effects of mercury that is being released from a number of sources. Most of the sources are from the industrial waste water. Different techniques of mercury removal have been discussed and a brief comparison among these has been made. The experimental work has been conducted for two most widely used methods of mercury removal and comparison in terms of their efficiency has been made.

Keywords: Mercury, Waste Water, Adsorption.

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26 Mercury Removal Using Pseudomonas putida (ATTC 49128): Effect of Acclimatization Time, Speed and Temperature of Incubator Shaker

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, R. M. Yunus, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, K. Sabar

Abstract:

Microbes have been used to solve environmental problems for many years. The role of microorganism to sequester, precipitate or alter the oxidation state of various heavy metals has been extensively studied. Treatment using microorganism interacts with toxic metal are very diverse. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using Pseudomonas putida (P. putida), pure culture ATTC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as techniques of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator shaker. Thus, in this study, the optimum growth parameters of P. putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Based on the optimum parameters of P. putida for specific growth rate, the removal of two different mercury concentration, 1 ppm and 4 ppm were studied. From mercury nitrate solution, a mercuryresistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce from ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to reduce ionic mercury. The overall levels of mercury removal in this study were between 80% and 89%. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental for understanding of the survival of P. putida ATTC 49128 in mercury solution. Thus, microbial mercury removal is a potential bioremediation for wastewater especially in petrochemical industries in Malaysia.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, growth kinetic, biosorption, mercury, petrochemical wastewater.

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25 Mercury Content in Edible Part of Otolithes Ruber Marketed in Hamedan, Iran

Authors: L. Tayebi, S. Sobhanardakani, A. Farmany, M. Cheraghi

Abstract:

In this research the level of mercury is analyzed in muscle tissue of Otolithes ruber retailed in Hamedan, Iran were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion. Analysis of mercury was carried out by spectrophotometrically. The average concentration of Hg in muscle tissue of Otolithes ruber was 0.030±0.026 -g/g so lower than to compare with the Maximum Allowable Concentration determined by FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Keywords: mercury, Otolithes ruber, edible part, Hamedan

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24 The Effects of Sodium Chloride in the Formation of Size and Shape of Gold (Au)Nanoparticles by Microwave-Polyol Method for Mercury Adsorption

Authors: Mawarni F. Mohamad, Khairul S.N. Kamarudin, Nik N.F.N.M. Fathilah, Mohamad M. Salleh

Abstract:

Mercury is a natural occurring element and present in various concentrations in the environment. Due to its toxic effects, it is desirable to research mercury sensitive materials to adsorb mercury. This paper describes the preparation of Au nanoparticles for mercury adsorption by using a microwave (MW)-polyol method in the presence of three different Sodium Chloride (NaCl) concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mM). Mixtures of spherical, triangular, octahedral, decahedral particles and 1-D product were obtained using this rapid method. Sizes and shapes was found strongly depend on the concentrations of NaCl. Without NaCl concentration, spherical, triangular plates, octahedral, decahedral nanoparticles and 1D product were produced. At the lower NaCl concentration (10 mM), spherical, octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were present, while spherical and decahedral nanoparticles were preferentially form by using 20 mM of NaCl concentration. Spherical, triangular plates, octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were obtained at the highest NaCl concentration (30 mM). The amount of mercury adsorbed using 20 ppm mercury solution is the highest (67.5 %) for NaCl concentration of 30 mM. The high yield of polygonal particles will increase the mercury adsorption. In addition, the adsorption of mercury is also due to the sizes of the particles. The sizes of particles become smaller with increasing NaCl concentrations (size ranges, 5- 16 nm) than those synthesized without addition of NaCl (size ranges 11-32 nm). It is concluded that NaCl concentrations affects the formation of sizes and shapes of Au nanoparticles thus affects the mercury adsorption.

Keywords: Adsorption, Au Nanoparticles, Mercury, SodiumChloride.

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23 Removal of Elemental Mercury from Dry Methane Gas with Manganese Oxides

Authors: Junya Takenami, Md. Azhar Uddin, Eiji Sasaoka, Yasushi Shioya, Tsuneyoshi Takase

Abstract:

In this study, we sought to investigate the mercury removal efficiency of manganese oxides from natural gas. The fundamental studies on mercury removal with manganese oxides sorbents were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 30 °C with a mixture of methane (20%) and nitrogen gas laden with 4.8 ppb of elemental mercury. Manganese oxides with varying surface area and crystalline phase were prepared by conventional precipitation method in this study. The effects of surface area, crystallinity and other metal oxides on mercury removal efficiency were investigated. Effect of Ag impregnation on mercury removal efficiency was also investigated. Ag supported on metal oxide such titania and zirconia as reference materials were also used in this study for comparison. The characteristics of mercury removal reaction with manganese oxide was investigated using a temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique. Manganese oxides showed very high Hg removal activity (about 73-93% Hg removal) for first time use. Surface area of the manganese oxide samples decreased after heat-treatment and resulted in complete loss of Hg removal ability for repeated use after Hg desorption in the case of amorphous MnO2, and 75% loss of the initial Hg removal activity for the crystalline MnO2. Mercury desorption efficiency of crystalline MnO2 was very low (37%) for first time use and high (98%) after second time use. Residual potassium content in MnO2 may have some effect on the thermal stability of the adsorbed Hg species. Desorption of Hg from manganese oxides occurs at much higher temperatures (with a peak at 400 °C) than Ag/TiO2 or Ag/ZrO2. Mercury may be captured on manganese oxides in the form of mercury manganese oxide.

Keywords: Mercury removal, Metal and metal oxide sorbents, Methane, Natural gas.

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22 Effect of Ionic Strength on Mercury Adsorption on Contaminated Soil

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, E. Tassi, F. Gorini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Barbafieri

Abstract:

Mercury adsorption on soil was investigated at different ionic strengths using Ca(NO3)2 as a background electrolyte. Results fitted the Langmuir equation and the adsorption isotherms reached a plateau at higher equilibrium concentrations. Increasing ionic strength decreased the sorption of mercury, due to the competition of Ca ions for the sorption sites in the soils. The influence of ionic strength was related to the mechanisms of heavy metal sorption by the soil. These results can be of practical importance both in the agriculture and contaminated soils since the solubility of mercury in soils are strictly dependent on the adsorption and release process.

Keywords: Heavy metals, bioavailability, remediation, competitive sorption.

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21 Assessing Storage of Stability and Mercury Reduction of Freeze-Dried Pseudomonas putida within Different Types of Lyoprotectant

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, Y. Nuratri, A. B. Bustary, F. A. M. Azli, S. C. Sayuti

Abstract:

Pseudomonas putida is a potential strain in biological treatment to remove mercury contained in the effluent of petrochemical industry due to its mercury reductase enzyme that able to reduce ionic mercury to elementary mercury. Freeze-dried P. putida allows easy, inexpensive shipping, handling and high stability of the product. This study was aimed to freeze dry P. putida cells with addition of lyoprotectant. Lyoprotectant was added into the cells suspension prior to freezing. Dried P. putida obtained was then mixed with synthetic mercury. Viability of recovery P. putida after freeze dry was significantly influenced by the type of lyoprotectant. Among the lyoprotectants, tween 80/ sucrose was found to be the best lyoprotectant. Sucrose able to recover more than 78% (6.2E+09 CFU/ml) of the original cells (7.90E+09CFU/ml) after freeze dry and able to retain 5.40E+05 viable cells after 4 weeks storage in 4oC without vacuum. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) pre-treated freeze dry cells and broth pre-treated freeze dry cells after freeze-dry recovered more than 64% (5.0 E+09CFU/ml) and >0.1% (5.60E+07CFU/ml). Freeze-dried P. putida cells in PEG and broth cannot survive after 4 weeks storage. Freeze dry also does not really change the pattern of growth P. putida but extension of lag time was found 1 hour after 3 weeks of storage. Additional time was required for freeze-dried P. putida cells to recover before introduce freeze-dried cells to more complicated condition such as mercury solution. The maximum mercury reduction of PEG pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks was 56.78% and 17.91%. The maximum of mercury reduction of tween 80/sucrose pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks were 26.35% and 25.03%. Freeze dried P. putida was found to have lower mercury reduction compare to the fresh P. putida that has been growth in agar. Result from this study may be beneficial and useful as initial reference before commercialize freeze-dried P. putida.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, freeze-dry, PEG, Tween80/Sucrose, mercury, cell viability.

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20 Mercury Removing Capacity of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes as Detected by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Kinetic & Equilibrium Studies

Authors: Yasser M. Moustafa, Rania E. Morsi, Mohammed Fathy

Abstract:

Multiwall carbon nanotubes, prepared by chemical vapor deposition, have an average diameter of 60-100 nm as shown by High Resolution Transmittance Electron Microscope, HR-TEM. The Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were further characterized using X-ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. Mercury uptake capacity of MWCNTs was studied using batch adsorption method at different concentration ranges up to 150 ppm. Mercury concentration (before and after the treatment) was measured using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of time, concentration, pH and adsorbent dose were studied. MWCNT were found to perform complete absorption in the sub-ppm concentrations (parts per billion levels) while for high concentrations, the adsorption efficiency was 92% at the optimum conditions; 0.1 g of the adsorbent at 150 ppm mercury (II) solution. The adsorption of mercury on MWCNTs was found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Hydride System, Mercury Removing, Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

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19 Selective Separation of Lead and Mercury Ions from Synthetic Produced Water via a Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane

Authors: S. Suren, U. Pancharoen

Abstract:

A double module hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was applied to selectively separate lead and mercury ions from dilute synthetic produced water. The experiments were investigated on several variables: types of extractants (D2EHPA, Cyanex 471, Aliquat 336, and TOA), concentration of the selected extractant and operating time. The results clearly showed that the double module HFSLM could selectively separate Pb(II) and Hg(II) in feed solution at a very low concentration to less than the regulatory discharge limit of 0.2 and 0.005 mg/L issued by the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Natural Resource Environment, Thailand. The highest extractions of lead and mercury ions from synthetic produced water were 96% and 100% using 0.03 M D2EHPA and 0.06 M Aliquat 336 as the extractant for the first and second modules.

Keywords: Hollow fiber, Lead ions, Liquid membrane, Mercury ions, Selective separation

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18 Mercury and Selenium Levels in Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Fished in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Republic of Seychelles

Authors: Stephanie Hollanda, Nathalie Bodin, Carine Churlaud, Paco Bustamante

Abstract:

Total mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and Hg-Se ratios were analyzed in the white muscle, liver and gonads of swordfish, in order to compare concentration between the different tissues and sex, and also the effect of size (fork length). The results show significant difference between tissue types, with the liver having the highest concentration of both Hg and Se. Positive significant correlations between moles of Hg and Se were obtained in the liver and white muscle, but no relationship was obtained in the gonads. No difference in the concentration of Hg and Se was obtained between the sexes in the tissue types, except for Hg in the gonads, which were found to be higher in males. Significant negative relationships were obtained when the Hg-Se ratio was plotted against fork length in all three tissue types.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation, large pelagic fish, mercury, selenium, Western Indian Ocean.

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17 Impregnation of Cupper into Kanuma Volcanic Ash Soil to Improve Mercury Sorption Capacity

Authors: Jatindra N. Bhakta, Yukihiro Munekage

Abstract:

The present study attempted to improve the Mercury (Hg) sorption capacity of kanuma volcanic ash soil (KVAS) by impregnating the cupper (Cu). Impregnation was executed by 1 and 5% Cu powder and sorption characterization of optimum Hg removing Cu impregnated KVAS was performed under different operational conditions, contact time, solution pH, sorbent dosage and Hg concentration using the batch operation studies. The 1% Cu impregnated KVAS pronounced optimum improvement (79%) in removing Hg from water compare to control. The present investigation determined the equilibrium state of maximum Hg adsorption at 6 h contact period. The adsorption revealed a pH dependent response and pH 3.5 showed maximum sorption capacity of Hg. Freundlich isotherm model is well fitted with the experimental data than that of Langmuir isotherm. It can be concluded that the Cu impregnation improves the Hg sorption capacity of KVAS and 1% Cu impregnated KVAS could be employed as cost-effective adsorbent media for treating Hg contaminated water.

Keywords: Cupper, impregnation, isotherm, kanuma volcanic ash soil, mercury, sorption

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16 Quasi-ballistic Transport in Submicron Hg0.8Cd0.2Te Diodes: Hydrodynamic Modeling

Authors: M. Daoudi, A. Belghachi, L. Varani

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the problem of quasiballistic electron transport in ultra small of mercury -cadmiumtelluride (Hg0.8Cd0.2Te -MCT) n+-n- n+ devices from hydrodynamic point view. From our study, we note that, when the size of the active layer is low than 0.1μm and for low bias application( ( ≥ 9mV), the quasi-ballistic transport has an important effect.

Keywords: Hg0.8Cd0.2Te semiconductor, Hydrodynamicmode, Quasi-ballistic transport, Submicron diode

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15 Functionalized Nanoparticles as Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Species

Authors: Jerina Majeed, Jayshree Ramkumar, S. Chandramouleeswaran, A. K. Tyagi

Abstract:

Removal of various toxic species from aqueous streams is of great importance. Sorption is one of the important remediation procedures as it involves the use of cheap and easily available materials. Also the advantage of regeneration of the sorbent involves the possibility of using novel sorbents. Nanosorbents are very important as the removal is based on the surface phenomena and this is greatly affected by surface charge and area. Functionalization has been very important to bring about the removal of metal ions with greater selectivity.

Keywords: Mercury, lead, thiol functionalization, ZnO NPs.

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14 The Influence of Organic Waste on Vegetable Nutritional Components and Healthy Livelihood, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Abdulkadir, A. A. Okhimamhe, Y. M. Bello, H. Ibrahim, D. H. Makun, M. T. Usman

Abstract:

Household waste form a larger proportion of waste generated across the state, accumulation of organic waste is an apparent problem and the existing dump sites could be overstress. Niger state has abundant arable land and water resources thus should be one of the highest producers of agricultural crops in the country. However, the major challenge to agricultural sector today is loss of soil nutrient coupled with high cost of fertilizer. These have continued to increase the use of fertilizer and decomposed solid waste for enhance agricultural yield, which have varying effects on the soil as well a threat to human livelihood. Consequently, vegetable yield samples from poultry droppings, decomposed household waste manure, NPK treatments and control from each replication were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the nutritional and antinutritional component as well as heavy metal concentration. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS software and Randomized complete Block Design means were compared. The result shows that the treatments do not devoid the concentrations of any nutritional components while the anti-nutritional analysis proved that NPK had higher oxalate content than control and organic treats. The concentration of lead and cadmium are within safe permissible level while the mercury level exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum permissible limit for the entire treatments depicts the need for urgent intervention to minimize mercury levels in soil and manure in order to mitigate its toxic effect. Thus, eco-agriculture should be widely accepted and promoted by the stakeholders for soil amendment, higher yield, strategies for sustainable environmental protection, food security, poverty eradication, attainment of sustainable development and healthy livelihood.

Keywords: Anti-nutritional, healthy livelihood, nutritional waste, organic waste.

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13 The Study of Fabricating the Field Emission Lamps with Carbon nano-Materials

Authors: K. J. Chung, C.C.Chiang, Y.M. Liu, N. W. Pu, M. D. Ger

Abstract:

Fabrication and efficiency enhancement of non-mercury, high efficiency and green field emission lamps using carbon nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes as cathode field emitters was studied. Phosphor was coated on the ITO glass or metal substrates as the anode. The luminescence efficiency enhancement was carried out by upgrading the uniform of the emitters, improving electron and thermal conductivity of the phosphor and the optimization of the design of different cathode/anode configurations. After evaluation of the aforementioned parameters, the luminescence efficiency of the field emission lamps was raised.

Keywords: Field emission lamps, carbon nano-materials, luminescence efficiency

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12 Study of Soil Contaminated with Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead in Ancient Tailings in Zacatecas, México

Authors: J. Ramírez-Ortiz, J. Núñez Monreal

Abstract:

Due to the growth of the urban area towards lands contaminated with ancient tails, in this work we evaluated if the leaching with calcium thiosulfate (CaS2O3) for the recovery of silver, gold and mercury from this soil, also dissolves arsenic, cadmium and lead; for this, we determined their quantity per each fraction of size of particle of the soil before and after the dissolution. Half of the soil samples were leached in the plant Beneficiadora de Jales del Centro, S. A. de C.V. and the rest of them remained in the laboratory. The ICP-OES technique was used to determine the amounts of arsenic, cadmium and lead, in the samples of both lots. The soil samples were collected in a neighboring area at El Lampotal, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, México, with an extension of 600 m2 at 22º52' 37.69'' N, 102º25' 11.73'' W. The amount of arsenic, cadmium and lead found in nonleached soil and for a particle size of 47 μm was 203.72±3.73, 33.63±1.31 and 3480.99±20.4 mg/kg respectively.

Keywords: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Soil, Tails.

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11 Extracts of Cola acuminata, Lupinus arboreus and Bougainvillea spectabilis as Natural Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: M. L. Akinyemi, T. J. Abodurin, A. O. Boyo, J. A. O. Olugbuyiro

Abstract:

Organic dyes from Cola acuminata (C. acuminata), Lupinus arboreus (L. arboreus) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (B. spectabilis) leaves and their mixtures were used as sensitizers to manufacture dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Photoelectric measurements of C. acuminata showed a short circuit current (Jsc) of 0.027 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.018 mA/ cm2 with a mixture of mercury chloride and iodine (Hgcl2 + I); potassium bromide and iodine (KBr + I); and potassium chloride and iodine (KCl + I) respectively. The open circuit voltage (Voc) was 24 mV, 25 mV and 20 mV for the three dyes respectively. L. arboreus had Jsc of 0.034 mA/ cm2, 0.021 mA/ cm2 and 0.013 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc of 28 mV, 14.2 mV and 15 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. B. spectabilis recorded Jsc 0.023 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.015 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc values of 6.2 mV, 14.3 mV and 4.0 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. It was observed that the fill factor (FF) was 0.140 for C. acuminata, 0.3198 for L. arboreus and 0.1138 for B. spectabilis. Internal conversions of 0.096%, 0.056% and 0.063% were recorded for three dyes when combined with (KBr + I) electrolyte. The internal efficiency of C. acuminata DSSC was highest in value.

Keywords: Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, Organic dye, C. acuminate, L. arboreus, B. spectabilis, Dye Mixture.

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10 Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies for Adsorption of Hg (II) on Palm Shell Powder

Authors: Shilpi Kushwaha, Suparna Sodaye, P. Padmaja

Abstract:

Palm shell obtained from coastal part of southern India was studied for the removal for the adsorption of Hg (II) ions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, concentration of Hg (II) ions, time, temperature and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal was seen in the range pH 4.0- pH 7.0. The palm shell powder used as adsorbent was characterized for its surface area, SEM, PXRD, FTIR, ion exchange capacity, moisture content, and bulk density, soluble content in water and acid and pH. The experimental results were analyzed using Langmuir I, II, III, IV and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The batch sorption kinetics was studied for the first order reversible reaction, pseudo first order; pseudo second order reaction and the intra-particle diffusion reaction. The biomass was successfully used for removal Hg (II) from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable.

Keywords: Biosorbent, mercury removal, borassus flabellifer, isotherms, kinetics, palm shell.

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9 Assessment of Risk of Ground Water Resources for the Emergency Supply in Relation to Their Contamination by Metals

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Alexandr Bozek, Alena Bumbova, Jiri Dvorak, Lenka Jesonkova

Abstract:

The contamination of 15 ground water resources of a selected region earmarked for the emergency supply of population has been monitored. The resources have been selected on the basis of previous assessment of natural conditions and the exploitation of territory in their surroundings and infiltration area. Two resources out of 15 have been excluded from further exploitation, because they have not met some of the 72 assessed hygienic indicators of extended analysis. The remaining 13 resources have been the subject of health risk analysis in relation to the contamination by arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel and manganese. The risk analysis proved that all 13 resources meet health standards with regard to the above mentioned purposefully selected elements and may thus be included into crisis plans. Water quality of ground resources may be assessed in the same way with regard to other contaminants.

Keywords: Contamination, drinking water, emergency supply, health risk, hygienic limits, metals, risk assessment.

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8 Establishment of Air Quality Zones in Italy

Authors: M. G. Dirodi, G. Gugliotta, C. Leonardi

Abstract:

Member States shall establish zones and agglomerations throughout their territory to assess and manage air quality in order to comply with European directives. In Italy decree 155/2010, transposing Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, merged into a single act the previous provisions on ambient air quality assessment and management, including those resulting from the implementation of Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. Decree 155/2010 introduced stricter rules for identifying zones on the basis of the characteristics of the territory in spite of considering pollution levels, as it was in the past. The implementation of such new criteria has reduced the great variability of the previous zoning, leading to a significant reduction of the total number of zones and to a complete and uniform ambient air quality assessment and management throughout the Country. The present document is related to the new zones definition in Italy according to Decree 155/2010. In particular the paper contains the description and the analysis of the outcome of zoning and classification.

Keywords: Zones, agglomerations, air quality assessment, classification.

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7 Quantitative Determination of Trace Elements in Some Oriental Herb Products

Authors: Nguyen Thi Kim Dzung, Pham Ngoc Khai, Rainer Ludwig

Abstract:

The quantitative determination of several trace elements (Cr, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb) existing as inorganic impurities in some oriental herb-products such as Lingzhi Mushroom capsules, Philamin powder, etc using ICP-MS has been studied. Various instrumental parameters such as power, gas flow rate, sample depth, as well as the concentration of nitric acid and thick background due to high concentration of possible interferences on the determination of these above-mentioned elements was investigated and the optimum working conditions of the sample measurement on ICP-MS (Agilent-7500a) were reported. Appropriate isotope internal standards were also used to improve the accuracy of mercury determination. Optimal parameters for sampling digestion were also investigated. The recovery of analytical procedure was examined by using a Certified Reference Material (IAEA-CRM 359). The recommended procedure was then applied for the quantitative determination of Cr, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb in Lingzhi Mushroom capsule, and Philamine powder samples. The reproducibility of sample measurement (average value between 94 and 102%) and the uncertainty of analytical data (less than 20%) are acceptable.

Keywords: Oriental herbal product, trace elements, ICP-MS, biochemistry, medical chemistry.

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6 Mechanical Properties and Chloride Diffusion of Ceramic Waste Aggregate Mortar Containing Ground Granulated Blast–Furnace Slag

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sappakittipakorn, M. Mizukoshi, O. Takahashi

Abstract:

Ceramic Waste Aggregates (CWAs) were made from electric porcelain insulator wastes supplied from an electric power company, which were crushed and ground to fine aggregate sizes. In this study, to develop the CWA mortar as an eco–efficient, ground granulated blast–furnace slag (GGBS) as a Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) was incorporated. The water–to–binder ratio (W/B) of the CWA mortars was varied at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The cement of the CWA mortar was replaced by GGBS at 20 and 40% by volume (at about 18 and 37% by weight). Mechanical properties of compressive and splitting tensile strengths, and elastic modulus were evaluated at the age of 7, 28, and 91 days. Moreover, the chloride ingress test was carried out on the CWA mortars in a 5.0% NaCl solution for 48 weeks. The chloride diffusion was assessed by using an electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). To consider the relation of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and the pore size, the pore size distribution test was also performed using a mercury intrusion porosimetry at the same time with the EPMA. The compressive strength of the CWA mortars with the GGBS was higher than that without the GGBS at the age of 28 and 91 days. The resistance to the chloride ingress of the CWA mortar was effective in proportion to the GGBS replacement level.

Keywords: Ceramic waste aggregate, Chloride diffusion, GGBS, Pore size distribution.

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5 Transport and Fate of Copper in Soils

Authors: S K Sharma, N S Sehkon, S Deswal, Siby John

Abstract:

The presence of toxic heavy metals in industrial effluents is one of the serious threats to the environment. Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Mercury, Copper, Arsenic are found in the effluents of industries such as foundries, electroplating, petrochemical, battery manufacturing, tanneries, fertilizer, dying, textiles, metallurgical and metal finishing. Tremendous increase of industrial copper usage and its presence in industrial effluents has lead to a growing concern about the fate and effects of Copper in the environment. Percolation of industrial effluents through soils leads to contamination of ground water and soils. The transport of heavy metals and their diffusion into the soils has therefore, drawn the attention of the researchers. In this study, an attempt has been made to delineate the mechanisms of transport and fate of copper in terrestrial environment. Column studies were conducted using perplex glass square column of dimension side 15 cm and 1.35 m long. The soil samples were collected from a natural drain near Mohali (India). The soil was characterized to be poorly graded sandy loam. The soil was compacted to the field dry density level of about 1.6 g/cm3. Break through curves for different depths of the column were plotted. The results of the column study indicated that the copper has high tendency to flow in the soils and fewer tendencies to get absorbed on the soil particles. The t1/2 estimates obtained from the studies can be used for design copper laden wastewater disposal systems.

Keywords: Column study, copper, soil, transport.

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4 Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tunas Caught from Lakshweep Islands, India

Authors: Mahesh Kumar Farejiya, Anil Kumar Dikshit

Abstract:

The toxic metal contamination and their biomagnification in marine fishes is a serious public health concern specially, in the coastal areas and the small islands. In the present study, concentration of toxic heavy metals like zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the tissues of tunas (T. albacores) caught from the area near to Lakshdweep Islands. The heavy metals are one of the indicators for the marine water pollution. Geochemical weathering, industrialization, agriculture run off, fishing, shipping and oil spills are the major pollutants. The presence of heavy toxic metals in the near coastal water fishes at both western coast and eastern coast of India has been well established. The present study was conducted assuming that the distant island will not have the metals presence in a way it is at the near main land coast. However, our study shows that there is a significant amount of the toxic metals present in the tissues of tuna samples. The gill, lever and flash samples were collected in waters around Lakshdweep Islands. They were analyzed using ICP–AES for the toxic metals after microwave digestion. The concentrations of the toxic metals were found in all fish samples and the general trend of presence was in decreasing order as Zn > Al > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg. The amount of metals was found to higher in fish having more weight.

Keywords: Biomagnifications, marine environment, toxic heavy metals, Tuna fish.

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3 An Overview of Electronic Waste as Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: S. R. Shamili, C. Natarajan, J. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

Rapid growth of world population and widespread urbanization has remarkably increased the development of the construction industry which caused a huge demand for sand and gravels. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravels, and other materials exceeds the rate of generation of natural resources; therefore, an alternative source is essential to replace the materials used in concrete. Now-a-days, electronic products have become an integral part of daily life which provides more comfort, security, and ease of exchange of information. These electronic waste (E-Waste) materials have serious human health concerns and require extreme care in its disposal to avoid any adverse impacts. Disposal or dumping of these E-Wastes also causes major issues because it is highly complex to handle and often contains highly toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, brominates flame retardants (BFRs), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and phosphorus compounds. Hence, E-Waste can be incorporated in concrete to make a sustainable environment. This paper deals with the composition, preparation, properties, classification of E-Waste. All these processes avoid dumping to landfills whilst conserving natural aggregate resources, and providing a better environmental option. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on the behaviour of concrete with incorporation of E-Wastes. Many research shows the strong possibility of using E-Waste as a substitute of aggregates eventually it reduces the use of natural aggregates in concrete.

Keywords: Disposal, electronic waste, landfill, toxic chemicals.

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2 Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric

Authors: J. R. Mudakavi, K. Puttanna

Abstract:

Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.

Keywords: Activated carbon fabric, adsorption, drinking water, hexavalent chromium.

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1 Exploration of Hydrocarbon Unconventional Accumulations in the Argillaceous Formation of the Autochthonous Miocene Succession in the Carpathian Foredeep

Authors: Wojciech Górecki, Anna Sowiżdżał, Grzegorz Machowski, Tomasz Maćkowski, Bartosz Papiernik, Michał Stefaniuk

Abstract:

The article shows results of the project which aims at evaluating possibilities of effective development and exploitation of natural gas from argillaceous series of the Autochthonous Miocene in the Carpathian Foredeep. To achieve the objective, the research team develop a world-trend based but unique methodology of processing and interpretation, adjusted to data, local variations and petroleum characteristics of the area. In order to determine the zones in which maximum volumes of hydrocarbons might have been generated and preserved as shale gas reservoirs, as well as to identify the most preferable well sites where largest gas accumulations are anticipated a number of task were accomplished. Evaluation of petrophysical properties and hydrocarbon saturation of the Miocene complex is based on laboratory measurements as well as interpretation of well-logs and archival data. The studies apply mercury porosimetry (MICP), micro CT and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (using the Rock Core Analyzer). For prospective location (e.g. central part of Carpathian Foredeep – Brzesko-Wojnicz area) reprocessing and reinterpretation of detailed seismic survey data with the use of integrated geophysical investigations has been made. Construction of quantitative, structural and parametric models for selected areas of the Carpathian Foredeep is performed on the basis of integrated, detailed 3D computer models. Modeling are carried on with the Schlumberger’s Petrel software. Finally, prospective zones are spatially contoured in a form of regional 3D grid, which will be framework for generation modelling and comprehensive parametric mapping, allowing for spatial identification of the most prospective zones of unconventional gas accumulation in the Carpathian Foredeep. Preliminary results of research works indicate a potentially prospective area for occurrence of unconventional gas accumulations in the Polish part of Carpathian Foredeep.

Keywords: Autochthonous Miocene, Carpathian Foredeep, Poland, shale gas.

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