{"title":"Highly Accurate Tennis Ball Throwing Machine with Intelligent Control","authors":"Ferenc Kov\u00e1cs, G\u00e1bor Hossz\u00fa","volume":105,"journal":"International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering","pagesStart":1629,"pagesEnd":1634,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/10002298","abstract":"The paper presents an advanced control system for\r\ntennis ball throwing machines to improve their accuracy according to\r\nthe ball impact points. A further advantage of the system is the much\r\neasier calibration process involving the intelligent solution of the\r\nautomatic adjustment of the stroking parameters according to the ball\r\nelasticity, the self-calibration, the use of the safety margin at very flat\r\nstrokes and the possibility to placing the machine to any position of\r\nthe half court. The system applies mathematical methods to\r\ndetermine the exact ball trajectories and special approximating\r\nprocesses to access all points on the aimed half court.","references":"[1] Z. Zhang, D. Xu, and M. Tan, \u201cVisual Measurement and Prediction of\r\nBall Trajectory for Table Tennis Robot,\u201d IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,\r\nvol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3195\u20133205, 2010.\r\n[2] H. Su, Z. Fang, D. Xu, and M. Tan: Trajectory Prediction of Spinning\r\nBall Based on Fuzzy Filtering and Local Modeling for Robotic Ping-\r\nPong Player, IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurements,\r\nVol.62, No. 11, (Nov. 2013), pp. 2890-2900.\r\n[3] B. Chakraborty and S. Meher, \u201cA trajectory-based ball detection and\r\ntracking system with applications to shot-type identification in\r\nvolleyball videos,\u201d IEEE Int. Conf. on Signal Process. and Commun.\r\n(SPCOM), pp. 1\u20135, 2012.\r\n[4] K. W\u00f3jcicki, K. Puci\u0142owski, and Z. Kulesza, \u201cMathematical Analysis for\r\na New Tennis Ball Launcher,\u201d Acta Mechanica et Automatica, vol. 5,\r\nno. 4, pp. 111\u2013118, 2011.\r\n[5] H. Olsson: Control Systems with Friction, Ph.D. dissertation, Lund Inst.\r\nTechnology, Lund, Sweden, 1996.\r\n[6] R. Kelly, J. Llamas, and R. Campa: A Measurement Procedure for\r\nViscous and Coulomb Friction, IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and\r\nMeasurements, Vol. 49, No. 4, (Aug. 2000), pp. 857-861.\r\n[7] E. Achenbach, \u201cExperiments on the flow past spheres at very high\r\nReynolds number,\u201d J. of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 565\u2013575,\r\n1972.\r\n[8] S. J. Haake, S. G. Chadwick, R. J. Dignall, S. R. Goodwill, and P. Rose:\r\nEngineering tennis \u2013 slowing the game down, Sports Engineering, 3 (2)\r\n2000, pp. 131-143.\r\n[9] G. Brasseur: A Capacitive 4-Turn Angular-Position Sensors, IEEE\r\nTrans. on Instrumentation and Measurements, Vol. 47, No. 1, (Feb.\r\n1998), pp. 275-279.\r\n[10] A. Stepanek, \u201cThe aerodynamics of tennis balls\u2014the topspin lob,\u201d Amer.\r\nJ. of Physics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 138\u2013142, 1988.\r\n[11] F. Alam, A. Subic, and S. Watkins: An Experimental Study on\r\nAerodynamic Drag of a Series of Tennis Balls, Proc. of Int. Congress of\r\nSport Dynamics, 13 September 2003, Melbourne.\r\n[12] S. R. Goodwill, S. B. Chin, and S. J. Haake, \u201cAerodynamics of spinning\r\nand non-spinning tennis balls\u201d J. of Wind Eng. and Ind. Aerodynamics,\r\nvol. 92, no. 11, pp. 935\u2013958, 2004.\r\n[13] F. Kov\u00e1cs, et al., \u201cComputer controller ball throwing machine,\u201d U.S.\r\nPatent 5 125 653 A, June 30, 1992.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 105, 2015"}