Search results for: Embedded Systems
4635 Complexity of Component-based Development of Embedded Systems
Authors: M. Zheng, V. S. Alagar
Abstract:The paper discusses complexity of component-based development (CBD) of embedded systems. Although CBD has its merits, it must be augmented with methods to control the complexities that arise due to resource constraints, timeliness, and run-time deployment of components in embedded system development. Software component specification, system-level testing, and run-time reliability measurement are some ways to control the complexity.
Keywords: Components, embedded systems, complexity, softwaredevelopment, traffic controller system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1386
4634 A Redundant Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for Collaborating Embedded Systems
Authors: M. Schukat, M.P. Cullen, D. O'Beirne
Abstract:This paper describes a UDP over IP based, server-oriented redundant host configuration protocol (RHCP) that can be used by collaborating embedded systems in an ad-hoc network to acquire a dynamic IP address. The service is provided by a single network device at a time and will be dynamically reassigned to one of the other network clients if the primary provider fails. The protocol also allows all participating clients to monitor the dynamic makeup of the network over time. So far the algorithm has been implemented and tested on an 8-bit embedded system architecture with a 10Mbit Ethernet interface.
Keywords: Ad-Hoc Networks, Collaborating Embedded Systems, Dynamic Host Configuration, Redundancy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1448
4633 Design and Implementation of Embedded FM Transmission Control SW for Low Power Battery System
Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Kyung-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Song, Ki-Won Kwon
Abstract:In this paper, an embedded frequency modulation (FM) transmission control software (SW) for a low power battery system is designed and implemented. The simultaneous translation systems for various languages are needed as so many international conferences and festivals are held in world wide. Especially in portable transmitting and receiving systems, the ability of long operation life is used for a measure of value. This paper proposes an embedded FM transmission control SW for low power battery system and shows the results of the SW implemented on a portable FM transmission system.
Keywords: FM transmission, simultaneous translation system, portable transmitting and receiving systems, low power embedded control SW.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 877
4632 Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems
Authors: Kei Kawamorita, Ryouta Kasahara, Yuuki Mochizuki, Kenichiro Noguchi
A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.
Keywords: B method, embedded systems, extended state transition, formal methods, separation kernel, Spin.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1794
4631 A Method for Analysis of Industrial Distributed Embedded Systems
Authors: Dmitry A. Mikoyelov
The paper presents a set of guidelines for analysis of industrial embedded distributed systems and introduces a mathematical model derived from these guidelines. In this study, the author examines a set of modern communication technologies that are or possibly can be used to build communication links between the subsystems of a distributed embedded system. An investigation of these guidelines results in a algorithm for analysis of specific use cases of target technologies. A goal of the paper acts as an important base for ongoing research on comparison of communication technologies. The author describes the principles of the model and presents results of the test calculations. Practical implementation of target technologies and empirical experiment data are based on a practical experience during the design and test of specific distributed systems in Latvian market.
Keywords: Distributed embedded system, analytical model, communication technology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1413
4630 Embedded Hardware and Software Design of Omnidirectional Autonomous Robotic Platform Suitable for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Testing with Focus on Modularity and Safety
Authors: Ondřej Lufinka, Jan Kadeřábek, Juraj Prstek, Jiří Skála, Kamil Kosturik
This paper deals with the problem of using Autonomous Robotic Platforms (ARP) for the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) testing in automotive. There are different possibilities of the testing already in development and lately, the ARP are beginning to be used more and more widely. ARP discussed in this paper explores the hardware and software design possibilities related to the field of embedded systems. The paper focuses in its chapters on the introduction of the problem in general, then it describes the proposed prototype concept and its principles from the embedded HW and SW point of view. It talks about the key features that can be used for the innovation of these platforms (e.g., modularity, omnidirectional movement, common and non-traditional sensors used for localization, synchronization of more platforms and cars together or safety mechanisms). In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed as well.
Keywords: ADAS Systems, autonomous robotic platform, embedded systems, hardware, localization, modularity, multiple robots synchronization, omnidirectional movement, safety mechanisms, software.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 501
4629 Embedded Systems Energy Consumption Analysis Through Co-modelling and Simulation
Authors: José Antonio Esparza Isasa, Finn Overgaard Hansen, Peter Gorm Larsen
This paper presents a new methodology to study power and energy consumption in mechatronic systems early in the development process. This new approach makes use of two modeling languages to represent and simulate embedded control software and electromechanical subsystems in the discrete event and continuous time domain respectively within a single co-model. This co-model enables an accurate representation of power and energy consumption and facilitates the analysis and development of both software and electro-mechanical subsystems in parallel. This makes the engineers aware of energy-wise implications of different design alternatives and enables early trade-off analysis from the beginning of the analysis and design activities.
Keywords: Energy consumption, embedded systems, modeldriven engineering, power awareness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1967
4628 Supporting Embedded Medical Software Development with MDevSPICE® and Agile Practices
Authors: Surafel Demissie, Frank Keenan, Fergal McCaffery
Emerging medical devices are highly relying on embedded software that runs on the specific platform in real time. The development of embedded software is different from ordinary software development due to the hardware-software dependency. MDevSPICE® has been developed to provide guidance to support such development. To increase the flexibility of this framework agile practices have been introduced. This paper outlines the challenges for embedded medical device software development and the structure of MDevSPICE® and suggests a suitable combination of agile practices that will help to add flexibility and address corresponding challenges of embedded medical device software development.
Keywords: Agile practices, challenges, embedded software, MDevSPICE®, medical device.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 985
4627 Evaluation of Model-Based Code Generation for Embedded Systems–Mature Approach for Development in Evolution
Authors: Nikolay P. Brayanov, Anna V. Stoynova
Abstract:Model-based development approach is gaining more support and acceptance. Its higher abstraction level brings simplification of systems’ description that allows domain experts to do their best without particular knowledge in programming. The different levels of simulation support the rapid prototyping, verifying and validating the product even before it exists physically. Nowadays model-based approach is beneficial for modelling of complex embedded systems as well as a generation of code for many different hardware platforms. Moreover, it is possible to be applied in safety-relevant industries like automotive, which brings extra automation of the expensive device certification process and especially in the software qualification. Using it, some companies report about cost savings and quality improvements, but there are others claiming no major changes or even about cost increases. This publication demonstrates the level of maturity and autonomy of model-based approach for code generation. It is based on a real live automotive seat heater (ASH) module, developed using The Mathworks, Inc. tools. The model, created with Simulink, Stateflow and Matlab is used for automatic generation of C code with Embedded Coder. To prove the maturity of the process, Code generation advisor is used for automatic configuration. All additional configuration parameters are set to auto, when applicable, leaving the generation process to function autonomously. As a result of the investigation, the publication compares the quality of generated embedded code and a manually developed one. The measurements show that generally, the code generated by automatic approach is not worse than the manual one. A deeper analysis of the technical parameters enumerates the disadvantages, part of them identified as topics for our future work.
Keywords: Embedded code generation, embedded C code quality, embedded systems, model-based development.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 832
4626 Performance Evaluation of Neural Network Prediction for Data Prefetching in Embedded Applications
Authors: Sofien Chtourou, Mohamed Chtourou, Omar Hammami
Abstract:Embedded systems need to respect stringent real time constraints. Various hardware components included in such systems such as cache memories exhibit variability and therefore affect execution time. Indeed, a cache memory access from an embedded microprocessor might result in a cache hit where the data is available or a cache miss and the data need to be fetched with an additional delay from an external memory. It is therefore highly desirable to predict future memory accesses during execution in order to appropriately prefetch data without incurring delays. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of several artificial neural networks for the prediction of instruction memory addresses. Neural network have the potential to tackle the nonlinear behavior observed in memory accesses during program execution and their demonstrated numerous hardware implementation emphasize this choice over traditional forecasting techniques for their inclusion in embedded systems. However, embedded applications execute millions of instructions and therefore millions of addresses to be predicted. This very challenging problem of neural network based prediction of large time series is approached in this paper by evaluating various neural network architectures based on the recurrent neural network paradigm with pre-processing based on the Self Organizing Map (SOM) classification technique.
Keywords: Address, data set, memory, prediction, recurrentneural network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1581
4625 Adaptation of State/Transition-Based Methods for Embedded System Testing
Authors: Abdelaziz Guerrouat, Harald Richter
In this paper test generation methods and appropriate fault models for testing and analysis of embedded systems described as (extended) finite state machines ((E)FSMs) are presented. Compared to simple FSMs, EFSMs specify not only the control flow but also the data flow. Thus, we define a two-level fault model to cover both aspects. The goal of this paper is to reuse well-known FSM-based test generation methods for automation of embedded system testing. These methods have been widely used in testing and validation of protocols and communicating systems. In particular, (E)FSMs-based specification and testing is more advantageous because (E)FSMs support the formal semantic of already standardised formal description techniques (FDTs) despite of their popularity in the design of hardware and software systems.
Keywords: Formal methods, testing and validation, finite state machines, formal description techniques.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1984
4624 Towards a Framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence in the Plantation Domain
Authors: M. Pushparani, A. Sagaya
Abstract:Embedded systems have emerged as important elements in various domains with extensive applications in automotive, commercial, consumer, healthcare and transportation markets, as there is emphasis on intelligent devices. On the other hand, Business Intelligence (BI) has also been extensively used in a range of applications, especially in the agriculture domain which is the area of this research. The aim of this research is to create a framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence (EWCA-BI). The weight comparison algorithm will be embedded within the plantation management system and the weighbridge system. This algorithm will be used to estimate the weight at the site and will be compared with the actual weight at the plantation. The algorithm will be used to build the necessary alerts when there is a discrepancy in the weight, thus enabling better decision making. In the current practice, data are collected from various locations in various forms. It is a challenge to consolidate data to obtain timely and accurate information for effective decision making. Adding to this, the unstable network connection leads to difficulty in getting timely accurate information. To overcome the challenges embedding is done on a portable device that will have the embedded weight comparison algorithm to also assist in data capture and synchronize data at various locations overcoming the network short comings at collection points. The EWCA-BI will provide real-time information at any given point of time, thus enabling non-latent BI reports that will provide crucial information to enable efficient operational decision making. This research has a high potential in bringing embedded system into the agriculture industry. EWCA-BI will provide BI reports with accurate information with uncompromised data using an embedded system and provide alerts, therefore, enabling effective operation management decision-making at the site.
Keywords: Embedded business intelligence, weight comparison algorithm, oil palm plantation, embedded systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1072
4623 A Modified Spiral Search Algorithm and Its Embedded System Architecture Design
Authors: Nikolaos Kroupis, Minas Dasygenis, Dimitrios Soudris, Antonios Thanailakis
One of the most growing areas in the embedded community is multimedia devices. Multimedia devices incorporate a number of complicated functions for their operation, like motion estimation. A multitude of different implementations have been proposed to reduce motion estimation complexity, such as spiral search. We have studied the implementations of spiral search and identified areas of improvement. We propose a modified spiral search algorithm, with lower computational complexity compared to the original spiral search. We have implemented our algorithm on an embedded ARM based architecture, with custom memory hierarchy. The resulting system yields energy consumption reduction up to 64% and performance increase up to 77%, with a small penalty of 2.3 dB, in average, of video quality compared with the original spiral search algorithm.
Keywords: Spiral Search, Motion Estimation, Embedded Systems, Low PowerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1657
4622 System-Level Energy Estimation for SoC based on the Dynamic Behavior of Embedded Software
Authors: Yoshifumi Sakamoto, Kouichi Ono, Takeo Nakada, Yousuke Kubo, Hiroto Yasuura
Abstract:This paper describes a system-level SoC energy consumption estimation method based on a dynamic behavior of embedded software in the early stages of the SoC development. A major problem of SOC development is development rework caused by unreliable energy consumption estimation at the early stages. The energy consumption of an SoC used in embedded systems is strongly affected by the dynamic behavior of the software. At the early stages of SoC development, modeling with a high level of abstraction is required for both the dynamic behavior of the software, and the behavior of the SoC. We estimate the energy consumption by a UML model-based simulation. The proposed method is applied for an actual embedded system in an MFP. The energy consumption estimation of the SoC is more accurate than conventional methods and this proposed method is promising to reduce the chance of development rework in the SoC development. ∈
Keywords: SoC, Embedded Sytem, Energy Consumption, Dynamic behavior, UML, Modeling, Model-based simulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2270
4621 On-line Testing of Software Components for Diagnosis of Embedded Systems
Authors: Thi-Quynh Bui, Oum-El-Kheir Aktouf
Abstract:This paper studies the dependability of componentbased applications, especially embedded ones, from the diagnosis point of view. The principle of the diagnosis technique is to implement inter-component tests in order to detect and locate the faulty components without redundancy. The proposed approach for diagnosing faulty components consists of two main aspects. The first one concerns the execution of the inter-component tests which requires integrating test functionality within a component. This is the subject of this paper. The second one is the diagnosis process itself which consists of the analysis of inter-component test results to determine the fault-state of the whole system. Advantage of this diagnosis method when compared to classical redundancy faulttolerant techniques are application autonomy, cost-effectiveness and better usage of system resources. Such advantage is very important for many systems and especially for embedded ones.
Keywords: Dependability, diagnosis, middlewares, embeddedsystems, fault tolerance, inter-component testing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
4620 Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems
Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Tim Dekegel, Ann Peeters, Klara Stinders, Niek Blondeel, Sam De Winne, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi
Abstract:Matching an embedded electronic application with a cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour due to the large number of factors influencing the output power. In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and frequency as variables.
Keywords: Energy harvesting, vibrations, piezoelectric transducers, embedded systems, harvester parametrization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1196
4619 Model-Based Automotive Partitioning and Mapping for Embedded Multicore Systems
Authors: Robert H¨ottger, Lukas Krawczyk, Burkhard Igel
This paper introduces novel approaches to partitioning and mapping in terms of model-based embedded multicore system engineering and further discusses benefits, industrial relevance and features in common with existing approaches. In order to assess and evaluate results, both approaches have been applied to a real industrial application as well as to various prototypical demonstrative applications, that have been developed and implemented for different purposes. Evaluations show, that such applications improve significantly according to performance, energy efficiency, meeting timing constraints and covering maintaining issues by using the AMALTHEA platform and the implemented approaches. Furthermore, the model-based design provides an open, expandable, platform independent and scalable exchange format between OEMs, suppliers and developers on different levels. Our proposed mechanisms provide meaningful multicore system utilization since load balancing by means of partitioning and mapping is effectively performed with regard to the modeled systems including hardware, software, operating system, scheduling, constraints, configuration and more data.
Keywords: Partitioning, mapping, distributed systems, scheduling, embedded multicore systems, model-based, system analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3159
4618 Embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method Order 5(4) for the Integration of Special Second Order ODEs
Authors: Fudziah Ismail
Abstract:In this paper a new embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Nystrom fourth order in fifth order method for solving special second order initial value problems is derived. A standard set of test problems are tested upon and comparisons on the numerical results are made when the same set of test problems are reduced to first order systems and solved using the existing embedded diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method. The results suggests the superiority of the new method.
Keywords: Runge-Kutta Nystrom, Special second orderproblems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
4617 Discussing Embedded versus Central Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Anne-Lena Kampen, Øivind Kure
Machine learning (ML) can be implemented in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a central solution or distributed solution where the ML is embedded in the nodes. Embedding improves privacy and may reduce prediction delay. In addition, the number of transmissions is reduced. However, quality factors such as prediction accuracy, fault detection efficiency and coordinated control of the overall system suffer. Here, we discuss and highlight the trade-offs that should be considered when choosing between embedding and centralized ML, especially for multihop networks. In addition, we present estimations that demonstrate the energy trade-offs between embedded and centralized ML. Although the total network energy consumption is lower with central prediction, it makes the network more prone for partitioning due to the high forwarding load on the one-hop nodes. Moreover, the continuous improvements in the number of operations per joule for embedded devices will move the energy balance toward embedded prediction.
Keywords: Central ML, embedded machine learning, energy consumption, local ML, Wireless Sensor Networks, WSN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 656
4616 Immunity of Integrated Drive System, Effects of Radiated and Conducted Emission
Authors: M. Ektesabi
Abstract:In this paper the problems associated with immunity of embedded systems used in Motor-Drive systems are investigated and appropriate solutions are presented. Integration of VSD motor systems (Integral Motor) while partially reducing some of these effects, adds to immunity problem of their embedded systems. Fail safe operation of an Integral Motor in arduous industrial environments is considered. In this paper an integral motor with a unique design is proposed to overcome critical issues such as heat, vibration and electromagnetic interference which are damaging to sensitive electronics without requirement of any additional cooling system. Advantages of the proposed Integral motor are compactness of combo motor and drive system with no external cabling/wiring. This motor provides a perfect shielding for least amount of radiated emission. It has an inbuilt filter for EMC compliance and has been designed to provide lower EMC noise for immunity of the internal electronics as well as the other neighbouring systems.
Keywords: Electromagnetic Interference, Immunity, IntegralMotor, Radiated & Conducted Emission, Sensitive Electronics, Variable Speed DriveProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1802
4615 Musical Instrument Classification Using Embedded Hidden Markov Models
Authors: Ehsan Amid, Sina Rezaei Aghdam
Abstract:In this paper, a novel method for recognition of musical instruments in a polyphonic music is presented by using an embedded hidden Markov model (EHMM). EHMM is a doubly embedded HMM structure where each state of the external HMM is an independent HMM. The classification is accomplished for two different internal HMM structures where GMMs are used as likelihood estimators for the internal HMMs. The results are compared to those achieved by an artificial neural network with two hidden layers. Appropriate classification accuracies were achieved both for solo instrument performance and instrument combinations which demonstrates that the new approach outperforms the similar classification methods by means of the dynamic of the signal.
Keywords: hidden Markov model (HMM), embedded hidden Markov models (EHMM), MFCC, musical instrument.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1775
4614 A Microcontroller Implementation of Model Predictive Control
Authors: Amira Abbes Kheriji, Faouzi Bouani, Mekki Ksouri, Mohamed Ben Ahmed
Abstract:Model Predictive Control (MPC) is increasingly being proposed for real time applications and embedded systems. However comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer of organizations and markets. Recently, advances in microelectronics and software allow such technique to be implemented in embedded systems. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In fact in this paper, we propose an efficient framework for implementation of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) in the performed STM32 microcontroller. The STM32 keil starter kit based on a JTAG interface and the STM32 board was used to implement the proposed GPC firmware. Besides the GPC, the PID anti windup algorithm was also implemented using Keil development tools designed for ARM processor-based microcontroller devices and working with C/Cµ langage. A performances comparison study was done between both firmwares. This performances study show good execution speed and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop simple predictive algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard hardware. The main features of the proposed framework are illustrated through two examples and compared with the anti windup PID controller.
Keywords: Embedded systems, Model Predictive Control, microcontroller, Keil tool.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5346
4613 An Embedded System Design for SRAM SEU Test
Authors: Kyoung Kun Lee, Soongyu Kwon, Jong Tae Kim
Abstract:An embedded system for SEU(single event upset) test needs to be designed to prevent system failure by high-energy particles during measuring SEU. SEU is a phenomenon in which the data is changed temporary in semiconductor device caused by high-energy particles. In this paper, we present an embedded system for SRAM(static random access memory) SEU test. SRAMs are on the DUT(device under test) and it is separated from control board which manages the DUT and measures the occurrence of SEU. It needs to have considerations for preventing system failure while managing the DUT and making an accurate measurement of SEUs. We measure the occurrence of SEUs from five different SRAMs at three different cyclotron beam energies 30, 35, and 40MeV. The number of SEUs of SRAMs ranges from 3.75 to 261.00 in average.
Keywords: embedded system, single event upset, SRAMProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1566
4612 Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems
Authors: Sajjad Rostami-Sani, Mojtaba Valinataj, Amir-Hossein Khojir-Angasi
Abstract:The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache’s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache’s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.
Keywords: L1-cache, energy consumption, replacement policy, Instruction set architecture, multicore processor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 773
4611 Description and Analysis of Embedded Firewall Techniques
Authors: Ahmed Abou Elfarag, A. Baith M., Hassan H. Alkhishali
Abstract:With the turn of this century, many researchers started showing interest in Embedded Firewall (EF) implementations. These are not the usual firewalls that are used as checkpoints at network gateways. They are, rather, applied near those hosts that need protection. Hence by using them, individual or grouped network components can be protected from the inside as well as from external attacks. This paper presents a study of EF-s, looking at their architecture and problems. A comparative study assesses how practical each kind is. It particularly focuses on the architecture, weak points, and portability of each kind. A look at their use by different categories of users is also presented.
Keywords: Embedded Firewall (EF), Network Interface Card (NIC), Virtual Machine Software (VMware), Virtual Firewall (VF).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1563
4610 Self-Organization-Based Approach for Embedded Real-Time System Design
Authors: S. S. Bendib, L. W. Mouss, S. Kalla
Abstract:This paper proposes a self-organization-based approach for real-time systems design. The addressed issue is the mapping of an application onto an architecture of heterogeneous processors while optimizing both makespan and reliability. Since this problem is NP-hard, a heuristic algorithm is used to obtain efficiently approximate solutions. The proposed approach takes into consideration the quality as well as the diversity of solutions. Indeed, an alternate treatment of the two objectives allows to produce solutions of good quality while a self-organization approach based on the neighborhood structure is used to reorganize solutions and consequently to enhance their diversity. Produced solutions make different compromises between the makespan and the reliability giving the user the possibility to select the solution suited to his (her) needs.
Keywords: Embedded real-time systems design, makespan, reliability, self-organization, compromises.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 308
4609 Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure
Authors: Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Ying Liu, Chiang-Ho Cheng
The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.
Keywords: Electro-Rheological Fluid, Semi-active vibration control, shock absorber, type 2 fuzzy control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2012
4608 Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 Packet Analyzer
Authors: Sung Jun Ban, Hyeonwoo Cho, ChangWoo Lee, Sang Woo Kim
Abstract:A packet analyzer is a tool for debugging sensor network systems and is convenient for developers. In this paper, we introduce a new packet analyzer based on an embedded system. The proposed packet analyzer is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4, which is suitable for the wireless communication standard for sensor networks, and is available for remote control by adopting a server-client scheme based on the Ethernet interface. To confirm the operations of the packet analyzer, we have developed two types of sensor nodes based on PIC4620 and ATmega128L microprocessors and tested the functions of the proposed packet analyzer by obtaining the packets from the sensor nodes.
Keywords: Sensor network, embedded system, packet analyzer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2099
4607 Power Optimization Techniques in FPGA Devices: A Combination of System- and Low-Levels
Authors: Pawel P. Czapski, Andrzej Sluzek
This paper presents preliminary results regarding system-level power awareness for FPGA implementations in wireless sensor networks. Re-configurability of field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) allows for significant flexibility in its applications to embedded systems. However, high power consumption in FPGA becomes a significant factor in design considerations. We present several ideas and their experimental verifications on how to optimize power consumption at high level of designing process while maintaining the same energy per operation (low-level methods can be used additionally). This paper demonstrates that it is possible to estimate feasible power consumption savings even at the high level of designing process. It is envisaged that our results can be also applied to other embedded systems applications, not limited to FPGA-based.
Keywords: Power optimization, FPGA, system-level designing, wireless sensor networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2131
4606 A Method for Improving the Embedded Runge Kutta Fehlberg 4(5)
Authors: Sunyoung Bu, Wonkyu Chung, Philsu Kim
In this paper, we introduce a method for improving the embedded Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg4(5) method. At each integration step, the proposed method is comprised of two equations for the solution and the error, respectively. These solution and error are obtained by solving an initial value problem whose solution has the information of the error at each integration step. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and possesses a good performance in the computational cost compared to the original method. For the assessment of the effectiveness, EULR problem is numerically solved.
Keywords: Embedded Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, Initial value problem.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2598