Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3320

Search results for: Aeroponic/nutrient film technique

3320 Sustainable Cities: Viability of a Hybrid Aeroponic/Nutrient Film Technique System for Cultivation of Tomatoes

Authors: D. Dannehl, Z. Taylor, J. Suhl, L. Miranda, R., Ulrichs, C., Salazar, E. Fitz-Rodriguez, I. Lopez-Cruz, A. Rojano-Aguilar, G. Navas-Gomez, U. Schmidt

Abstract:

Growing environmental and sustainability concerns have driven continual modernization of horticultural practices, especially for urban farming. Controlled environment and soilless production methods are increasing in popularity because of their efficient resource use and intensive cropping capabilities. However, some popular substrates used for hydroponic cultivation, particularly rock wool, represent a large environmental burden in regard to their manufacture and disposal. Substrate-less hydroponic systems are effective in producing short cropping cycle plants such as lettuce or herbs, but less information is available for the production of plants with larger root-systems and longer cropping times. Here, we investigated the viability of a hybrid aeroponic/nutrient film technique (AP/NFT) system for the cultivation of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Panovy’). The plants grown in the AP/NFT system had a more compact phenotype, accumulated more Na+ and less P and S than the rock wool grown counterparts. Due to forced irrigation interruptions, we propose that the differences observed were cofounded by the differing severity of water-stress for plants with and without substrate. They may also be caused by a higher root zone temperature predominant in plants exposed to AP/NFT. However, leaf area, stem diameter, and number of trusses did not differ significantly. The same was found for leaf pigments and plant photosynthetic efficiency. Overall, the AP/NFT system appears to be viable for the production of greenhouse tomato, enabling the environment to be relieved by way of lessening rock wool usage.

Keywords: Aeroponic/nutrient film technique, greenhouse, nutrient dynamic, soilless culture, urban farming, waste reduction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1255
3319 Strategic Risk Issues for Film Distributors of Hindi Film Industry in Mumbai: A Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: R. Dyondi, S. K. Jha

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to address the strategic risk issues surrounding Hindi film distribution in Mumbai for a film distributor, who acts as an entrepreneur when launching a product (movie) in the market (film territory).The paper undertakes a fundamental review of films and risk in the Hindi film industry and applies Grounded Theory technique to understand the complex phenomena of risk taking behavior of the film distributors (both independent and studios) in Mumbai. Rich in-depth interviews with distributors are coded to develop core categories through constant comparison leading to conceptualization of the phenomena of interest. This paper is a first-of-its-kind-attempt to understand risk behavior of a distributor, which is akin to entrepreneurial risk behavior under conditions of uncertainty.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Risk Behavior, Film Distribution Strategy, Hindi Film Industry, Risk.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2296
3318 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents thermal annealing de-wetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for Thin Film Encapsulation (TFE) application. Thermal annealing de-wetting experimental results reveal that pore size formation in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate at which metal is deposited, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for formation of porous metal membrane. In order to demonstrate this technique, Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane on amorphous silicon (a-Si) and silicon oxide. The annealing of the silver thin film of various thicknesses was performed at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for TFE application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a- Si) and silicon oxide was released using XeF2 and VHF, respectively. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for robust TFE application.

Keywords: De-wetting, thermal annealing, metal, melting point, porous.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648
3317 Effect of Nutrient Supply on Yield and Photosynthetic Parameters of Maize Hybrids

Authors: L. G. Karancsi, K. Máriás

Abstract:

We examined the crop yield results of hybrids in 2012. We found out that in the control treatments the lowest yield was reached with the hybrid PR37M81: 10,012 kg ha-1. The highest yield was in case of hybrid P37N01: 11,581 kg ha-1. As we raised the nutrient doses the lowest yield of all examined nutrient levels was in case of hybrid PR37M81. We measured at N60+PK nutrient level 12,517 kg ha-1, at N120+PK nutrient level 12,760 kg ha-1, and at N150+PK nutrient level 12,535 kg ha-1 yield results. At N60+PK and N120+PK nutrient level the highest yield was reached with the hybrid P9494 (N60+PK: 13,970 kg ha-1, N120+PK: 13,871 kg ha-1). In case of the N150+PK fertilization treatment the hybrid P37N01 gave the highest yield results (13,962 kg ha-1).

Keywords: Hybrids, maize, nutrient levels, SPAD and LAI values.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1381
3316 An Optical Sensing Film for Fe(III) Determination Based on 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′- cyanine Iodide Immobilized in Nafion Film

Authors: K. Kajsanthia, J. Wittayakun, S. Prayoonpokarach

Abstract:

An optical chemical sensing film based on immobilizing of 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′-cyanine (pseudocyanine iodide) in nafion film was developed for the determination of Fe(III). The sensing film was homogeneous, transparent, and mechanically stable. Decrease of the absorbance measured at 518 nm was observed when the sensing film was immersed in a solution of Fe(III). The optimum response of the sensing film to Fe(III) was obtained in a solution with pH 4.0. Linear calibration curve over an Fe(III) concentration range of 1-30 ppm with a limit of detection of 0.71 ppm was obtained. Cd(II) is the major interference. The sensing film exhibited good stability for 2 months and high reproducibility. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Fe(III) in water samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: iron(III), _nafion, optical sensing film, pseudocyanine iodide

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1246
3315 Fabrication and Characterization of Sawdust Composite Biodegradable Film

Authors: M.Z. Norashikin, M.Z. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This report shows the performance of composite biodegradable film from chitosan, starch and sawdust fiber. The main objectives of this research are to fabricate and characterize composite biodegradable film in terms of morphology and physical properties. The film was prepared by casting method. Sawdust fiber was used as reinforcing agent and starch as polymer matrix in the casting solution. The morphology of the film was characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM). The result showed that the film has smooth structure. Chemical composition of the film was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) where the result revealed present of starch in the film. The thermal properties were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) where the results showed that the film has small difference in melting and degradation temperature.

Keywords: Sawdust, composite, film, biodegradable.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2352
3314 Study on the Atomic-Oxygen-Protection Film Preparation of Organic Silicon and Its Properties

Authors: Zheng-Kuohai, Yang-Shengsheng, Li-Zhonghua, Zhao-Lin

Abstract:

Materials used on exterior spacecraft surfaces are subjected to many environmental threats which can cause degradation, atomic oxygen is one of the most threats. We prepared organic silicon atomic-oxygen-protection film using method of polymerization. This paper presented the effects on the film structure and its durability of the preparation processing, and analyzed the polymerization theory, the film structure and composition of the film. At last, we tested the film in our ground based atomic oxygen simulator, and indicated that the film worked well.

Keywords: Atomic oxygen, siloxane, protection, plasma, polymerization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1251
3313 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1534
3312 Effect of Surface Pretreatments on Nanocrystalline Diamond Deposited On Silicon Nitride Substrates

Authors: D.N Awang Sh'ri, E. Hamzah

Abstract:

The deposition of diamond films on a Si3N4 substrate is an attractive technique for industrial applications because of the excellent properties of diamond. Pretreatment of substrate is very important prior to diamond deposition to promote nucleation and adhesion between coating and substrate. Deposition of nanocrystalline diamonds films on silicon nitride substrate have been carried out by HF-CVD technique using mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. Different pretreatment of substrate including chemical etching consists of hot acid etching and basic etching and mechanical etching were used to study the quality of diamond formed on the substrate. The structure and morphology of diamond coating have been studied using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) while diamond film quality has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy. AFM was used to investigate the effect of chemical etching and mechanical pretreatment on the surface roughness of the substrates and the resultant morphology of nanocrystalline diamond. It was found that diamond film deposited on as-received, basic etched and grinded substrate shows the morphology of cauliflower while blasted and acidic etched substrates produce smooth, continuous diamond film. However, the Raman investigation did not show any deviation in quality of diamond film for any pretreatment.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline diamond, Chemical VaporDeposition, Pretreatment, Silicon Nitride

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2025
3311 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: Crystalline, CuAlS2, evaporation, resistivity, sulfurisation, thickness.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1341
3310 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Annealing increases the average grain size by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: Electrodeposition, Non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2144
3309 Classification of Causes and Effects of Uploading and Downloading of Pirated Film Products

Authors: Pavel Janak

Abstract:

This paper covers various aspects of the Internet film piracy. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize and explain various motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study proposes groups of economical, sociopsychological and other factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. The paper also studies the interactions between downloaders and uploaders and offers the causality of the motivational factors and its effects on the film industry. Moreover, the study also focuses on proposed scheme of relations of downloading movies and the possible effect on box office revenues.

Keywords: Download, Film piracy, Internet, Upload

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2836
3308 Development of a Porous Silica Film by Sol-gel Process

Authors: Binay K. Dutta, Tayseir M. Abd Ellateif, Saikat Maitra

Abstract:

In the present work homogeneous silica film on silicon was fabricated by colloidal silica sol. The silica sol precursor with uniformly granular particle was derived by the alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) in presence of glycerol template. The film was prepared by dip coating process. The templated hetero-structured silica film was annealed at elevated temperatures to generate nano- and meso porosity in the film. The film was subsequently annealed at different temperatures to make it defect free and abrasion resistant. The sol and the film were characterized by the measurement of particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, measurement of the refractive index, thermal conductivity and abrasion resistance. The porosity of the films decreased whereas refractive index and dielectric constant of it `increased with the increase in the annealing temperature. The thermal conductivity of the films increased with the increase in the film thickness. The developed porous silica film holds strong potential for use in different areas.

Keywords: Silica film, Nanoporous, Sol-gel, Templating, Dip coating.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2776
3307 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith III

Abstract:

Historical narration is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history. This “translation” is examined within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during an era in which life was conceived of as innately artistic. The emergence of this “aestheticization” of memory and history enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: Propaganda, Film, International Literature, Popular Culture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1927
3306 Electrical Properties of n-CdO/p-Si Heterojunction Diode Fabricated by Sol Gel

Authors: S.Aksoy, Y.Caglar

Abstract:

n-CdO/p-Si heterojunction diode was fabricated using sol-gel spin coating technique which is a low cost and easily scalable method for preparing of semiconductor films. The structural and morphological properties of CdO film were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated that the film was of polycrystalline nature. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the surface morphology CdO film consists of the clusters formed with the coming together of the nanoparticles. The electrical characterization of Au/n-CdO/p–Si/Al heterojunction diode was investigated by current-voltage. The ideality factor of the diode was found to be 3.02 for room temperature. The reverse current of the diode strongly increased with illumination intensity of 100 mWcm-2 and the diode gave a maximum open circuit voltage Voc of 0.04 V and short-circuits current Isc of 9.92×10-9 A.

Keywords: CdO, heterojunction semiconductor devices, ideality factor, current-voltage characteristics

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2105
3305 Neo Realism in Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: Pison S.

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: Film, Political, Neo Realism, Thailand.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1297
3304 Role of Director's Philosophical Approach in Cinematographic Expression

Authors: Sedat Cereci

Abstract:

The original idea for a feature film may come from a writer, director or a producer. Director is the person responsible for the creative aspects, both interpretive and technical, of a motion picture production in a film. Director may be shot discussing his project with his or her cowriters, members of production staff, and producer, and director may be shown selecting locales or constructing sets. All these activities provide, of course, ways of externalizing director-s ideas about the film. A director sometimes pushes both the film image and techniques of narration to new artistic limits, but main responsibility of director is take the spectator to an original opinion in his philosophical approach. Director tries to find an artistic angle in every scene and change screenplay into an effective story and sets his film on a spiritual and philosophical base.

Keywords: Director, role, film, approach, opinion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1232
3303 Simulation of Increased Ambient Ozone to Estimate Nutrient Content and Genetic Change in Two Thai Soybean Cultivars

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas

Abstract:

This research studied the simulation of increased ambient ozone to estimate nutrient content and genetic changes in two Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1). Ozone stress conditions affected proteins and lipids. It was found that proteins decreased, but lipids increased. Srisumrong 1 cultivars were more sensitive to ozone stress than Chiang Mai 60 cultivars. The effect of ozone stress conditions on plant phenotype and genotype was analyzed using the AFLP technique for the 2 Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1).

Keywords: simulation, ambient ozone estimate, nutrient content, genetic changes , Thai soybean

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1136
3302 Surface Charge Based Rapid Method for Detection of Microbial Contamination in Drinking Water and Food Products

Authors: Kandpal M. , Gundampati R. K , Debnath M.

Abstract:

Microbial contamination, most of which are fecal born in drinking water and food industry is a serious threat to humans. Escherichia coli is one of the most common and prevalent among them. We have developed a sensor for rapid and an early detection of contaminants, taking E.coli as a threat indicator organism. The sensor is based on co-polymerizations of aniline and formaldehyde in form of thin film over glass surface using the vacuum deposition technique. The particular doping combination of thin film with Fe-Al and Fe-Cu in different concentrations changes its non conducting properties to p- type semi conductor. This property is exploited to detect the different contaminants, believed to have the different surface charge. It was found through experiments that different microbes at same OD (0.600 at 600 nm) have different conductivity in solution. Also the doping concentration is found to be specific for attracting microbes on the basis of surface charge. This is a simple, cost effective and quick detection method which not only decreases the measurement time but also gives early warnings for highly contaminated samples.

Keywords: Sensor, Vacuum deposition technique, thin film, E.coli detection, doping concentration.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1339
3301 Modeling of the Internet Film Piracy - Preliminary Report

Authors: Pavel Janak

Abstract:

This paper covers various aspects of film piracy over the Internet. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study discusses group factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. Furthermore, the paper discusses the theoretical effect on box office revenues and explains it on a proposed scheme of solutions for decreasing revenues. The article also maps the scheme of incentive motivational anti-piracy campaigns. Moreover, the paper proposes the preliminary scheme for system dynamic modeling of the Internet film piracy. Scheme is developed as a model of behaviors, influences and relations among the elements pertaining to the Internet film piracy.

Keywords: Box office, Cinema, Film, Internet piracy, Uploading

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1614
3300 Synthesis of Cross-Linked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

Abstract:

Cross-linked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomannan and its mixture with kappa carrageenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained cross-linked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be cross-linked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The cross-linked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: Crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2248
3299 Simulation of “Net” Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel

Abstract:

Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove  nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study  aims to estimate “net” nutrient removal rate by green mussel through  calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen  and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration  rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen and  phosphorus released as mussel faeces. By subtracting nutrient release  from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be  found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was  employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel  farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate, and  amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that  although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient  removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken  into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can  strongly affect marine ecosystem.

 

Keywords: Carbon, Excretion, Filtration, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2092
3298 Experimental Validation of Treatment Planning for Multiple Radiotherapy Fields by EDR2 Film Dosimeter

Authors: Vahid Fayaz , Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

To investigate the applicability of the EDR-2 film for clinical radiation dosimetry, percentage depth-doses, profiles and distributions in open and dynamically wedged fields were measured using film and compared with data from a Treatment Planning system.The validity of the EDR2 film to measure dose in a plane parallel to the beam was tested by irradiating 10 cm×10 cm and 4 cm×4 cm fields from a Siemens, primus linac with a 6MV beam and a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The film was placed Horizontally between solid water phantom blocks and marked with pin holes at a depth of 10 cm from the incident beam surface. The film measurement results, in absolute dose, were compared with ion chamber measurements using a Welhoffer scanning water tank system and Treatment Planning system. Our results indicate a maximum underestimate of calculated dose of 8 % with Treatment Planning system.

Keywords: 6MV Photon , EDR-2 film, Radiotherapy, TreatmentPlanning system

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1258
3297 Quantitative Analysis of Nutrient Inflow from River and Groundwater to Imazu Bay in Fukuoka, Japan

Authors: Keisuke Konishi, Yoshinari Hiroshiro, Kento Terashima, Atsushi Tsutsumi

Abstract:

Imazu Bay plays an important role for endangered species such as horseshoe crabs and black-faced spoonbills that stay in the bay for spawning or the passing of winter. However, this bay is semi-enclosed with slow water exchange, which could lead to eutrophication under the condition of excess nutrient inflow to the bay. Therefore, quantification of nutrient inflow is of great importance. Generally, analysis of nutrient inflow to the bays takes into consideration nutrient inflow from only the river, but that from groundwater should not be ignored for more accurate results. The main objective of this study is to estimate the amounts of nutrient inflow from river and groundwater to Imazu Bay by analyzing water budget in Zuibaiji River Basin and loads of T-N, T-P, NO3-N and NH4-N. The water budget computation in the basin is performed using groundwater recharge model and quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, and the multiplication of the measured amount of nutrient inflow with the computed discharge gives the total amount of nutrient inflow to the bay. In addition, in order to evaluate nutrient inflow to the bay, the result is compared with nutrient inflow from geologically similar river basins. The result shows that the discharge is 3.50×107 m3/year from the river and 1.04×107 m3/year from groundwater. The submarine groundwater discharge accounts for approximately 23 % of the total discharge, which is large compared to the other river basins. It is also revealed that the total nutrient inflow is not particularly large. The sum of NO3-N and NH4-N loadings from groundwater is less than 10 % of that from the river because of denitrification in groundwater. The Shin Seibu Sewage Treatment Plant located below the observation points discharges treated water of 15,400 m3/day and plans to increase it. However, the loads of T-N and T-P from the treatment plant are 3.9 mg/L and 0.19 mg/L, so that it does not contribute a lot to eutrophication.

Keywords: Eutrophication, groundwater recharge model, nutrient inflow, quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, Submarine groundwater discharge.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 932
3296 Some Characteristics of Biodegradable Film Substituted by Yam (Dioscorea alata) Starch from Thailand

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Khumthong Mahawongwiriya, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas

Abstract:

Yam starch obtained from the water yam (munlued) by the wet milling process was studied for some physicochemical properties. Yam starch film was prepared by casting using glycerol as a plasticizer. The effect of different glycerol (1.30, 1.65 and 2.00g/100g of filmogenic solution) and starch concentrations (3.30, 3.65 and 4.00g /100g of filmogenic solution) were evaluated on some characteristics of the film. The temperature for obtaining the gelatinized starch solution was 70-80°C and then dried at 45°C for 4 hours. The resulting starch from munlued granular morphology was triangular and the average size of the granule was 26.68 μm. The amylose content by colorimetric method was 26 % and the gelatinize temperature was 70-80°C. The appearance of the film was smooth, transparent, and glossy with average moisture content of 25.96% and thickness of 0.01mm. Puncture deformation and flexibility increased with glycerol content. The starch and glycerol concentration were a significant factor of the yam starch film characteristics. Yam starch film can be described as a biofilm providing many applications and developments with the advantage of biodegradability.

Keywords: Characteristics of Biodegradable film, yam starch, Dioscoreaalata, substitute, Thailand.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2628
3295 Characterization of HD-V2 Gafchromic Film for Measurement of Spatial Dose Distribution from Alpha Particle of 5.5 MeV

Authors: A. Aydarous, M. El Ghazaly

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the newly released Gafchromic HD-V2 film for alpha particle of 5.5 MeV. Gafchromic HD-V2 was exposed to alpha particles of energy 5 MeV from 241Am for different durations. Then the films were scanned with a flatbed scanner. The dose response curve up to 2200 Gy has been achieved. The film’s reproducibility and sensitivity were evaluated. The results obtained show that the net optical density increases almost exponentially with the increase in the exposure time, and it becomes saturated after prolonged exposure times. The red channel shows the highest sensitivity, with a value of 4 x 10-3 Gy-1 at netOD of 0.4. The inter-film reproducibility was measured and the relative uncertainty found was 1.7 %, 2.1 % and 2.3 % for grey, red and green channels, respectively.

Keywords: Alpha dosimetry, 241Am, Gafchromic film.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2861
3294 Tin and Tin-Copper Composite Nanorod Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Applications

Authors: B. D. Polat, O. Keles

Abstract:

Physical vapor deposition under conditions of an obliquely incident flux results in a film formation with an inclined columnar structure. These columns will be oriented toward the vapor source because of the self-shadowing effect, and they are homogenously distributed on the substrate surface because of the limited surface diffusion ability of ad-atoms when there is no additional substrate heating.

In this work, the oblique angle electron beam evaporation technique is used to fabricate thin films containing inclined nanorods. The results demonstrate that depending on the thin film composition, the morphology of the nanorods is changed as well. The galvanostatic analysis of these thin film anodes reveals that a composite CuSn nanorods having approximately 900mAhg-1 of initial discharge capacity, performs higher electrochemical performance compared to pure Sn nanorods containing anode material. The long cycle life and the advanced electrochemical properties of the nanostructured composite electrode might be attributed to its improved mechanical tolerance and enhanced electrical conductivity depending on the Cu presence in the nanorods.

Keywords: Cu-Sn thin film, oblique angle deposition, lithium ion batteries, anode.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1910
3293 Experimental Film Class: Watbangkapom School, Samut Songkhram

Authors: Areerut J.

Abstract:

Experimental Film Class Project is supported by the Institute for Research and Development at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. This project is purported to provide academic and professional services to improve the quality standards of the community and locals in accordance with the mission of the university, which is to improve and expand knowledge for the community and to develop and transfer such knowledge and professions to the next generation. Eventually, it leads to sustainable development because the development of human resources is deemed as the key for sustainable development. Moreover, the Experimental Film Class is an integral part of the teaching of film production at Suan Sunandha International School of Art (SISA). By means of giving opportunities to students for participation in projects by sharing experience, skill and knowledge and participation in field activities, it helps students in the film production major to enhance their abilities and potentials as preparation for their readiness in the marketplace. Additionally, in this class, we provide basic film knowledge, screenwriting techniques, editing and subtitles including uploading videos on social media such as YouTube and Facebook for the participant students.

Keywords: Experimental Film Class, Watbangkapom School, Participant students, Basic of film production, Film Workshop.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1833
3292 Sensing Characteristics to Acid Vapors of a TPPS Coated Fiber Optic: A Preliminary Analysis

Authors: A. Bahrampour, A. Iadicicco, G. De Luca, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, L. Monsù Scolaro, A. Cusano

Abstract:

In this work we report on preliminary analysis of a novel optoelectronic gas sensor based on an optical fiber integrated with a tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) thin film. The sensitive materials are selectively deposited on the core region of a fiber tip by UV light induced deposition technique. A simple and cheap process which can be easily extended to different porphyrin derivatives. When the TPPS film on the fiber tip is exposed to acid and/or base vapors, dramatic changes occur in the aggregation structure of the dye molecules in the film, from J- to H-type, resulting in a profound modification of their corresponding reflectance spectra. From the achieved experimental results it is evident that the presence of intense and narrow band peaks in the reflected spectra could be monitored to detect hazardous vapors.

Keywords: Optical fiber sensor, Porphyrins, Thin films UV induced deposition, TPPS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1323
3291 Sericin Film: Influence of Concentration on its Physical Properties

Authors: N. Namviriyachote, N. Bang, P. Aramwit

Abstract:

Silk sericin (SS) is a glue-like protein from silkworm cocoon. With its outstanding moisturization and activation collagen synthesis properties, silk protein is applied for wound healing. Since wound dressing in film preparation can facilitate patients- convenience and reduce risk of wound contraction, SS and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films were prepared with various concentrations of SS. Their physical properties such as surface density, light transmission, protein dissolution and tensile modulus were investigated. The results presented that 3% SS with 2% PVA is the best ingredient for SS film forming.

Keywords: Sericin, silk protein, film, wound healing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1902