Search results for: pollination
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: pollination

9 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)

Authors: Dinh Ha, Tran, Chung - Ruey Yen

Abstract:

This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in 4 red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August – the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0–90.5%) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6g) in hand self- and (403.4g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2%) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3 g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona, and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influenced by pollination methods.

Keywords: Hylocereus spp., morphology, floral phenology, pollination requirement.

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8 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)

Authors: Dinh - Ha Tran, Chung - Ruey Yen

Abstract:

This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in 4 red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August – the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0–90.5%) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6g) in hand self- and (403.4g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2%) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influcenced by pollination methods.

Keywords: Hylocereus spp., morphology, floral phenology, pollination requirement.

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7 Effect of Pollination on Qualitative Characteristics of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var. toria) Seed in Chitwan, Nepal

Authors: R. Pudasaini, R. B. Thapa, P. R. Poudel

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of pollination on seed quality of rapeseed in Chitwan, Nepal during 2012-2013. The experiment was designed in Randomized Complete Block with four replications and five treatments. The rapeseed plots were caged with mosquito nets at 10% flowering except natural pollination. Two-framed colonies of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. were introduced separately for pollination, and control plot caged without pollinators. The highest germination percent was observed on Apis cerana F. pollinated plot seeds (90.50% germination) followed by Apis mellifera L. pollinated plots (87.25 %) and lowest on control plots (42.00% germination) seeds. Similarly, seed test weight of Apis cerana F. pollinated plots (3.22 gm/ 1000 seed) and Apis mellifera L. pollinated plots (2.93 gm/1000 seed) were and lowest on control plots (2.26 gm/ 1000 seed) recorded. Likewise, oil content was recorded highest on pollinated by Apis cerana F. (36.1%) followed by pollinated by Apis mellifera L. (35.4%) and lowest on control plots (32.8%). This study clearly indicated pollination increases the seed quality of rapeseed and therefore, management of honeybee is necessary for producing higher quality of rapeseed under Chitwan condition.

Keywords: Apis cerana, Apis mellifera, rapeseed pollination, seed quality.

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6 Effect of Synthetic Queen Mandibular Pheromone on Pollination of Cotton by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

Authors: M. Keshlaf, R. Mensah, O. Nicetic, R. Spooner-Hart

Abstract:

The effectiveness of a commercial bee attractant, synthetic honey bee queen mandibular pheromone (Fruit Boost®) for enhancing pollination of Gossypium hirsutum was evaluated in a transgenic (Bt) cotton crop. The study assessed the number of bee visitations to blossoms of plants treated with Fruit Boost® as well, as effects on fruit set, yield, and lint quality. Bee activity on plots sprayed with pheromone concentrations of 50 and 500 queen equivalents (QEQ) /ha did not differ significantly from water-only control, on the day of application or the subsequent day. Application of the pheromone did not increase fruit set, yield, or lint quality. Two consecutive pheromone applications, applied two days apart, were not significantly different from a single application for any parameter.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, cotton, pollination, QMP pheromone

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5 Effect of Various Pollen Sources to Ability Fruit Set and Quality in ‘Long Red B’ Wax Apple

Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung-Ruey

Abstract:

By hand pollination was conducted to evaluated different pollen sources and their affects on fruit set and quality of wax apple. The following parameters were recorded: fruit set, seed set, fruit characteristics. Results showed that fruit set percentage with seed were significantly high in ‘Long Red B’ when ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were used as pollen parents. Pollen of ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ resulted in high fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, bigger flesh thickness, better total soluble solids as compared with other pollens. The observation of pollen-growth in vitro revealed that pollen germination at 15% sucrose concentration are required for optimum pollen germination with the high pollen germination were found in ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’. From the result, we concluded that ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were proved to be good pollinizers in ‘Long Red B’. Therefore, artificial cross-pollination using ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ as pollinizers were strongly recommended for ‘Long Red B’ cultivar in wax apple orchard.

Keywords: Wax apple, pollination, pollen source, in vitro, fruit quality.

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4 Scientific Interpretation of “Fertilizing Winds” Mentioned in Verse 15:22 of Al-Quran

Authors: M. M. Rashid

Abstract:

Allah (SWT) bestowed us with the Divine blessing, providing the wonderful source of water as stated in verse 15:22 of Al-Quran. Arabic “Ar-Riaaha Lawaaqiha (ٱلرِّيَـٰحَ لَوَٰقِحَ)” of this verse is translated as “fertilizing winds.” The “fertilizing winds” literally, refer to the winds having the roles: to fertilize something similar to the “zygotes” in humans and animals (formation of clouds in the sky in this case); to produce fertilizers for the plants, crops, etc.; and to pollinate the plants. In this paper, these roles of “fertilizing winds” have been validated by presenting the modern knowledge of science in this regard. Existing interpretations are mostly focused on the “formation of clouds in the sky” while few of them mention about the pollination of trees. The production of fertilizers, in this regard, may also be considered for the interpteration of this verse. It has been observed that the winds contain the necessary components of forming the clouds; the necessary components of producing the fertilizers; and the necessary components to pollinate the plants. The science of meteorology gives us a clear understanding of the formation of clouds. Moreover, we know that the lightning bolts break the nitrogen molecules of winds and the water molecules of vapor to form fertilizers. Pollination is a common role of winds in plant fertilization. All the scientific phenomena presented here give us better interpretations of “fertilizing winds.”

Keywords: Al-Quran, fertilizing winds, meteorology, cloud droplets.

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3 An Internet of Things-Based Weight Monitoring System for Honey

Authors: Zheng-Yan Ruan, Chien-Hao Wang, Hong-Jen Lin, Chien-Peng Huang, Ying-Hao Chen, En-Cheng Yang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Bees play a vital role in pollination. This paper focuses on the weighing process of honey. Honey is usually stored at the comb in a hive. Bee farmers brush bees away from the comb and then collect honey, and the collected honey is weighed afterward. However, such a process brings strong negative influences on bees and even leads to the death of bees. This paper therefore presents an Internet of Things-based weight monitoring system which uses weight sensors to measure the weight of honey and simplifies the whole weighing procedure. To verify the system, the weight measured by the system is compared to the weight of standard weights used for calibration by employing a linear regression model. The R2 of the regression model is 0.9788, which suggests that the weighing system is highly reliable and is able to be applied to obtain actual weight of honey. In the future, the weight data of honey can be used to find the relationship between honey production and different ecological parameters, such as bees’ foraging behavior and weather conditions. It is expected that the findings can serve as critical information for honey production improvement.

Keywords: Internet of Things, weight, honey, bee.

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2 The Two Layers of Food Safety and GMOs in the Hungarian Agricultural Law

Authors: Gergely Horváth

Abstract:

The study presents the complexity of food safety dividing it into two layers. Beyond the basic layer of requirements, there is a more demanding higher level linked with quality and purity aspects. It would be important to give special prominence to both layers, given that massive illnesses are caused by foods even though officially licensed. Then the study discusses an exciting safety challenge stemming from the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Furthermore, it features legal case examples that illustrate how certain liability questions are solved or not yet decided in connection with the production of genetically modified crops. In addition, a special kind of land grabbing, more precisely land grabbing from non-GMO farming systems can also be noticed as well as a new phenomenon eroding food sovereignty. Coexistence, the state where organic, conventional, and GM farming systems are standing alongside each other is an unsuitable experiment that cannot be successful, because of biophysical reasons (such as cross-pollination). Agricultural and environmental lawyers both try to find the optimal solution. Agri-environmental measures are introduced as a special subfield of law maintaining also food safety. The important steps of agri-environmental legislation are aiming at the protection of natural values, the environmental media and strengthening food safety as well, practically the quality of agricultural products intended for human consumption. The major findings of the study focus on searching for the appropriate approach capable of solving the security and safety problems of food production. The most interesting concepts of the Hungarian national and EU food law legislation are analyzed in more detail with descriptive, analytic and comparative methods.

Keywords: Food law, food safety, food security, GMO, agri-environmental measures.

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1 Detecting Tomato Flowers in Greenhouses Using Computer Vision

Authors: Dor Oppenheim, Yael Edan, Guy Shani

Abstract:

This paper presents an image analysis algorithm to detect and count yellow tomato flowers in a greenhouse with uneven illumination conditions, complex growth conditions and different flower sizes. The algorithm is designed to be employed on a drone that flies in greenhouses to accomplish several tasks such as pollination and yield estimation. Detecting the flowers can provide useful information for the farmer, such as the number of flowers in a row, and the number of flowers that were pollinated since the last visit to the row. The developed algorithm is designed to handle the real world difficulties in a greenhouse which include varying lighting conditions, shadowing, and occlusion, while considering the computational limitations of the simple processor in the drone. The algorithm identifies flowers using an adaptive global threshold, segmentation over the HSV color space, and morphological cues. The adaptive threshold divides the images into darker and lighter images. Then, segmentation on the hue, saturation and volume is performed accordingly, and classification is done according to size and location of the flowers. 1069 images of greenhouse tomato flowers were acquired in a commercial greenhouse in Israel, using two different RGB Cameras – an LG G4 smartphone and a Canon PowerShot A590. The images were acquired from multiple angles and distances and were sampled manually at various periods along the day to obtain varying lighting conditions. Ground truth was created by manually tagging approximately 25,000 individual flowers in the images. Sensitivity analyses on the acquisition angle of the images, periods throughout the day, different cameras and thresholding types were performed. Precision, recall and their derived F1 score were calculated. Results indicate better performance for the view angle facing the flowers than any other angle. Acquiring images in the afternoon resulted with the best precision and recall results. Applying a global adaptive threshold improved the median F1 score by 3%. Results showed no difference between the two cameras used. Using hue values of 0.12-0.18 in the segmentation process provided the best results in precision and recall, and the best F1 score. The precision and recall average for all the images when using these values was 74% and 75% respectively with an F1 score of 0.73. Further analysis showed a 5% increase in precision and recall when analyzing images acquired in the afternoon and from the front viewpoint.

Keywords: Agricultural engineering, computer vision, image processing, flower detection.

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