Search results for: axial behavior test.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4822

Search results for: axial behavior test.

4822 Lateral Behavior of Concrete

Authors: Ali Khajeh Samani, Mario M. Attard

Abstract:

Lateral expansion is a factor defining the level of confinement in reinforced concrete columns. Therefore, predicting the lateral strain relationship with axial strain becomes an important issue. Measuring lateral strains in experiments is difficult and only few report experimental lateral strains. Among the existing analytical formulations, two recent models are compared with available test results in this paper with shortcomings highlighted. A new analytical model is proposed here for lateral strain axial strain relationship and is based on the supposition that the concrete behaves linear elastic in the early stages of loading and then nonlinear hardening up to the peak stress and then volumetric expansion. The proposal for the lateral strain axial strain relationship after the peak stress is mainly based on the hypothesis that the plastic lateral strain varies linearly with the plastic axial strain and it is shown that this is related to the lateral confinement level.

Keywords: Confined Concrete, Lateral Strain, Triaxial test, Postpeak behavior

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4821 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari

Abstract:

This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: Axial loading, energy absorption performance, computational mechanics, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode, thin-walled tubes.

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4820 Experimental Investigation on Cold-Formed Steel Foamed Concrete Composite Wall under Compression

Authors: Zhifeng Xu, Zhongfan Chen

Abstract:

A series of tests on cold-formed steel foamed concrete (CSFC) composite walls subjected to axial load were proposed. The primary purpose of the experiments was to study the mechanical behavior and identify the failure modes of CSFC composite walls. Two main factors were considered in this study: 1) specimen with pouring foamed concrete or without and 2) different foamed concrete density ranks (corresponding to different foamed concrete strength). The interior space between two pieces of straw board of the specimen W-2 and W-3 were poured foamed concrete, and the specimen W-1 does not have foamed concrete core. The foamed concrete density rank of the specimen W-2 was A05 grade, and that of the specimen W-3 was A07 grade. Results showed that the failure mode of CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete was distortional buckling of cold-formed steel (CFS) column, and that poured foamed concrete includes the local crushing of foamed concrete and local buckling of CFS column, but the former prior to the later. Compared with CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete, the ultimate bearing capacity of spec imens poured A05 grade and A07 grade foamed concrete increased 1.6 times and 2.2 times respectively, and specimen poured foamed concrete had a low vertical deformation. According to these results, the simplified calculation formula for the CSFC wall subjected to axial load was proposed, and the calculated results from this formula are in very good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, composite wall, foamed concrete, axial behavior test.

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4819 Energy Systems and Crushing Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Hakim S. Sultan Aljibori

Abstract:

Effect of geometry on crushing behavior, energy absorption and failure mode of woven roving jute fiber/epoxy laminated composite tubes were experimentally studied. Investigations were carried out on three different geometrical types of composite tubes (circular, square and radial corrugated) subjected to axial compressive loading. It was observed in axial crushing study that the load bearing capability is significantly influenced by corrugation geometry. The influence of geometries of specimens was supported by the plotted load – displacement curves of the tests.

Keywords: Crushing behavior, jute fiber, composite tubes andSpecific energy absorption

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4818 Investigation of Fire Damaged Reinforced Concrete Walls with Axial Force

Authors: Hyun Ah Yoon, Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall system of residential buildings is popular in South Korea. RC walls are subjected to axial forces in common and the effect of axial forces on the strength loss of the fire damaged walls has not been investigated. This paper aims at investigating temperature distribution on fire damaged concrete walls having different axial loads. In the experiments, a variable of specimens is axial force ratio. RC walls are fabricated with 150mm of wall thicknesses, 750mm of lengths and 1,300mm of heights having concrete strength of 24MPa. After curing, specimens are heated on one surface with ISO-834 standard time-temperature curve for 2 hours and temperature distributions during the test are measured using thermocouples inside the walls. The experimental results show that the temperature of the RC walls exposed to fire increases as axial force ratio increases. To verify the experiments, finite element (FE) models are generated for coupled temperature-structure analyses. The analytical results of thermal behaviors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The predicted displacement of the walls decreases when the axial force increases. 

Keywords: Axial force ratio, coupled analysis, fire, reinforced concrete wall, temperature distribution.

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4817 Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma-Sabbagh

Abstract:

Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.

Keywords: Pile group, passive piles, lateral soil movement, soil density, axial loads.

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4816 High Precision Draw Bending of Asymmetric Channel Section with Restriction Dies and Axial Tension

Authors: Y. Okude, S. Sakaki, S. Yoshihara, B. J. MacDonald

Abstract:

In recent years asymmetric cross section aluminum alloy stock has been finding increasing use in various industrial manufacturing areas such as general structures and automotive components. In these areas, components are generally required to have complex curved configuration and, as such, a bending process is required during manufacture. Undesirable deformation in bending processes such as flattening or wrinkling can easily occur when thin-walled sections are bent. Hence, a thorough understanding of the bending behavior of such sections is needed to prevent these undesirable deformations. In this study, the bending behavior of asymmetric channel section was examined using finite element analysis (FEA). Typical methods of preventing undesirable deformation, such as asymmetric laminated elastic mandrels were included in FEA model of draw bending. Additionally, axial tension was applied to prevent wrinkling. By utilizing the FE simulations effect of restriction dies and axial tension on undesirable deformation during the process was clarified.

Keywords: bending, draw bending, asymmetric channel section, restriction dies, axial tension, FEA

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4815 The Estimation of Semi Elliptical Surface Cracks Advancement via Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Gürol Önal, Ahmet Avcı

Abstract:

This paper presented the results of an experimental investigation into the axial fatigue behavior of a 5086 aluminum alloy which have several notch-aspect ratios a0/c0 and notch thickness ratio a/t with semi-elliptical surface cracks. Tests were conducted in la b air for stress levels of 50 % of their yield strength. Experiments were carried out for various notch to thickness ratios. Crack growth rates of test specimens both in surface and depth directions were determined by using die penetration method. Fuzzy Logic method was used to predict the deep direction crack growth because the dept of the crack is considerably difficult to measure.

Keywords: Axial fatigue, Crack growth rate, surface crack, Al-Mg alloy.

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4814 Modeling and Simulation of Axial Fan Using CFD

Authors: Hemant Kumawat

Abstract:

Axial flow fans, while incapable of developing high pressures, they are well suitable for handling large volumes of air at relatively low pressures. In general, they are low in cost and possess good efficiency, and can have blades of airfoil shape. Axial flow fans show good efficiencies, and can operate at high static pressures if such operation is necessary. Our objective is to model and analyze the flow through AXIAL FANS using CFD Software and draw inference from the obtained results, so as to get maximum efficiency. The performance of an axial fan was simulated using CFD and the effect of variation of different parameters such as the blade number, noise level, velocity, temperature and pressure distribution on the blade surface was studied. This paper aims to present a final 3D CAD model of axial flow fan. Adapting this model to the available components in the market, the first optimization was done. After this step, CFX flow solver is used to do the necessary numerical analyses on the aerodynamic performance of this model. This analysis results in a final optimization of the proposed 3D model which is presented in this article.

Keywords: ANSYS CFX, Axial Fan, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Optimization.

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4813 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen

Abstract:

Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, Axial Capacity.

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4812 Air flow and Heat Transfer Modeling of an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: Airoldi G., Bumby J. R., Dominy C., G.L. Ingram, Lim C. H., Mahkamov K., N. L. Brown, A. Mebarki, M. Shanel

Abstract:

Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machines require effective cooling due to their high power density. The detrimental effects of overheating such as degradation of the insulation materials, magnets demagnetization, and increase of Joule losses are well known. This paper describes the CFD simulations performed on a test rig model of an air cooled Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) generator built at Durham University to identify the temperatures and heat transfer coefficient on the stator. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and the Energy equations are solved and the flow pattern and heat transfer developing inside the machine are described. The Nusselt number on the stator surfaces has been found. The dependency of the heat transfer on the flow field is described temperature field obtained. Tests on an experimental are undergoing in order to validate the CFD results.

Keywords: Axial flux permanent magnet machines, thermal modeling, CFD.

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4811 Overall Stability of Welded Q460GJ Steel Box Columns: Experimental Study and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Zhou Xiong, Kang Shao Bo, Yang Bo

Abstract:

To date, high-performance structural steel has been widely used for columns in construction practices due to its significant advantages over conventional steel. However, the same design approach with conventional steel columns is still adopted in the design of high-performance steel columns. As a result, its superior properties cannot be fully considered in design. This paper conducts a test and finite element analysis on the overall stability behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns. In the test, four steel columns with different slenderness and width-to-thickness ratio were compressed under an axial compression testing machine. And finite element models were established in which material nonlinearity and residual stress distributions of test columns were included. Then, comparisons were made between test results and finite element result, it showed that finite element analysis results are agree well with the test result. It means that the test and finite element model are reliable. Then, we compared the test result with the design value calculated by current code, the result showed that Q460GJ steel box columns have the higher overall buckling capacity than the design value. It is necessary to update the design curves for Q460GJ steel columns so that the overall stability capacity of Q460GJ box columns can be designed appropriately.

Keywords: Axial compression, Finite element analysis, Overall stability, Q460GJ steel, Welded box columns.

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4810 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

Abstract:

According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: Transverse flux PM linear machine, flux distribution, axial end flux leakage, detent force.

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4809 Application of Relative Regional Total Energy in Rotary Drums with Axial Segregation Characteristics

Authors: Qiuhua Miao, Peng Huang, Yifei Ding

Abstract:

Particles with different properties tend to be unevenly distributed along an axial direction of the rotating drum, which is usually ignored. Therefore, it is important to study the relationship between axial segregation characteristics and particle crushing efficiency in longer drums. In this paper, a relative area total energy (RRTE) index is proposed, which aims to evaluate the overall crushing energy distribution characteristics. Based on numerical simulation verification, the proposed RRTE index can reflect the overall grinding effect more comprehensively, clearly representing crushing energy distribution in different drum areas. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to the relation between axial segregation and crushing energy in drums. Compared with the radial section, the collision loss energy of the axial section can better reflect the overall crushing effect in long drums. The axial segregation characteristics directly affect the total energy distribution between medium and abrasive, reducing overall crushing efficiency. Therefore, the axial segregation characteristics should be avoided as much as possible in the crushing of the long rotary drum.

Keywords: Relative regional total energy, crushing energy, axial segregation characteristics, rotary drum.

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4808 Classification of Buckling Behavior on Uniaxial Compression using A5052-O Sheets

Authors: S. Onoda, S. Yoshihara, B. J. MacDonald, Y. Okude

Abstract:

Aluminum alloy sheets have several advantages such as the lightweight, high-specific strength and recycling efficiency. Therefore, aluminum alloy sheets in sheet forming have been used in various areas as automotive components and so forth. During the process of sheet forming, wrinkling which is caused by compression stress might occur and the formability of sheets was affected by occurrence of wrinkling. A few studies of uniaxial compressive test by using square tubes, pipes and sheets were carried out to clarify the each wrinkling behavior. However, on uniaxial compressive test, deformation behavior of the sheets hasn-t be cleared. Then, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the buckling behavior and the forming conditions. In this study, the effect of dimension of the sheet in the buckling behavior on compression test of aluminum alloy sheet was cleared by experiment and FEA. As the results, the buckling deformation was classified by three modes in terms of the distribution of equivalent plastic strain.

Keywords: Sheet forming, Compression test, Aluminum alloy sheet, Buckling behavior

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4807 Frequency Response Analysis of Reinforced- Soil Retaining Walls with Polymeric Strips

Authors: Ali Komakpanah, Maryam Yazdi

Abstract:

Few studies have been conducted on polymeric strip and the behavior of soil retaining walls. This paper will present the effect of frequency on the dynamic behavior of reinforced soil retaining walls with polymeric strips. The frequency content describes how the amplitude of a ground motion is distributed among different frequencies. Since the frequency content of an earthquake motion will strongly influence the effects of that motion, the characterization of the motion cannot be completed without the consideration of its frequency content. The maximum axial force of reinforcements and horizontal displacement of the reinforced walls are focused in this research. To clarify the dynamic behavior of reinforced soil retaining walls with polymeric strips, a numerical modeling using Finite Difference Method is benefited. As the results indicate, the frequency of input base acceleration has an important effect on the behavior of these structures. Because of resonant in the system, where the frequency of the input dynamic load is equal to the natural frequency of the system, the maximum horizontal displacement and the maximum axial forces in polymeric strips is occurred. Moreover, they were to increase the structure flexibility because of the main advantages of polymeric strips; i.e. being simple method of construction, having a homogeneous behavior with soils, and possessing long durability, which are of great importance in dynamic analysis.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, frequency, polymeric strip, reinforced soil.

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4806 Study of the Effect of Seismic Behavior of Twin Tunnels Position on Each Other

Authors: M. Azadi, M. Kalhor

Abstract:

Excavation of shallow tunnels such as subways in urban areas plays a significant role as a life line and investigation of the soil behavior against tunnel construction is one of the vital subjects studied in the geotechnical scope. Nowadays, urban tunnels are mostly drilled by T.B.Ms and changing the applied forces to tunnel lining is one of the most risky matters while drilling tunnels by these machines. Variation of soil cementation can change the behavior of these forces in the tunnel lining. Therefore, this article is designed to assess the impact of tunnel excavation in different soils and several amounts of cementation on applied loads to tunnel lining under static and dynamic loads. According to the obtained results, changing the cementation of soil will affect the applied loadings to the tunnel envelope significantly. It can be determined that axial force in tunnel lining decreases considerably when soil cementation increases. Also, bending moment and shear force in tunnel lining decreases as the soil cementation increases and causes bending and shear behavior of the segments to improve. Based on the dynamic analyses, as cohesion factor in soil increases, bending moment, axial and shear forces of segments decrease but lining behavior of the tunnel is the same as static state. The results show that decreasing the overburden applied to lining caused by cementation is different in two static and dynamic states.

Keywords: Tunnel, Soil cementation, Static, Dynamic.

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4805 Energy Absorption and Axial Tearing Behaviour of Metallic Tubes Using Angled Dies: Experimental and Numerical Simulation

Authors: V. K. Bheemineni, B. Käfer, H. Lammer, M. Kotnik, F. O. Riemelmoser

Abstract:

This paper concerns about the experimental and numerical investigations of energy absorption and axial tearing behaviour of aluminium 6060 circular thin walled tubes under static axial compression. The tubes are received in T66 heat treatment condition with fixed outer diameter of 42mm, thickness of 1.5mm and length of 120mm. The primary variables are the conical die angles (15°, 20° and 25°). Numerical simulations are carried on ANSYS/LS-DYNA software tool, for investigating the effect of friction between the tube and the die.

Keywords: Angled die, ANSYS/LS-DYNA, Axial tearing, Energy absorption.

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4804 The Effects of Work Values, Work-Value Congruence and Work Centrality on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Authors: Başak Uçanok

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to test the “work values" inventory developed by Tevruz and Turgut and to utilize the concept in a model, which aims to create a greater understanding of the work experience. In the study multiple effects of work values, work-value congruence and work centrality on organizational citizenship behavior are examined. In this respect, it is hypothesized that work values and work-value congruence predict organizational citizenship behavior through work centrality. Work-goal congruence test, Tevruz and Turgut-s work values inventory are administered along with Kanungo-s work centrality and Podsakoff et al.-s [47] organizational citizenship behavior test to employees working in Turkish SME-s. The study validated that Tevruz and Turgut-s work values inventory and the work-value congruence test were reliable and could be used for future research. The study revealed the mediating role of work centrality only for the relationship of work values and the responsibility dimension of citizenship behavior. Most important, this study brought in an important concept, work-value congruence, which enables a better understanding of work values and their relation to various attitudinal variables.

Keywords: Work values, work-value congruence, work centrality, organizational citizenship behavior.

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4803 Limiting Fiber Extensibility as Parameter for Damage in Venous Wall

Authors: Lukas Horny, Rudolf Zitny, Hynek Chlup, Tomas Adamek, Michal Sara

Abstract:

An inflation–extension test with human vena cava inferior was performed with the aim to fit a material model. The vein was modeled as a thick–walled tube loaded by internal pressure and axial force. The material was assumed to be an incompressible hyperelastic fiber reinforced continuum. Fibers are supposed to be arranged in two families of anti–symmetric helices. Considered anisotropy corresponds to local orthotropy. Used strain energy density function was based on a concept of limiting strain extensibility. The pressurization was comprised by four pre–cycles under physiological venous loading (0 – 4kPa) and four cycles under nonphysiological loading (0 – 21kPa). Each overloading cycle was performed with different value of axial weight. Overloading data were used in regression analysis to fit material model. Considered model did not fit experimental data so good. Especially predictions of axial force failed. It was hypothesized that due to nonphysiological values of loading pressure and different values of axial weight the material was not preconditioned enough and some damage occurred inside the wall. A limiting fiber extensibility parameter Jm was assumed to be in relation to supposed damage. Each of overloading cycles was fitted separately with different values of Jm. Other parameters were held the same. This approach turned out to be successful. Variable value of Jm can describe changes in the axial force – axial stretch response and satisfy pressure – radius dependence simultaneously.

Keywords: Constitutive model, damage, fiber reinforcedcomposite, limiting fiber extensibility, preconditioning, vena cavainferior.

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4802 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan

Abstract:

Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: Axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed.

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4801 Constitutive Equations for Human Saphenous Vein Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Hynek Chlup, Lukas Horny, Rudolf Zitny, Svatava Konvickova, Tomas Adamek

Abstract:

Coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) are widely studied with respect to hemodynamic conditions which play important role in presence of a restenosis. However, papers which concern with constitutive modeling of CABG are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study is to find a constitutive model for CABG tissue. A sample of the CABG obtained within an autopsy underwent an inflation–extension test. Displacements were recoredered by CCD cameras and subsequently evaluated by digital image correlation. Pressure – radius and axial force – elongation data were used to fit material model. The tissue was modeled as onelayered composite reinforced by two families of helical fibers. The material is assumed to be locally orthotropic, nonlinear, incompressible and hyperelastic. Material parameters are estimated for two strain energy functions (SEF). The first is classical exponential. The second SEF is logarithmic which allows interpretation by means of limiting (finite) strain extensibility. Presented material parameters are estimated by optimization based on radial and axial equilibrium equation in a thick-walled tube. Both material models fit experimental data successfully. The exponential model fits significantly better relationship between axial force and axial strain than logarithmic one.

Keywords: Constitutive model, coronary artery bypass graft, digital image correlation, fiber reinforced composite, inflation test, saphenous vein.

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4800 Identifying and Prioritizing Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Based on Product Value

Authors: Houshang Taghizadeh, Gholamreza Soltani Fesghandis

Abstract:

Nowadays, without the awareness of consumer behavior and correct understanding of it, it is not possible for organizations to take appropriate measures to meet the consumer needs and demands. The aim of this paper is the identification and prioritization of the factors affecting the consumer behavior based on the product value. The population of the study includes all the consumers of furniture producing firms in East Azarbaijan province, Iran. The research sample includes 93 people selected by the sampling formula in unlimited population. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire, the validity of which was confirmed through face validity and the reliability of which was determined, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The Kolmogorov-Smironov test was used to test data normality, the t-test for identification of factors affecting the product value, and Friedman test for prioritizing the factors. The results show that quality, satisfaction, styling, price, finishing operation, performance, safety, worth, shape, use, and excellence are placed from 1 to 11 priorities, respectively.

Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Consumer Satisfaction, Product, Value

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4799 Effect of Groove Location on the Dynamic Characteristics of Multiple Axial Groove Water Lubricated Journal Bearing

Authors: M. Vijaya Kini, R. S. Pai, D. Srikanth Rao, Satish Shenoy B, R. Pai

Abstract:

The stability characteristics of water lubricated journal bearings having three axial grooves are obtained theoretically. In this lubricant (water) is fed under pressure from one end of the bearing, through the 3-axial grooves (groove angles may vary). These bearings can use the process fluid as the lubricant, as in the case of feed water pumps. The Reynolds equation is solved numerically by the finite difference method satisfying the boundary conditions. The stiffness and damping coefficient for various bearing number and eccentricity ratios, assuming linear pressure drop along the groove, shows that smaller groove angles better results.

Keywords: 3-axial groove, dynamic characteristics, groovelocation, water lubricated bearings.

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4798 CFD Modeling of a Radiator Axial Fan for Air Flow Distribution

Authors: S. Jain, Y. Deshpande

Abstract:

The fluid mechanics principle is used extensively in designing axial flow fans and their associated equipment. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air flow distribution from a radiator axial flow fan used in an acid pump truck Tier4 (APT T4) Repower. This axial flow fan augments the transfer of heat from the engine mounted on the APT T4. CFD analysis was performed for an area weighted average static pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the fan. Pressure contours, velocity vectors, and path lines were plotted for detailing the flow characteristics for different orientations of the fan blade. The results were then compared and verified against known theoretical observations and actual experimental data. This study shows that a CFD simulation can be very useful for predicting and understanding the flow distribution from a radiator fan for further research work.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), acid pump truck (APT) Tier4 Repower, axial flow fan, area weighted average static pressure difference, and contour plots.

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4797 Application of a Fracture-Mechanics Approach to Gas Pipelines

Authors: Ľubomír Gajdoš, Martin Šperl

Abstract:

This study offers a new simple method for assessing an axial part-through crack in a pipe wall. The method utilizes simple approximate expressions for determining the fracture parameters K, J, and employs these parameters to determine critical dimensions of a crack on the basis of equality between the J-integral and the J-based fracture toughness of the pipe steel. The crack tip constraint is taken into account by the so-called plastic constraint factor C, by which the uniaxial yield stress in the J-integral equation is multiplied. The results of the prediction of the fracture condition are verified by burst tests on test pipes.

Keywords: Axial crack, Fracture-mechanics, J integral, Pipeline wall.

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4796 Small Signal Stability Assessment of MEPE Test System in Free and Open Source Software

Authors: Kyaw Myo Lin

Abstract:

This paper presents small signal stability study carried over the 140-Bus, 31-Machine, 5-Area MEPE system and validated on free and open source software: PSAT. Well-established linearalgebra analysis, eigenvalue analysis, is employed to determine the small signal dynamic behavior of test system. The aspects of local and interarea oscillations which may affect the operation and behavior of power system are analyzed. Eigenvalue analysis is carried out to investigate the small signal behavior of test system and the participation factors have been determined to identify the participation of the states in the variation of different mode shapes. Also, the variations in oscillatory modes are presented to observe the damping performance of the test system.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, Mode shapes, MEPE test system, Participation factors, Power System oscillations.

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4795 Influence of Axial Magnetic Field on the Electrical Breakdown and Secondary Electron Emission in Plane-Parallel Plasma Discharge

Authors: Sabah I. Wais, Raghad Y. Mohammed, Sedki O. Yousif

Abstract:

The influence of axial magnetic field (B=0.48 T) on the variation of ionization efficiency coefficient h and secondary electron emission coefficient g with respect to reduced electric field E/P is studied at a new range of plane-parallel electrode spacing (0< d< 20 cm) and different nitrogen working pressure between 0.5-20 Pa. The axial magnetic field is produced from an inductive copper coil of radius 5.6 cm. The experimental data of breakdown voltage is adopted to estimate the mean Paschen curves at different working features. The secondary electron emission coefficient is calculated from the mean Paschen curve and used to determine the minimum breakdown voltage. A reduction of discharge voltage of about 25% is investigated by the applied of axial magnetic field. At high interelectrode spacing, the effect of axial magnetic field becomes more significant for the obtained values of h but it was less for the values of g.

Keywords: Paschen curve, Townsend coefficient, Secondaryelectron emission, Magnetic field, Minimum breakdown voltage.

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4794 On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns

Authors: T. Yilmaz, N. Kirac

Abstract:

Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.

Keywords: Lateral-torsional buckling, stability, beam-column, monosymmetric section.

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4793 Experimental Challenges and Solutions in Design and Operation of the Test Rig for Water Lubricated Journal Bearing

Authors: Ravindra Mallya, B. Satish Shenoy, B. Raghuvir Pai

Abstract:

The study deals with the challenges in developing a test rig to test the performance of water lubricated journal bearing. The test rig is designed to simulate the working conditions of the bearing in order to understand their performance before they are put in operation. The bearing that is studied is the commercially available water lubricated bearing which has a rubber liner bonded with a rigid metal shell. The lubricant enters the bearing axially through a pressurized inlet tank and exits to an outlet tank which is at sufficiently low pressure. The load on the bearing is applied through the dead weight system which acts both in upward and downward direction so that net load acts on the bearing. The issues in feeding the lubricant into the bearing from the inlet side and preventing the leakage of the lubricant is discussed. The application of the load on the test bearing while maintaining the bearing afloat is also discussed.

Keywords: Axial groove, hydrodynamic pressure, journal bearing, test rig, water lubrication.

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