Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 869

Search results for: replacement policy

869 A Study of Replacement Policies for Warranty Products with Different Failure Rate

Authors: Wen Liang Chang

Abstract:

This paper provides a replacement policy for warranty products with different failure rate from the consumer-s viewpoint. Assume that the product is replaced once within a finite planning horizon, and the failure rate of the second product is lower than the failure rate of the first product. Within warranty period (WP), the failed product is corrected by minimal repair without any cost to the consumers. After WP, the failed product is repaired with a fixed repair cost to the consumers. However, each failure incurs a fixed downtime cost to the consumers over a finite planning horizon. In this paper, we derive the model of the expected total disbursement cost within a finite planning horizon and some properties of the optimal replacement policy under some reasonable conditions are obtained. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the features of the optimal replacement policy under various maintenance costs.

Keywords: Planning horizon, Free-repair warranty, Minimal repair, Replacement.

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868 Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems

Authors: Sajjad Rostami-Sani, Mojtaba Valinataj, Amir-Hossein Khojir-Angasi

Abstract:

The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache’s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache’s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.

Keywords: L1-cache, energy consumption, replacement policy, Instruction set architecture, multicore processor.

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867 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Salawu Sadiku

Abstract:

A clay soil classified as A-7-6 and CH soil according to AASHTO and unified soil classification system respectively, was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20%, to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both British Standard Light (BSL) and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compaction energy levels and using Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) as evaluation criteria. The Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the treated soils at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase from 0% to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% replacement. The trend of the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) with varied A-3 soil replacement was similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in void ratio from 0% to 40% replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% replacement. The maximum UCS for the soil at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% replacement to 295 and 795 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% replacement. Beyond 70% replacement, the mixtures could not be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay soil, pozzolanic action, stabilization.

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866 Cost Based Warranty Optimisation Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Dragan D. Stamenkovic, Vladimir M. Popovic

Abstract:

Warranty is a powerful marketing tool for the manufacturer and a good protection for both the manufacturer and the customer. However, warranty always involves additional costs to the manufacturer, which depend on product reliability characteristics and warranty parameters. This paper presents an approach to optimisation of warranty parameters for known product failure distribution to reduce the warranty costs to the manufacturer while retaining the promotional function of the warranty. Combination free replacement and pro-rata warranty policy is chosen as a model and the length of free replacement period and pro-rata policy period are varied, as well as the coefficients that define the pro-rata cost function. Multiparametric warranty optimisation is done by using genetic algorithm. Obtained results are guideline for the manufacturer to choose the warranty policy that minimises the costs and maximises the profit.

Keywords: costs, genetic algorithm, optimisation, warranty.

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865 Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis, Jane Doe

Abstract:

This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2 will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1 or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1 or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM) levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit 2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit 2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is carried out.

Keywords: Condition-based maintenance, opportunistic maintenance, preventive maintenance, two-unit system.

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864 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal

Abstract:

Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India major number of thermal power plants is producing low calcium fly ash. Hence in the present investigation low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. More over the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces, beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: Cementing Efficiency, Compressive Strength, Low Calcium Fly Ash, Workability.

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863 Performance of Ground Clay Bricks as Partial Cement Replacement in Grade 30 Concrete

Authors: Kartini, K., Rohaidah, M.N., Zuraini, ZA.

Abstract:

Demolitions of buildings have created a lot of waste and one of it is clay bricks. The waste clay bricks were ground to roughly cement fineness and used to partially replaced cement at 10%, 20% and 30% with w/b ratio of 0.6 and tested at 7, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days. The result shows that the compressive strength of GCB concrete increases over age however, decreases as the level of replacements increases. It was also found that 10% replacement of GCB gave the highest compressive strength, however for optimum replacement, 30% was chosen as it still attained strength of grade 30 concrete. In terms of durability performances, results show that GCB replacement up to 30% was found to be efficient in reducing water absorption as well as water permeability. These studies show that GCB has the potential to be used as partial cement replacement in making concrete.

Keywords: Compressive Strength, Ground Clay Bricks, Partial Cement Replacement, Water Absorption and Permeability

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862 Hardware Implementation of Stack-Based Replacement Algorithms

Authors: Hassan Ghasemzadeh, Sepideh Mazrouee, Hassan Goldani Moghaddam, Hamid Shojaei, Mohammad Reza Kakoee

Abstract:

Block replacement algorithms to increase hit ratio have been extensively used in cache memory management. Among basic replacement schemes, LRU and FIFO have been shown to be effective replacement algorithms in terms of hit rates. In this paper, we introduce a flexible stack-based circuit which can be employed in hardware implementation of both LRU and FIFO policies. We propose a simple and efficient architecture such that stack-based replacement algorithms can be implemented without the drawbacks of the traditional architectures. The stack is modular and hence, a set of stack rows can be cascaded depending on the number of blocks in each cache set. Our circuit can be implemented in conjunction with the cache controller and static/dynamic memories to form a cache system. Experimental results exhibit that our proposed circuit provides an average value of 26% improvement in storage bits and its maximum operating frequency is increased by a factor of two

Keywords: Cache Memory, Replacement Algorithms, LeastRecently Used Algorithm, First In First Out Algorithm.

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861 A Novel Approach to Optimal Cutting Tool Replacement

Authors: Cem Karacal, Sohyung Cho, William Yu

Abstract:

In metal cutting industries, mathematical/statistical models are typically used to predict tool replacement time. These off-line methods usually result in less than optimum replacement time thereby either wasting resources or causing quality problems. The few online real-time methods proposed use indirect measurement techniques and are prone to similar errors. Our idea is based on identifying the optimal replacement time using an electronic nose to detect the airborne compounds released when the tool wear reaches to a chemical substrate doped into tool material during the fabrication. The study investigates the feasibility of the idea, possible doping materials and methods along with data stream mining techniques for detection and monitoring different phases of tool wear.

Keywords: Tool condition monitoring, cutting tool replacement, data stream mining, e-Nose.

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860 Solving the Quadratic Assignment Problems by a Genetic Algorithm with a New Replacement Strategy

Authors: Yongzhong Wu, Ping Ji

Abstract:

This paper proposes a genetic algorithm based on a new replacement strategy to solve the quadratic assignment problems, which are NP-hard. The new replacement strategy aims to improve the performance of the genetic algorithm through well balancing the convergence of the searching process and the diversity of the population. In order to test the performance of the algorithm, the instances in QAPLIB, a quadratic assignment problem library, are tried and the results are compared with those reported in the literature. The performance of the genetic algorithm is promising. The significance is that this genetic algorithm is generic. It does not rely on problem-specific genetic operators, and may be easily applied to various types of combinatorial problems.

Keywords: Quadratic assignment problem, Genetic algorithm, Replacement strategy, QAPLIB.

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859 Optimum Replacement Policies for Kuwait Passenger Transport Company Busses: Case Study

Authors: Hilal A. Abdelwali, Elsayed E.M. Ellaimony, Ahmad E.M. Murad, Jasem M.S. Al-Rajhi

Abstract:

Due to the excess of a vehicle operation through its life, some elements may face failure and deteriorate with time. This leads us to carry out maintenance, repair, tune up or full overhaul. After a certain period, the vehicle elements deteriorations increase with time which causes a very high increase of doing the maintenance operations and their costs. However, the logic decision at this point is to replace the current vehicle by a new one with minimum failure and maximum income. The importance of studying vehicle replacement problems come from the increase of stopping days due to many deteriorations in the vehicle parts. These deteriorations increase year after year causing an increase of operating costs and decrease the vehicle income. Vehicle replacement aims to determine the optimum time to keep, maintain, overhaul, renew and replace vehicles. This leads to an improvement in vehicle income, total operating costs, maintenance cost, fuel and oil costs, ton-kilometers, vehicle and engine performance, vehicle noise, vibration, and pollution. The aim of this paper is to find the optimum replacement policies of Kuwait Passenger Transport Company (KPTCP) fleet of busses. The objective of these policies is to maximize the busses pure profits. The dynamic programming (D.P.) technique is used to generate the busses optimal replacement policies

Keywords: Replacement Problem, Automotive Replacement, Dynamic Programming, Equipment Replacement, K.P.T.C.

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858 Comparison of Two Maintenance Policies for a Two-Unit Series System Considering General Repair

Authors: Seyedvahid Najafi, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In recent years, maintenance optimization has attracted special attention due to the growth of industrial systems complexity. Maintenance costs are high for many systems, and preventive maintenance is effective when it increases operations' reliability and safety at a reduced cost. The novelty of this research is to consider general repair in the modeling of multi-unit series systems and solve the maintenance problem for such systems using the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. We propose an opportunistic maintenance policy for a series system composed of two main units. Unit 1, which is more expensive than unit 2, is subjected to condition monitoring, and its deterioration is modeled using a gamma process. Unit 1 hazard rate is estimated by the proportional hazards model (PHM), and two hazard rate control limits are considered as the thresholds of maintenance interventions for unit 1. Maintenance is performed on unit 2, considering an age control limit. The objective is to find the optimal control limits and minimize the long-run expected average cost per unit time. The proposed algorithm is applied to a numerical example to compare the effectiveness of the proposed policy (policy Ⅰ) with policy Ⅱ, which is similar to policy Ⅰ, but instead of general repair, replacement is performed. Results show that policy Ⅰ leads to lower average cost compared with policy Ⅱ. 

Keywords: Condition-based maintenance, proportional hazards model, semi-Markov decision process, two-unit series systems.

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857 Using Low Permeability Sand-Fadr Mixture Membrane for Isolated Swelling Soil

Authors: Mohie Eldin Mohamed Afifiy Elmashad

Abstract:

Desert regions around the Nile valley in Upper Egypt contain great extent of swelling soil. Many different comment procedures of treatment of the swelling soils for construction such as pre-swelling, load balance OR soil replacement. One of the measure factors which affect the level of the aggressiveness of the swelling soil is the direction of the infiltration water directions within the swelling soils. In this paper a physical model was installed to measure the effect of water on the swelling soil with replacement using fatty acid distillation residuals (FADR) mixed with sand as thick sand-FADR mixture to prevent the water pathway arrive to the swelling soil. Testing program have been conducted on different artificial samples with different sand to FADR contents ratios (4%, 6%, and 9%) to get the optimum value fulfilling the impermeable replacement. The tests show that a FADR content of 9% is sufficient to produce impermeable replacement.

Keywords: Swelling soil, FADR, soil improvement, permeability

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856 Strategic Priority of Green ICT Policy in Korea: Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Yong Ho Shim, Ki Youn Kim, Ji Yeon Cho, Jin Kyung Park, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

This study considers priorities of primary goals to increase policy efficiency of Green ICT. Recently several studies have been published that address how IT is linked to climate change. However, most of the previous studies are limited to Green ICT industrial statute and policy directions. This paper present Green ICT policy making processes systematically. As a result of the analysis of Korean Green ICT policy, the following emerged as important to accomplish for Green ICT policy: eco-friendliness, technology evolution, economic efficiency, energy efficiency, and stable supply of energy. This is an initial study analyzing Green ICT policy, which provides an academic framework that can be used a guideline to establish Green ICT policy.

Keywords: AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process), Case Study, Green ICT, Policy Priority

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855 Durability of Mortar in Presence of Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Md. Harunur Rashid, Md. Keramat Ali Molla, Tarif Uddin Ahmed

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the durability of cement mortar in presence of Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The strength and durability of mortar with different replacement level (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by RHA is investigated here. RHA was manufactured from an uncontrolled burning process. Test samples were prepared with river sand of FM 2.73. Samples were kept in controlled environment up to test time. The results show that addition of RHA was shown better results for 20% replacement level than OPC at 90 days. In durability test all samples passed for 20 cycles except 25% and 30% replacement level.

Keywords: Rice Husk Ash; durability; mortar, graded sand.

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854 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: Children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability.

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853 An Efficient Cache Replacement Strategy for the Hybrid Cache Consistency Approach

Authors: Aline Zeitunlian, Ramzi A. Haraty

Abstract:

Caching was suggested as a solution for reducing bandwidth utilization and minimizing query latency in mobile environments. Over the years, different caching approaches have been proposed, some relying on the server to broadcast reports periodically informing of the updated data while others allowed the clients to request for the data whenever needed. Until recently a hybrid cache consistency scheme Scalable Asynchronous Cache Consistency Scheme SACCS was proposed, which combined the two different approaches benefits- and is proved to be more efficient and scalable. Nevertheless, caching has its limitations too, due to the limited cache size and the limited bandwidth, which makes the implementation of cache replacement strategy an important aspect for improving the cache consistency algorithms. In this thesis, we proposed a new cache replacement strategy, the Least Unified Value strategy (LUV) to replace the Least Recently Used (LRU) that SACCS was based on. This paper studies the advantages and the drawbacks of the new proposed strategy, comparing it with different categories of cache replacement strategies.

Keywords: Cache consistency, hybrid algorithm, and mobileenvironments

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852 Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Framework for Supporting Biofuels Policy Making

Authors: Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

Abstract:

In this paper, a fuzzy algorithm and a fuzzy multicriteria decision framework are developed and used for a practical question of optimizing biofuels policy making. The methodological framework shows how to incorporate fuzzy set theory in a decision process of finding a sustainable biofuels policy among several policy options. Fuzzy set theory is used here as a tool to deal with uncertainties of decision environment, vagueness and ambiguities of policy objectives, subjectivities of human assessments and imprecise and incomplete information about the evaluated policy instruments.

Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, multi-criteria decision-makingsupport, uncertainties, policy making, biofuels

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851 The Regional Concept, Public Policy and Policy Spaces: The ARC and TVA

Authors: Jay D. Gatrell, Robert Q. Hanham, Jeff Worsham, Maureen McDorman

Abstract:

This paper examines two policy spaces–the ARC and TVA–and their spatialized politics. The research observes that the regional concept informs public policy and can contribute to the formation of stable policy initiatives. Using the subsystem framework to understand the political viability of policy regimes, the authors conclude policy geographies that appeal to traditional definitions of regions are more stable over time. In contrast, geographies that fail to reflect pre-existing representations of space are engaged in more competitive subsystem politics. The paper demonstrates that the spatial practices of policy regions and their directional politics influence the political viability of programs. The paper concludes that policy spaces should institutionalize pre-existing geographies–not manufacture new ones.

Keywords: Agenda setting, politics, region.

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850 A New Shock Model for Systems Subject to Random Threshold Failure

Authors: A. Rangan, A. Tansu

Abstract:

This paper generalizes Yeh Lam-s shock model for renewal shock arrivals and random threshold. Several interesting statistical measures are explicitly obtained. A few special cases and an optimal replacement problem are also discussed.

Keywords: shock model, optimal replacement, random threshold, shocks.

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849 Oil Prices Impact on Energy Policy of Kazakhstan

Authors: K. Gabdullin, Y. Bek Ali, N. Aldabek

Abstract:

This paper explores oil prices changes impact on energy policy of Kazakhstan in 2001-2009. It involves the role of oil income to the economic development, process of diversification of internal and external energy policy of Kazakhstan, and the changes in oil law towards subsoil users.

Keywords: diversification, internal energy policy, external energy policy, high oil prices, modernization

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848 Policy Management Framework for Managing Enterprise Policies

Authors: Dahir A. Ga'al, Wardah Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Policy management in organizations became rising issue in the last decade. It’s because of today’s regulatory requirements in the organizations. To manage policies in large organizations is an imperative work. However, major challenges facing organizations in the last decade is managing all the policies in the organization and making them an active documents rather than simple (inactive) documents stored in computer hard drive or on a shelf. Because of this challenge, organizations need policy management program. This policy management program can be either manual or automated. This paper presents suggestions towards managing policies in organizations. As well as possible policy management solution or program to be utilized, manual or automated. The research first examines the models and frameworks used for managing policies from various perspectives in the literature of the research area/domain. At the end of this paper, a policy management framework is proposed for managing enterprise policies effectively and in a simplified manner.

Keywords: Policy, policy management, policy management program, policy repository.

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847 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: Compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection.

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846 Energy Efficient Cooperative Caching in WSN

Authors: Narottam Chand

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of number of tiny, low cost and low power sensor nodes to monitor some physical phenomenon. The major limitation in these networks is the use of non-rechargeable battery having limited power supply. The main cause of energy consumption in such networks is communication subsystem. This paper presents an energy efficient Cluster Cooperative Caching at Sensor (C3S) based upon grid type clustering. Sensor nodes belonging to the same cluster/grid form a cooperative cache system for the node since the cost for communication with them is low both in terms of energy consumption and message exchanges. The proposed scheme uses cache admission control and utility based data replacement policy to ensure that more useful data is retained in the local cache of a node. Simulation results demonstrate that C3S scheme performs better in various performance metrics than NICoCa which is existing cooperative caching protocol for WSNs.

Keywords: Cooperative caching, cache replacement, admission control, WSN, clustering.

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845 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: Economic growth, fiscal policy, monetary policy, VECM.

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844 The Basic Problems for the Realization of the Concept of Economic Policy

Authors: R. Gvelesiani, I. Gogorishvili

Abstract:

The concept of economic policy and the practical economic policy diverge from each other at a certain stage of development. This is related to the concept of realization of the underlying problems. It comes with all the problems emerged in the market oriented economic order due to the political processes based on social welfare policy. The realization of the concept of economic policy is impeded by economic and political obstacles. If you want to fill the appeared between the concept and reality, it is necessary to identify and avoid these obstacles. It requires the following: increase of the level of the knowledge of prevention technology in understanding of economic relations, as well as political aspects of the formation of ideas; perfection of economic policy toolkit, and political methods. It is necessary to realize what is the main precondition of implementation and further development of the concept of economic policy, as well as the formation of opinions about economic and public safety. This is a broad consensus on the basic values of the content and the scale of action, which the general public wants to be realized.

Keywords: Economic Policy, Basic Problems, Social Welfare Policy.

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843 Prediction of Compressive Strength of SCC Containing Bottom Ash using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Yogesh Aggarwal, Paratibha Aggarwal

Abstract:

The paper presents a comparative performance of the models developed to predict 28 days compressive strengths using neural network techniques for data taken from literature (ANN-I) and data developed experimentally for SCC containing bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregates (ANN-II). The data used in the models are arranged in the format of six and eight input parameters that cover the contents of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, fly ash as partial replacement of cement, bottom ash as partial replacement of sand, water and water/powder ratio, superplasticizer dosage and an output parameter that is 28-days compressive strength and compressive strengths at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days, respectively for ANN-I and ANN-II. The importance of different input parameters is also given for predicting the strengths at various ages using neural network. The model developed from literature data could be easily extended to the experimental data, with bottom ash as partial replacement of sand with some modifications.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, bottom ash, strength, prediction, neural network, importance factor.

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842 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: Air injection, Carbon dioxide sequestration, Hydrate production, Natural gas hydrate.

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841 Access Policy Specification for SCADA Networks

Authors: Rodrigo Chandia, Mauricio Papa

Abstract:

Efforts to secure supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems must be supported under the guidance of sound security policies and mechanisms to enforce them. Critical elements of the policy must be systematically translated into a format that can be used by policy enforcement components. Ideally, the goal is to ensure that the enforced policy is a close reflection of the specified policy. However, security controls commonly used to enforce policies in the IT environment were not designed to satisfy the specific needs of the SCADA environment. This paper presents a language, based on the well-known XACML framework, for the expression of authorization policies for SCADA systems.

Keywords: Access policy specification, process control systems, network security.

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840 Structural Monitoring and Control During Support System Replacement of a Historical Gate

Authors: Ahmet Turer

Abstract:

Middle-gate is located in Hasankeyf, Batman dating back to 1800 BC and is one of the important historical structures in Turkey. The ancient structure has suffered major structural cracks due to aging as well as lateral pressure of a cracked rock which is predicted to be about 100 tons. The existing support system was found to be inadequate to support the load especially after a recent rock fall in the close vicinity. Concerns were increased since the existing support system that is integral with a damaged and cracked gate wall needed to be replaced by a new support system. The replacement process must be carefully monitored by crackmeters and control mechanisms should be integrated to prevent cracks to expand while the same crack width needs to be maintained after the operation. The control system and actions taken during the intervention are explained in this paper.

Keywords: structural control, crack width, replacement, support

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