Search results for: Ball milling
188 Behavior of Cu-WC-Ti Metal Composite Afterusing Planetary Ball Milling
Authors: A.T.Z. Mahamat, A.M. A Rani, Patthi Husain
Abstract:Copper based composites reinforced with WC and Ti particles were prepared using planetary ball-mill. The experiment was designed by using Taguchi technique and milling was carried out in an air for several hours. The powder was characterized before and after milling using the SEM, TEM and X-ray for microstructure and for possible new phases. Microstructures show that milled particles size and reduction in particle size depend on many parameters. The distance d between planes of atoms estimated from X-ray powder diffraction data and TEM image. X-ray diffraction patterns of the milled powder did not show clearly any new peak or energy shift, but the TEM images show a significant change in crystalline structure of corporate on titanium in the composites.
Keywords: ball milling, microstructures, titanium, tungstencarbides, X-rayProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1477
187 Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy
Authors: M. J. Shivaram, Shashi Bhushan Arya, Jagannath Nayak, Bharat Bhooshan Panigrahi
Abstract:Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method. In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.
Keywords: Ball Milling, compressive strengths, microstructure, porous Titanium alloy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 748
186 Analysis of Chatter in Ball End Milling by Wavelet Transform
Authors: S. Tangjitsitcharoen
The chatter is one of the major limitations of the productivity in the ball end milling process. It affects the surface roughness, the dimensional accuracy and the tool life. The aim of this research is to propose the new system to detect the chatter during the ball end milling process by using the wavelet transform. The proposed method is implemented on the 5-axis CNC machining center and the new three parameters are introduced from three dynamic cutting forces, which are calculated by taking the ratio of the average variances of dynamic cutting forces to the absolute variances of themselves. It had been proved that the chatter can be easier to detect during the in-process cutting by using the new parameters which are proposed in this research. The experimentally obtained results showed that the wavelet transform can provide the reliable results to detect the chatter under various cutting conditions.
Keywords: Ball end milling, wavelet transform, fast fourier transform, chatter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2246
185 Carbothermic Reduction of Mechanically Activated Mixtures of Celestite and Carbon
Authors: N.Setoudeh, M. Ali Askari Zamani, N.J.Welham
Abstract:The effect of dry milling on the carbothermic reduction of celestite was investigated. Mixtures of celestite concentrate (98% SrSO4) and activated carbon (99% carbon) was milled for 1 and 24 hours in a planetary ball mill. Un-milled and milled mixtures and their products after carbothermic reduction were studied by a combination of XRD and TGA/DTA experiments. The thermogravimetric analyses and XRD results showed that by milling celestite-carbon mixtures for one hour, the formation temperature of strontium sulfide decreased from about 720°C (in un-milled sample) to about 600°C, after 24 hours milling it decreased to 530°C. It was concluded that milling induces increasingly thorough mixing of the reactants to reduction occurring at lower temperatures
Keywords: Activated carbon, Celestite, Ball milling, Carbothermic reduction, Strontium sulfide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1997
184 Progressive Strategy of Milling by means of Tool Axis Inclination Angle
Authors: Sadílek M., Čep R.
This work deals with problems of tool axis inclination angles in ball-end milling. Tool axis inclination angle contributes to improvement of functional surface properties (surface integrity - surface roughness, residual stress, micro hardness, etc.), decreasing cutting forces and improving production. By milling with ball-end milling tool, using standard way of cutting, when work piece and cutting tool contain right angle, we have zero cutting speed on edge. At this point cutting tool only pushes material into the work piece. Here we can observe the following undesirable effects - chip contraction, increasing of cutting temperature, increasing vibrations or creation of built-up edge. These effects have negative results – low quality of surface and decreasing of tool life (in the worse case even it is pinching out). These effects can be eliminated with the tilt of cutting tool or tilt of work piece.
Keywords: CAD/CAM system, tool axis inclination angle, ballend milling, surface roughness, cutting forces.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1725
183 Feedrate Optimization for Ball-end milling of Sculptured Surfaces using Fuzzy Logic Controller
Authors: Njiri J. G., Ikua B. W., Nyakoe G. N.
Optimization of cutting parameters important in precision machining in regards to efficiency and surface integrity of the machined part. Usually productivity and precision in machining is limited by the forces emanating from the cutting process. Due to the inherent varying nature of the workpiece in terms of geometry and material composition, the peak cutting forces vary from point to point during machining process. In order to increase productivity without compromising on machining accuracy, it is important to control these cutting forces. In this paper a fuzzy logic control algorithm is developed that can be applied in the control of peak cutting forces in milling of spherical surfaces using ball end mills. The controller can adaptively vary the feedrate to maintain allowable cutting force on the tool. This control algorithm is implemented in a computer numerical control (CNC) machine. It has been demonstrated that the controller can provide stable machining and improve the performance of the CNC milling process by varying feedrate.
Keywords: Ball-end mill, feedrate, fuzzy logic controller, machining optimization, spherical surface.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2317
182 Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics
Authors: Chongtham Jiten, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram
Nanocrystalline powders of the lead-free piezoelectric material, tantalum-substituted potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (KNNT), were produced using a Retsch PM100 planetary ball mill by setting the milling time to 15h, 20h, 25h, 30h, 35h and 40h, at a fixed speed of 250rpm. The average particle size of the milled powders was found to decrease from 12nm to 3nm as the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, which is in agreement with the existing theoretical model. An anomalous increase to 98nm and then a drop to 3nm in the particle size were observed as the milling time further increases to 30h and 40h respectively. Various sizes of these starting KNNT powders were used to investigate the effect of milling time on the microstructure, dielectric properties, phase transitions and piezoelectric properties of the resulting KNNT ceramics. The particle size of starting KNNT was somewhat proportional to the grain size. As the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, the resulting ceramics exhibit enhancement in the values of relative density from 94.8% to 95.8%, room temperature dielectric constant (εRT) from 878 to 1213, and piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) from 108pC/N to 128pC/N. For this range of ceramic samples, grain size refinement suppresses the maximum dielectric constant (εmax), shifts the Curie temperature (Tc) to a lower temperature and the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition (Tot) to a higher temperature. Further increase of milling time from 25h to 40h produces a gradual degradation in the values of relative density, εRT, and d33 of the resulting ceramics.
Keywords: Ceramics, Dielectric, High-energy milling, Perovskite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2408
181 Synthesis of Y2O3 Films by Spray Coating with Milled EDTA·Y·H Complexes
Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Tetsuo Sekiya, Ayumu Toyama, Atsushi Nakamura, Ikumi Toda, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Hidetoshi Saitoh, Atsushi Nakamura, Ariyuki Kato
Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films have been successfully deposited with yttrium-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA·Y·H) complexes prepared by various milling techniques. The effects of the properties of the EDTA·Y·H complex on the properties of the deposited Y2O3 films have been analyzed. Seven different types of the raw EDTA·Y·H complexes were prepared by various commercial milling techniques such as ball milling, hammer milling, commercial milling, and mortar milling. The milled EDTA·Y·H complexes exhibited various particle sizes and distributions, depending on the milling method. Furthermore, we analyzed the crystal structure, morphology and elemental distribution profile of the metal oxide films deposited on stainless steel substrate with the milled EDTA·Y·H complexes. Depending on the milling technique, the flow properties of the raw powders differed. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples revealed the formation of Y2O3 crystalline phase, irrespective of the milling technique. Of all the different milling techniques, the hammer milling technique is considered suitable for fabricating dense Y2O3 films.
Keywords: Powder sizes and distributions, Flame spray coating techniques, Yttrium oxide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2229
180 Investigation of New Method to Achieve Well Dispersed Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Al Matrix Composites
Authors: A.H.Javadi, Sh.Mirdamadi, M.A.Faghisani, S.Shakhesi
Abstract:Nanostructured materials have attracted many researchers due to their outstanding mechanical and physical properties. For example, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) are considered to be attractive reinforcement materials for light weight and high strength metal matrix composites. These composites are being projected for use in structural applications for their high specific strength as well as functional materials for their exciting thermal and electrical characteristics. The critical issues of CNT-reinforced MMCs include processing techniques, nanotube dispersion, interface, strengthening mechanisms and mechanical properties. One of the major obstacles to the effective use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements in metal matrix composites is their agglomeration and poor distribution/dispersion within the metallic matrix. In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of CNTs (or CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. Processing techniques used for synthesis of the composites have been studied with an objective to achieve homogeneous distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix. Modified mechanical alloying (ball milling) techniques have emerged as promising routes for the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced metal matrix composites. In order to obtain a homogeneous product, good control of the milling process, in particular control of the ball movement, is essential. The control of the ball motion during the milling leads to a reduction in grinding energy and a more homogeneous product. Also, the critical inner diameter of the milling container at a particular rotational speed can be calculated. In the present work, we use conventional and modified mechanical alloying to generate a homogenous distribution of 2 wt. % CNT within Al powders. 99% purity Aluminium powder (Acros, 200mesh) was used along with two different types of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) having different aspect ratios to produce Al-CNT composites. The composite powders were processed into bulk material by compaction, and sintering using a cylindrical compaction and tube furnace. Field Emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Vickers macro hardness tester were used to evaluate CNT dispersion, powder morphology, CNT damage, phase analysis, mechanical properties and crystal size determination. Despite the success of ball milling in dispersing CNTs in Al powder, it is often accompanied with considerable strain hardening of the Al powder, which may have implications on the final properties of the composite. The results show that particle size and morphology vary with milling time. Also, by using the mixing process and sonication before mechanical alloying and modified ball mill, dispersion of the CNTs in Al matrix improves.
Keywords: multiwall carbon nanotube, Aluminum matrixcomposite, dispersion, mechanical alloying, sinteringProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2202
179 Dynamics and Control of Bouncing Ball
Authors: A. K. Kamath, N. M. Singh, R. Pasumarthy
Abstract:This paper investigates the control of a bouncing ball using Model Predictive Control. Bouncing ball is a benchmark problem for various rhythmic tasks such as juggling, walking, hopping and running. Humans develop intentions which may be perceived as our reference trajectory and tries to track it. The human brain optimizes the control effort needed to track its reference; this forms the central theme for control of bouncing ball in our investigations.
Keywords: Bouncing Ball, impact dynamics, intermittent control, model predictive control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1910
178 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Hydraulic L-Shaped Check Ball Behavior
Authors: Shinji Kajiwara
The spring-driven ball-type check valve is one of the most important components of hydraulic systems: it controls the position of the ball and prevents backward flow. To simplify the structure, the spring must be eliminated, and to accomplish this, the flow pattern and the behavior of the check ball in L-shaped pipe must be determined. In this paper, we present a full-scale model of a check ball made of acrylic resin, and we determine the relationship between the initial position of the ball, the position and diameter of the inflow port. The check flow rate increases in a standard center inflow model, and it is possible to greatly decrease the check-flow rate by shifting the inflow from the center.
Keywords: Hydraulics, Pipe Flow, Numerical Simulation, Flow Visualization, Check ball, L-shaped Pipe.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1953
177 Experimental Study on Machinability of Laser- Sintered Material in Ball End Milling
Authors: Abdullah Yassin, Takashi Ueda, Syed Tarmizi Syed Shazali
Abstract:This paper presents an experimental investigation on the machinability of laser-sintered material using small ball end mill focusing on wear mechanisms. Laser-sintered material was produced by irradiating a laser beam on a layer of loose fine SCM-Ni-Cu powder. Bulk carbon steel JIS S55C was selected as a reference steel. The effects of powder consolidation mechanisms and unsintered powder on the tool life and wear mechanisms were carried out. Results indicated that tool life in cutting laser-sintered material is lower than that in cutting JIS S55C. Adhesion of the work material and chipping were the main wear mechanisms of the ball end mill in cutting laser-sintered material. Cutting with the unsintered powder surrounding the tool and laser-sintered material had caused major fracture on the cutting edge.
Keywords: Laser-sintered material, tool life, wear mechanism.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1753
176 Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings Subjected to a Centric Thrust Load: Numerical Aspects
Authors: Mário C. Ricci
Abstract:A known iterative computational procedure is used for internal normal ball loads calculation in statically loaded single-row, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known thrust load, which is applied in the inner ring at the geometric bearing center line. Numerical aspects of the iterative procedure are discussed. Numerical examples results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature. Twenty figures are presented showing the geometrical features, the behavior of the convergence variables and the following parameters as functions of the thrust load: normal ball loads, contact angle, distance between curvature centers, and normal ball and axial deflections between the raceways.
Keywords: Ball, Bearing, Static, Load, Iterative, Numerical, Method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768
175 Mechanical Investigation Approach to Optimize the High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings Reinforced by B4C Nanoparticles
Authors: Behrooz Movahedi
Fe-based amorphous feedstock powders are used as the matrix into which various ratios of hard B4C nanoparticles (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 vol.%) as reinforcing agents were prepared using a planetary high-energy mechanical milling. The ball-milled nanocomposite feedstock powders were also sprayed by means of high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technique. The characteristics of the powder particles and the prepared coating depending on their microstructures and nanohardness were examined in detail using nanoindentation tester. The results showed that the formation of the Fe-based amorphous phase was noticed over the course of high-energy ball milling. It is interesting to note that the nanocomposite coating is divided into two regions, namely, a full amorphous phase region and homogeneous dispersion of B4C nanoparticles with a scale of 10–50 nm in a residual amorphous matrix. As the B4C content increases, the nanohardness of the composite coatings increases, but the fracture toughness begins to decrease at the B4C content higher than 20 vol.%. The optimal mechanical properties are obtained with 15 vol.% B4C due to the suitable content and uniform distribution of nanoparticles. Consequently, the changes in mechanical properties of the coatings were attributed to the changes in the brittle to ductile transition by adding B4C nanoparticles.
Keywords: Fe-based amorphous, B4C nanoparticles, nanocomposite coating, HVOF.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 607
174 Generating High-Accuracy Tool Path for 5-axis Flank Milling of Globoidal Spatial Cam
Authors: Li Chen, ZhouLong Li, Qing-zhen Bi, LiMin Zhu
Abstract:A new tool path planning method for 5-axis flank milling of a globoidal indexing cam is developed in this paper. The globoidal indexing cam is a practical transmission mechanism due to its high transmission speed, accuracy and dynamic performance. Machining the cam profile is a complex and precise task. The profile surface of the globoidal cam is generated by the conjugate contact motion of the roller. The generated complex profile surface is usually machined by 5-axis point-milling method. The point-milling method is time-consuming compared with flank milling. The tool path for 5-axis flank milling of globoidal cam is developed to improve the cutting efficiency. The flank milling tool path is globally optimized according to the minimum zone criterion, and high accuracy is guaranteed. The computational example and cutting simulation finally validate the developed method.
Keywords: Globoidal cam, flank milling, LSQR, MINIMAX.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2144
173 Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings Subjected to a Centric Thrust Load: Alternative Approach
Authors: Mário C. Ricci
Abstract:An alternative iterative computational procedure is proposed for internal normal ball loads calculation in statically loaded single-row, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known thrust load, which is applied in the inner ring at the geometric bearing center line. An accurate method for curvature radii at contacts with inner and outer raceways in the direction of the motion is used. Numerical aspects of the iterative procedure are discussed. Numerical examples results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature. Twenty figures are presented showing the geometrical features, the behavior of the convergence variables and the following parameters as functions of the thrust load: normal ball loads, contact angle, distance between curvature centers, and normal ball and axial deflections.
Keywords: Ball, Bearing, Static, Load, Iterative, Numerical, Method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1348
172 Prediction of Temperature Distribution during Drilling Process Using Artificial Neural Network
Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Nazli Jowkar, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard
Experimental & numeral study of temperature distribution during milling process, is important in milling quality and tools life aspects. In the present study the milling cross-section temperature is determined by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) according to the temperature of certain points of the work piece and the point specifications and the milling rotational speed of the blade. In the present work, at first three-dimensional model of the work piece is provided and then by using the Computational Heat Transfer (CHT) simulations, temperature in different nods of the work piece are specified in steady-state conditions. Results obtained from CHT are used for training and testing the ANN approach. Using reverse engineering and setting the desired x, y, z and the milling rotational speed of the blade as input data to the network, the milling surface temperature determined by neural network is presented as output data. The desired points temperature for different milling blade rotational speed are obtained experimentally and by extrapolation method for the milling surface temperature is obtained and a comparison is performed among the soft programming ANN, CHT results and experimental data and it is observed that ANN soft programming code can be used more efficiently to determine the temperature in a milling process.
Keywords: Milling process, rotational speed, Artificial Neural Networks, temperature.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2206
171 Highly Accurate Tennis Ball Throwing Machine with Intelligent Control
Authors: Ferenc Kovács, Gábor Hosszú
Abstract:The paper presents an advanced control system for tennis ball throwing machines to improve their accuracy according to the ball impact points. A further advantage of the system is the much easier calibration process involving the intelligent solution of the automatic adjustment of the stroking parameters according to the ball elasticity, the self-calibration, the use of the safety margin at very flat strokes and the possibility to placing the machine to any position of the half court. The system applies mathematical methods to determine the exact ball trajectories and special approximating processes to access all points on the aimed half court.
Keywords: Control system, robot programming, robot control, sports equipment, throwing machine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3263
170 Availability Analysis of Milling System in a Rice Milling Plant
Authors: P. C. Tewari, Parveen Kumar
Abstract:The paper describes the availability analysis of milling system of a rice milling plant using probabilistic approach. The subsystems under study are special purpose machines. The availability analysis of the system is carried out to determine the effect of failure and repair rates of each subsystem on overall performance (i.e. steady state availability) of system concerned. Further, on the basis of effect of repair rates on the system availability, maintenance repair priorities have been suggested. The problem is formulated using Markov Birth-Death process taking exponential distribution for probable failures and repair rates. The first order differential equations associated with transition diagram are developed by using mnemonic rule. These equations are solved using normalizing conditions and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system. The findings of the paper are presented and discussed with the plant personnel to adopt a suitable maintenance policy to increase the productivity of the rice milling plant.
Keywords: Markov process, milling system, availability modeling, rice milling plant.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1243
169 New Approach in Diagnostics Method for Milling Process using Envelope Analysis
Authors: C. Bisu, M. Zapciu, A. Gérard
Abstract:This paper proposes a method to vibration analysis in order to on-line monitoring and predictive maintenance during the milling process. Adapting envelope method to diagnostics and the analysis for milling tool materials is an important contribution to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of milling capacity and a step by modeling the three-dimensional cutting process. An experimental protocol was designed and developed for the acquisition, processing and analyzing three-dimensional signal. The vibration envelope analysis is proposed to detect the cutting capacity of the tool with the optimization application of cutting parameters. The research is focused on Hilbert transform optimization to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the machine/ tool/workpiece.
Keywords: diagnostics, envelope, milling, vibrationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1815
168 Off-Line Detection of “Pannon Wheat” Milling Fractions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods
Authors: E. Izsó, M. Bartalné-Berceli, Sz. Gergely, A. Salgó
Abstract:The aim of this investigation is to elaborate nearinfrared methods for testing and recognition of chemical components and quality in “Pannon wheat” allied (i.e. true to variety or variety identified) milling fractions as well as to develop spectroscopic methods following the milling processes and evaluate the stability of the milling technology by different types of milling products and according to sampling times, respectively. These wheat categories produced under industrial conditions where samples were collected versus sampling time and maximum or minimum yields. The changes of the main chemical components (such as starch, protein, lipid) and physical properties of fractions (particle size) were analysed by dispersive spectrophotometers using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) regions of the electromagnetic radiation. Close correlation were obtained between the data of spectroscopic measurement techniques processed by various chemometric methods (e.g. principal component analysis [PCA], cluster analysis [CA]) and operation condition of milling technology. It is obvious that NIR methods are able to detect the deviation of the yield parameters and differences of the sampling times by a wide variety of fractions, respectively. NIR technology can be used in the sensitive monitoring of milling technology.
Keywords: Allied wheat fractions, CA, milling process, nearinfrared spectroscopy, PCA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1580
167 Method of Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Preload Loss for Single Nut Ball Screws through the Sensed Vibration Signals
Authors: Yi-Cheng Huang, Yan-Chen Shin
Abstract:This paper proposes method of diagnosing ball screw preload loss through the Hilbert-Huang Transform （HHT） and Multiscale entropy （MSE） process. The proposed method can diagnose ball screw preload loss through vibration signals when the machine tool is in operation. Maximum dynamic preload of 2 %, 4 %, and 6 % ball screws were predesigned, manufactured, and tested experimentally. Signal patterns are discussed and revealed using Empirical Mode Decomposition（EMD）with the Hilbert Spectrum. Different preload features are extracted and discriminated using HHT. The irregularity development of a ball screw with preload loss is determined and abstracted using MSE based on complexity perception. Experiment results show that the proposed method can predict the status of ball screw preload loss. Smart sensing for the health of the ball screw is also possible based on a comparative evaluation of MSE by the signal processing and pattern matching of EMD/HHT. This diagnosis method realizes the purposes of prognostic effectiveness on knowing the preload loss and utilizing convenience.
Keywords: Empirical Mode Decomposition, Hilbert-Huang Transform, Multi-scale Entropy, Preload Loss, Single-nut Ball ScrewProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2662
166 Fractional Order Feedback Control of a Ball and Beam System
Authors: Santosh Kr. Choudhary
In this paper, fractional order feedback control of a ball beam model is investigated. The ball beam model is a particular example of the double Integrator system having strongly nonlinear characteristics and unstable dynamics which make the control of such system a challenging task. Most of the work in fractional order control systems are in theoretical nature and controller design and its implementation in practice is very small. In this work, a successful attempt has been made to design a fractional order PIλDμcontroller for a benchmark laboratory ball and beam model. Better performance can be achieved using a fractional order PID controller and it is demonstrated through simulations results with a comparison to the classic PID controller.
Keywords: Fractional order calculus, fractional order controller, fractional order system, ball and beam system, PIλDμ controller, modelling, simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3381
165 Investigation of the Effect of Milling Time on the Mechanochemical Synthesis of Fe3Al/ Al2O3 Nanocomposite
Authors: B. Ghasemi, A. A. Najafzadeh Khoee
In this study, the effect of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Fe3Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite has been investigated by using mechanochemical method. For this purpose, Aluminum powder and hematite as precursors, with stoichiometric ratio, have been utilized and other effective parameters in milling process were kept constant. Phase formation analysis, crystallite size measurement and lattice strain were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) by using Williamson-Hall method as well as microstructure and morphology were explored by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was used in order to probe the particle distribution. The results showed that after 30-hour milling, the reaction was started, combustibly done and completed.
Keywords: hematite, mechanochemical, milling, nanocompositeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1746
164 Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine
Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tzu-Kuan Lin, Tsong Der Lin
This paper proposes a new method to find the equations of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC data.
Keywords: CAM, multi-axis milling machining.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3439
163 Preparation of Vanadium Powder by Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation
Authors: Weicai Yang, Xianfeng Dong, Dapeng Zeng, Bo Lin, Jun Tang
Abstract:Low oxygen content vanadium powder was prepared by hydrogenation dehydrogenization (HDH). The effect of purification treatment on hydrogen absorption kinetics of dendritic vanadium was tested, and the effects of milling technique on powder yield and grain size were studied. The crystal phase, oxygen and nitrgen content, and grain size of prepared powder were characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), oxygen and nitrogen analyzer and grain size analyzer. The results show that the alkaline cleaning can improve the hydrogen absorption of vanadium. The yield of vanadium hydride powder can reach as high as 90% by 4h ball-milling, The resultant product also have an oxygen content less than 600μg/g, and the grain size is smaller than 37μm. Meanwhile, the XRD results show that the phase of hydride vanadium powder is mainly VH0.81. After a hydrogen desorption treatment in vacuum at 700Ôäâ, the phase of the powder converts into V and a little of V2H.
Keywords: V-5Cr-5Ti alloy, HDH, microstructures, mechanical properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1801
162 Control of A Cart-Ball System Using State-Feedback Controller
Authors: M. Shakir Saat, M. Noh Ahmad, Dr, Amat Amir
Abstract:A cart-ball system is a challenging system from the control engineering point of view. This is due to the nonlinearities, multivariable, and non-minimum phase behavior present in this system. This paper is concerned with the problem of modeling and control of such system. The objective of control strategy is to place the cart at a desired position while balancing the ball on the top of the arc-shaped track fixed on the cart. A State-Feedback Controller (SFC) with a pole-placement method will be designed in order to control the system. At first, the mathematical model of a cart-ball system in the state-space form is developed. Then, the linearization of a model will be established in order to design a SFC. The integral control strategy will be performed as to control the cart position of a system. Simulation work is then performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software in order to study the performance of SFC when applied to the system.
Keywords: Cart-Ball System, Integral Control, Pole-PlacementMethod, State-Feedback Controller.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1533
161 Determination of Surface Roughness by Ball Burnishing Process Using Factorial Techniques
Authors: P. S. Dabeer, G. K. Purohit
Burnishing is a method of finishing and hardening machined parts by plastic deformation of the surface. Experimental work based on central composite second order rotatable design has been carried out on a lathe machine to establish the effects of ball burnishing parameters on the surface roughness of brass material. Analysis of the results by the analysis of variance technique and the F-test show that the parameters considered, have significant effects on the surface roughness.
Keywords: Ball burnishing, Response surface Methodology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2342
160 Motion Control of a Ball Throwing Robot with a Flexible Robotic Arm
Authors: Yizhi Gai, Yukinori Kobayashi, Yohei Hoshino, Takanori Emaru
Motion control of flexible arms is more difficult than that of rigid arms, however utilizing its dynamics enables improved performance such as a fast motion in short operation time. This paper investigates a ball throwing robot with one rigid link and one flexible link. This robot throws a ball at a set speed with a proper control torque. A mathematical model of this ball throwing robot is derived through Hamilton’s principle. Several patterns of torque input are designed and tested through the proposed simulation models. The parameters of each torque input pattern is optimized and determined by chaos embedded vector evaluated particle swarm optimization (CEVEPSO). Then, the residual vibration of the manipulator after throwing is suppressed with input shaping technique. Finally, a real experiment is set up for the model checking.
Keywords: Motion control, flexible robotic arm, CEVEPSO, ball throwing robot.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3836
159 Analytical Cutting Forces Model of Helical Milling Operations
Authors: Changyi Liu, Gui Wang, Matthew Dargusch
Abstract:Helical milling operations are used to generate or enlarge boreholes by means of a milling tool. The bore diameter can be adjusted through the diameter of the helical path. The kinematics of helical milling on a three axis machine tool is analysed firstly. The relationships between processing parameters, cutting tool geometry characters with machined hole feature are formulated. The feed motion of the cutting tool has been decomposed to plane circular feed and axial linear motion. In this paper, the time varying cutting forces acted on the side cutting edges and end cutting edges of the flat end cylinder miller is analysed using a discrete method separately. These two components then are combined to produce the cutting force model considering the complicated interaction between the cutters and workpiece. The time varying cutting force model describes the instantaneous cutting force during processing. This model could be used to predict cutting force, calculate statics deflection of cutter and workpiece, and also could be the foundation of dynamics model and predicting chatter limitation of the helical milling operations.
Keywords: Helical milling, Hole machining, Cutting force, Analytical model, Time domainProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3011