Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 237

Search results for: Haji M Shoaib Khan

237 In Vivo Evaluation of Stable Cream Containing Flavonoids on Hydration and TEWL of Human Skin

Authors: Haji M Shoaib Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Fatima Rasool, Barkat Ali Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Shuaib Khan

Abstract:

Antioxidants contribute to endogenous photoprotection and are important for the maintenance of skin health. The study was carried out to compare the skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) effects of a stable cosmetic preparation containing flavonoids, following two applications a day over a period of tenth week. The skin trans-epidermal water loss and skin hydration effect was measured at the beginning and up to the end of study period of ten weeks. Any effect produced was measured by Corneometer and TEWA meter (Non-invasive probe). Two formulations were developed for this study design. Formulation one the control formulation in which no apple juice extract( Flavonoids) was incorporated while second one was the active formulation in which the apple juice extract (3%) containing flavonoids was incorporated into water in oil emulsion using Abil EM 90 as an emulsifier. Stable formulations (control and Active) were applied on human cheeks (n = 12) for a study period of 10 weeks. Result of each volunteer of skin hydration and TEWL was measured by corneometer and TEWA meter. By using ANOVA and Paired sample t test as a statistical evaluation, result of both base and formulation were compared. Statistical significant results (p≤0.05) were observed regarding skin hydration and TEWL when two creams, control and Formulation were compared. It showed that desired formulation (Active) may have interesting application as an active moisturizing cream on healthy skin.

Keywords: Apple juice extract, TEWL, Corneometer, flavonoids.

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236 Pharmaceutical Microencapsulation Technology for Development of Controlled Release Drug Delivery systems

Authors: Mahmood Ahmad, Asadullah Madni, Muhammad Usman, Abubakar Munir, Naveed Akhtar, Haji M. Shoaib Khan

Abstract:

This article demonstrated development of controlled release system of an NSAID drug, Diclofenac sodium employing different ratios of Ethyl cellulose. Diclofenac sodium and ethyl cellulose in different proportions were processed by microencapsulation based on phase separation technique to formulate microcapsules. The prepared microcapsules were then compressed into tablets to obtain controlled release oral formulations. In-vitro evaluation was performed by dissolution test of each preparation was conducted in 900 ml of phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.2 maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C and stirred at 50 rpm. At predetermined time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hrs). The drug concentration in the collected samples was determined by UV spectrophotometer at 276 nm. The physical characteristics of diclofenac sodium microcapsules were according to accepted range. These were off-white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The release profile of diclofenac sodium from microcapsules was found to be directly proportional to the proportion of ethylcellulose and coat thickness. The in-vitro release pattern showed that with ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (drug: polymer), the percentage release of drug at first hour was 16.91 and 11.52 %, respectively as compared to 1:3 which is only 6.87 % with in this time. The release mechanism followed higuchi model for its release pattern. Tablet Formulation (F2) of present study was found comparable in release profile the marketed brand Phlogin-SR, microcapsules showed an extended release beyond 24 h. Further, a good correlation was found between drug release and proportion of ethylcellulose in the microcapsules. Microencapsulation based on coacervation found as good technique to control release of diclofenac sodium for making the controlled release formulations.

Keywords: Diclofenac sodium, Microencapsulationtechnology, Ethylcellulose, In-Vitro Release Profile

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235 Metoprolol Tartrate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microparticles: Development of a Validated Invitro In-vivo Correlation

Authors: Fatima Rasool, Mahmood Ahmad, Ghulam Murtaza, Haji M. S. Khan, Shujaat A. Khan, Sonia Khiljee, Muhammad Qamar-Uz-Zaman

Abstract:

This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p<0.05) different from 1 while the values of R2 for IVIVC of T1 and Mepressor® were significantly (p<0.05) different from 1. Internal prediction errors of IVIVC, calculated from observed Area under Curve (AUC) and predicted AUC, were less than 10%. This study successfully presents a valid level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate modified dosage forms.

Keywords: Metoprolol tartrate, Dissolution, Bioavailability, Validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation.

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234 Development of a Mobile Image-Based Reminder Application to Support Tuberculosis Treatment in Africa

Authors: Haji Ali Haji, Hussein Suleman, Ulrike Rivett

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, development and evaluation of an application prototype developed to support tuberculosis (TB) patients’ treatment adherence. The system makes use of graphics and voice reminders as opposed to text messaging to encourage patients to follow their medication routine. To evaluate the effect of the prototype applications, participants were given mobile phones on which the reminder system was installed. Thirty-eight people, including TB health workers and patients from Zanzibar, Tanzania, participated in the evaluation exercises. The results indicate that the participants found the mobile image-based application is useful to support TB treatment. All participants understood and interpreted the intended meaning of every image correctly. The study findings revealed that the use of a mobile visualbased application may have potential benefit to support TB patients (both literate and illiterate) in their treatment processes.

Keywords: ICT4D, mobile technology, tuberculosis, visualbased reminder.

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233 Operational Representation of Certain Hypergeometric Functions by Means of Fractional Derivatives and Integrals

Authors: Manoj Singh, Mumtaz Ahmad Khan, Abdul Hakim Khan

Abstract:

The investigation in the present paper is to obtain certain types of relations for the well known hypergeometric functions by employing the technique of fractional derivative and integral.

Keywords: Fractional Derivatives and Integrals, Hypergeometric functions.

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232 Convergence of a One-step Iteration Scheme for Quasi-asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we use a one-step iteration scheme to approximate common fixed points of two quasi-asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. We prove weak and strong convergence theorems in a uniformly convex Banach space. Our results generalize the corresponding results of Yao and Chen [15] to a wider class of mappings while extend those of Khan, Abbas and Khan [4] to an improved one-step iteration scheme without any condition and improve upon many others in the literature.

Keywords: One-step iteration scheme, asymptotically quasi non expansive mapping, common fixed point, condition (a'), weak and strong convergence.

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231 Bilinear and Bilateral Generating Functions for the Gauss’ Hypergeometric Polynomials

Authors: Manoj Singh, Mumtaz Ahmad Khan, Abdul Hakim Khan

Abstract:

The object of the present paper is to investigate several general families of bilinear and bilateral generating functions with different argument for the Gauss’ hypergeometric polynomials.

Keywords: Appell’s functions, Gauss hypergeometric functions, Heat polynomials, Kampe’ de Fe’riet function, Laguerre polynomials, Lauricella’s function, Saran’s functions.

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230 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features

Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan

Abstract:

Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.

Keywords: Pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction.

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229 AGHAZ : An Expert System Based approach for the Translation of English to Urdu

Authors: Uzair Muhammad, Kashif Bilal, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS12 Tagging for Urdu, Expert Systems.

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228 Extracting Multiword Expressions in Machine Translation from English to Urdu using Relational Data Approach

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Uzair Muhammad, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation, (hereafter in this document referred to as the "MT") faces a lot of complex problems from its origination. Extracting multiword expressions is also one of the complex problems in MT. Finding multiword expressions during translating a sentence from English into Urdu, through existing solutions, takes a lot of time and occupies system resources. We have designed a simple relational data approach, in which we simply set a bit in dictionary (database) for multiword, to find and handle multiword expression. This approach handles multiword efficiently.

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS (stands for Parts of Speech) Tagging forUrdu, Expert Systems.

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227 Analyzing the Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding Using the Generalized Poisson Regression Model

Authors: Cheika Jahangeer, Naushad Mamode Khan, Maleika Heenaye-Mamode Khan

Abstract:

Exclusive breastfeeding is the feeding of a baby on no other milk apart from breast milk. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life is of fundamental importance because it supports optimal growth and development during infancy and reduces the risk of obliterating diseases and problems. Moreover, in developed countries, exclusive breastfeeding has decreased the incidence and/or severity of diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and urinary tract infection. In this paper, we study the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding and use the Generalized Poisson regression model to analyze the practices of exclusive breastfeeding in Mauritius. We develop two sets of quasi-likelihood equations (QLE)to estimate the parameters.

Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Regression model, Quasilikelihood.

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226 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi

Abstract:

Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: Hydrothermal growth, zinc dioxide, biosensors.

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225 Analyzing Data on Breastfeeding Using Dispersed Statistical Models

Authors: Naushad Mamode Khan, Cheika Jahangeer, Maleika Heenaye-Mamode Khan

Abstract:

Exclusive breastfeeding is the feeding of a baby on no other milk apart from breast milk. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life is very important as it supports optimal growth and development during infancy and reduces the risk of obliterating diseases and problems. Moreover, it helps to reduce the incidence and/or severity of diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and urinary tract infection. In this paper, we make a survey of the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding and use two dispersed statistical models to analyze data. The models are the Generalized Poisson regression model and the Com-Poisson regression models.

Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, regression model, generalized poisson, com-poisson.

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224 Dependence of Particle Initiated PD Characteristics on Size and Position of Metallic Particle Adhering to the Spacer Surface in GIS

Authors: F. N. Budiman, Y. Khan, A. A. Khan, A. Beroual, N. H. Malik, A. A. Al-Arainy

Abstract:

It is well known that metallic particles reduce the reliability of Gas-Insulated Substation (GIS) equipments by initiating partial discharge (PDs) that can lead to breakdown and complete failure of GIS. This paper investigates the characteristics of PDs caused by metallic particle adhering to the solid spacer. The PD detection and measurement were carried out by using IEC 60270 method with particles of different sizes and at different positions on the spacer surface. The results show that a particle of certain size at certain position possesses a unique PD characteristic as compared to those caused by particles of different sizes and/or at different positions. Therefore PD characteristics may be useful for the particle size and position identification.

Keywords: Particle, partial discharge, GIS, spacer.

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223 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: Partial discharges, condition monitoring, MPD 540, cavities/defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA.

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222 Capacity and Performance Analysis of Space-Time Block Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems over Rician Fading Channel

Authors: Imran Khan, Shujaat Ali Khan Tanoli, Nandana Rajatheva

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis on the capacity and performance of MIMO-OFDM systems. The work is focused on the capacity of MIMO-OFDM systems over rician fading channel, in the case of the channel being known at the receiver only, which is more practical case of the channel. Simple expression for capacity is derived for the case of correlated rician fading. The performance of some MIMO-OFDM implementations with rician fading model is presented using an Alamouti coding scheme and Simulation results are obtained for both capacity and performance analysis.

Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, rician distribution, space time blockcodes (STBC).

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221 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md. Noman Habib Khan, S. Khan, T. S. Gunawan, R. I. Boby

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well known technique in the world which is effective and delivers power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results shown in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV) panel, Duty cycle, Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM), Leakage current.

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220 Low cost Nano-membrane Fabrication and Electro-polishing System

Authors: Ajab Khan Kasi, Muhammad Waseem Ashraf, Jafar Khan Kasi, Shahzadi Tayyaba, NitinAfzulpurkar

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of low cost Nano membrane fabrication system. The system is specially designed for anodic aluminum oxide membrane. This system is capable to perform the processes such as anodization and electro-polishing. The designed machine was successfully tested for 'mild anodization' (MA) for 48 hours and 'hard anodization' (HA) for 3 hours at constant 0oC. The system is digitally controlled and guided for temperature maintenance during anodization and electro-polishing. The total cost of the developed machine is 20 times less than the multi-cooling systems available in the market which are generally used for this purpose.

Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, Nano-membrane, hardanodization, mild anodization, electro-polishing.

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219 Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

Authors: Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad, Sapiee Haji Jamel, Mustafa Mat Deris

Abstract:

Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compiler on Windows XP with 512 MB of physical memory.

Keywords: Digital Evidence, Memory Forensics.

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218 Investigation of Time Delay Factors in Global Software Development

Authors: Khalid Khan, Atique Ahmad Zafar, Mohammed A. Alnuem, Hashim Khan

Abstract:

Global Software Development (GSD) projects are passing through different boundaries of a company, country and even in other continents where time zone differs between both sites. Beside many benefits of such development, research declared plenty of negative impacts on these GSD projects. It is important to understand problems which may lie during the execution of GSD project with different time zones. This research project discussed and provided different issues related to time delays in GSD projects. In this paper, authors investigated some of the time delay factors which usually lie in GSD projects with different time zones. This investigation is done through systematic review of literature. Furthermore, the practices to overcome these delay factors which have already been reported in literature and GSD organizations are also explored through literature survey and case studies.

Keywords: Case Studies, Global Software Development, Global Software Engineering, Temporal Difference, Time Delay

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217 A Study on Exclusive Breastfeeding using Over-dispersed Statistical Models

Authors: Naushad Mamode Khan, Cheika Jahangeer, Maleika Heenaye-Mamode Khan

Abstract:

Breastfeeding is an important concept in the maternal life of a woman. In this paper, we focus on exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding is the feeding of a baby on no other milk apart from breast milk. This type of breastfeeding is very important during the first six months because it supports optimal growth and development during infancy and reduces the risk of obliterating diseases and problems. Moreover, in Mauritius, exclusive breastfeeding has decreased the incidence and/or severity of diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and urinary tract infection. In this paper, we give an overview of exclusive breastfeeding in Mauritius and the factors influencing it. We further analyze the local practices of exclusive breastfeeding using the Generalized Poisson regression model and the negative-binomial model since the data are over-dispersed.

Keywords: Exclusive breast feeding, regression model, generalized poisson, negative binomial.

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216 Tidal River Sediment Management–A Case Study in Southwestern Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, M. Shah Alam Khan, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Fatema Akram

Abstract:

The problems of severe drainage congestion and water logging in the southwestern Bangladesh have been solved by an innovative concept, Tidal River Management (TRM). TRM involves the uniform raising of the land inside a tidal basin (beel) while simultaneously maintaining the proper drainage capacity in the river. The present practice of TRM is to link the river with the selected beel by constructing a link canal at the entrance of which most of the sedimentation takes place. This localized sedimentation also creates drainage congestion and water logging making it unattractive to landowners who participate in the program. In this paper a functional sediment management plan is presented to get rid of this problem

Keywords: Beel, embankment, MIKE 21 Flow Model FM, Tidal River Management.

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215 Low Dimensional Representation of Dorsal Hand Vein Features Using Principle Component Analysis (PCA)

Authors: M.Heenaye-Mamode Khan, R.K. Subramanian, N. A. Mamode Khan

Abstract:

The quest of providing more secure identification system has led to a rise in developing biometric systems. Dorsal hand vein pattern is an emerging biometric which has attracted the attention of many researchers, of late. Different approaches have been used to extract the vein pattern and match them. In this work, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) which is a method that has been successfully applied on human faces and hand geometry is applied on the dorsal hand vein pattern. PCA has been used to obtain eigenveins which is a low dimensional representation of vein pattern features. Low cost CCD cameras were used to obtain the vein images. The extraction of the vein pattern was obtained by applying morphology. We have applied noise reduction filters to enhance the vein patterns. The system has been successfully tested on a database of 200 images using a threshold value of 0.9. The results obtained are encouraging.

Keywords: Biometric, Dorsal vein pattern, PCA.

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214 Mathematical Programming on Multivariate Calibration Estimation in Stratified Sampling

Authors: Dinesh Rao, M.G.M. Khan, Sabiha Khan

Abstract:

Calibration estimation is a method of adjusting the original design weights to improve the survey estimates by using auxiliary information such as the known population total (or mean) of the auxiliary variables. A calibration estimator uses calibrated weights that are determined to minimize a given distance measure to the original design weights while satisfying a set of constraints related to the auxiliary information. In this paper, we propose a new multivariate calibration estimator for the population mean in the stratified sampling design, which incorporates information available for more than one auxiliary variable. The problem of determining the optimum calibrated weights is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) that is solved using the Lagrange multiplier technique.

Keywords: Calibration estimation, Stratified sampling, Multivariate auxiliary information, Mathematical programming problem, Lagrange multiplier technique.

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213 A High Accuracy Measurement Circuit for Soil Moisture Detection

Authors: Sheroz Khan, A. H. M. Zahirul Alam, Othman O. Khalifa, Mohd Rafiqul Islam, Zuraidah Zainudin, Muzna S. Khan, Nurul Iman Muhamad Pauzi

Abstract:

The study of soil for agriculture purposes has remained the main focus of research since the beginning of civilization as humans- food related requirements remained closely linked with the soil. The study of soil has generated an interest among the researchers for very similar other reasons including transmission, reflection and refraction of signals for deploying wireless underground sensor networks or for the monitoring of objects on (or in ) soil in the form of better understanding of soil electromagnetic characteristics properties. The moisture content has been very instrumental in such studies as it decides on the resistance of the soil, and hence the attenuation on signals traveling through soil or the attenuation the signals may suffer upon their impact on soil. This work is related testing and characterizing a measurement circuit meant for the detection of moisture level content in soil.

Keywords: Analog–digital Conversion, Bridge Circuits, Intelligent sensors, Pulse Time Modulation, Relaxation Oscillator

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212 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750oC analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, charge, cyclic voltammetry.

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211 Measuring Text-Based Semantics Relatedness Using WordNet

Authors: Madiha Khan, Sidrah Ramzan, Seemab Khan, Shahzad Hassan, Kamran Saeed

Abstract:

Measuring semantic similarity between texts is calculating semantic relatedness between texts using various techniques. Our web application (Measuring Relatedness of Concepts-MRC) allows user to input two text corpuses and get semantic similarity percentage between both using WordNet. Our application goes through five stages for the computation of semantic relatedness. Those stages are: Preprocessing (extracts keywords from content), Feature Extraction (classification of words into Parts-of-Speech), Synonyms Extraction (retrieves synonyms against each keyword), Measuring Similarity (using keywords and synonyms, similarity is measured) and Visualization (graphical representation of similarity measure). Hence the user can measure similarity on basis of features as well. The end result is a percentage score and the word(s) which form the basis of similarity between both texts with use of different tools on same platform. In future work we look forward for a Web as a live corpus application that provides a simpler and user friendly tool to compare documents and extract useful information.

Keywords: GraphViz representation, semantic relatedness, similarity measurement, WordNet similarity.

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210 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: Circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column.

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209 Feature Extraction of Dorsal Hand Vein Pattern Using a Fast Modified PCA Algorithm Based On Cholesky Decomposition and Lanczos Technique

Authors: Maleika Heenaye- Mamode Khan , Naushad Mamode Khan, Raja K.Subramanian

Abstract:

Dorsal hand vein pattern is an emerging biometric which is attracting the attention of researchers, of late. Research is being carried out on existing techniques in the hope of improving them or finding more efficient ones. In this work, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) , which is a successful method, originally applied on face biometric is being modified using Cholesky decomposition and Lanczos algorithm to extract the dorsal hand vein features. This modified technique decreases the number of computation and hence decreases the processing time. The eigenveins were successfully computed and projected onto the vein space. The system was tested on a database of 200 images and using a threshold value of 0.9 to obtain the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR). This modified algorithm is desirable when developing biometric security system since it significantly decreases the matching time.

Keywords: Dorsal hand vein pattern, PCA, Cholesky decomposition, Lanczos algorithm.

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208 Automatic Extraction of Features and Opinion-Oriented Sentences from Customer Reviews

Authors: Khairullah Khan, Baharum B. Baharudin, Aurangzeb Khan, Fazal_e_Malik

Abstract:

Opinion extraction about products from customer reviews is becoming an interesting area of research. Customer reviews about products are nowadays available from blogs and review sites. Also tools are being developed for extraction of opinion from these reviews to help the user as well merchants to track the most suitable choice of product. Therefore efficient method and techniques are needed to extract opinions from review and blogs. As reviews of products mostly contains discussion about the features, functions and services, therefore, efficient techniques are required to extract user comments about the desired features, functions and services. In this paper we have proposed a novel idea to find features of product from user review in an efficient way. Our focus in this paper is to get the features and opinion-oriented words about products from text through auxiliary verbs (AV) {is, was, are, were, has, have, had}. From the results of our experiments we found that 82% of features and 85% of opinion-oriented sentences include AVs. Thus these AVs are good indicators of features and opinion orientation in customer reviews.

Keywords: Classification, Customer Reviews, Helping Verbs, Opinion Mining.

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