Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2995

Search results for: 3DOF helicopter system

2995 LQR Based PID Controller Design for 3-DOF Helicopter System

Authors: Santosh Kr. Choudhary

Abstract:

In this article, LQR based PID controller design for 3DOF helicopter system is investigated. The 3-DOF helicopter system is a benchmark laboratory model having strongly nonlinear characteristics and unstable dynamics which make the control of such system a challenging task. This article first presents the mathematical model of the 3DOF helicopter system and then illustrates the basic idea and technical formulation for controller design. The paper explains the simple approach for the approximation of PID design parameters from the LQR controller gain matrix. The simulation results show that the investigated controller has both static and dynamic performance, therefore the stability and the quick control effect can be obtained simultaneously for the 3DOF helicopter system.

Keywords: 3DOF helicopter system, PID controller, LQR controller, modeling, simulation.

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2994 Development of an Avionics System for Flight Data Collection of an UAV Helicopter

Authors: Nikhil Ramaswamy, S.N.Omkar, Kashyap.H.Nathwani, Anil.M.Vanjare

Abstract:

In this present work, the development of an avionics system for flight data collection of a Raptor 30 V2 is carried out. For the data acquisition both onground and onboard avionics systems are developed for testing of a small-scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) helicopter. The onboard avionics record the helicopter state outputs namely accelerations, angular rates and Euler angles, in real time, and the on ground avionics system record the inputs given to the radio controlled helicopter through a transmitter, in real time. The avionic systems are designed and developed taking into consideration low weight, small size, anti-vibration, low power consumption, and easy interfacing. To mitigate the medium frequency vibrations embedded on the UAV helicopter during flight, a damper is designed and its performance is evaluated. A number of flight tests are carried out and the data obtained is then analyzed for accuracy and repeatability and conclusions are inferred.

Keywords: Data collection, Flight Testing, Onground and Onboard Avionics, UAV helicopter

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2993 Optimal Diesel Engine Technology Analysis Matching the Platform of the Helicopter

Authors: M. Wendeker, K. Siadkowska, P. Magryta, Z. Czyz, K. Skiba

Abstract:

In the paper environmental impact analysis the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter was performed. The paper consist an answer to the question of what the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter is, taking into consideration its expected performance and design capacity. The use of turbocharged engine with self-ignition and an electronic control system can substantially reduce the negative impact on the environment by decreasing toxic substance emission, fuel consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emission. In order to establish the environmental benefits of the diesel engine technologies, mathematical models were created, providing additional insight on the environmental impact and performance of a classic turboshaft and an advanced diesel engine light helicopter, incorporating technology developments.

Keywords: Diesel engine, helicopter, simulation, environmental impact.

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2992 Performance Comparisons between PID and Adaptive PID Controllers for Travel Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter

Authors: H. Mansor, S. B. Mohd-Noor, T. S. Gunawan, S. Khan, N. I. Othman, N. Tazali, R. B. Islam

Abstract:

This paper provides a comparative study on the performances of standard PID and adaptive PID controllers tested on travel angle of a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) Quanser bench-top helicopter. Quanser, a well-known manufacturer of educational bench-top helicopter has developed Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) controller with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for all travel, pitch and yaw angle of the bench-top helicopter. The performance of the PID controller is relatively good; however, its performance could also be improved if the controller is combined with adaptive element. The objective of this research is to design adaptive PID controller and then compare the performances of the adaptive PID with the standard PID. The controller design and test is focused on travel angle control only. Adaptive method used in this project is self-tuning controller, which controller’s parameters are updated online. Two adaptive algorithms those are pole-placement and deadbeat have been chosen as the method to achieve optimal controller’s parameters. Performance comparisons have shown that the adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller has produced more desirable performance compared to standard PID and adaptive (poleplacement). The adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller attained very fast settling time (5 seconds) and very small percentage of overshoot (5% to 7.5%) for 10° to 30° step change of travel angle.

Keywords: Adaptive control, bench-top helicopter, deadbeat, pole-placement, self-tuning control.

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2991 Helicopter Adaptive Control with Parameter Estimation Based on Feedback Linearization

Authors: A. R. Nemati, M. Haddad Zarif, M. M. Fateh

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive feedback linearization approach to derive helicopter. Ideal feedback linearization is defined for the cases when the system model is known. Adaptive feedback linearization is employed to get asymptotically exact cancellation for the inherent uncertainty in the knowledge of the given parameters of system. The control algorithm is implemented using the feedback linearization technique and adaptive method. The controller parameters are unknown where an adaptive control law aims to drive them towards their ideal values for providing perfect model matching between the reference model and the closed-loop plant model. The converged parameters of controller would then provide good estimates for the unknown plant parameters.

Keywords: Adaptive control, helicopter, feedback linearization, nonlinear control.

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2990 Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Stall of a Pitching-Plunging Helicopter Blade Airfoil

Authors: Xie Kai, Laith K. Abbas, Chen Dongyang, Yang Fufeng, Rui Xiaoting

Abstract:

Effect of plunging motion on the pitch oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A simulation model based on overset grid technology and k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is established, and the numerical simulation results are compared with available experimental data and other simulations. Two cases of phase angle φ = 0, μ which represents the phase difference between the pitching and plunging motions of an airfoil are performed. Airfoil vortex generation, moving, and shedding are discussed in detail. Good agreements have been achieved with the available literature. The upward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack less than the actual one during pitching analysis. It is observed that the formation of the stall vortex is suppressed, resulting in a decrease in the lift coefficient and a delay of the stall angle. However, the downward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack higher the actual one.

Keywords: Dynamic stall, pitching-plunging, computational fluid dynamics, helicopter blade rotor, airfoil.

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2989 Optimal Trailing Edge Flap Positions of Helicopter Rotor for Various Thrust Coefficients to Solidity (Ct/σ) Ratios

Authors: Saijal K. K., K. Prabhakaran Nair

Abstract:

This study aims to determine change in optimal locations of dual trailing-edge flaps for various thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratios of helicopter to achieve minimum hub vibration levels, with low penalty in terms of required trailing-edge flap control power. Polynomial response functions are used to approximate hub vibration and flap power objective functions. Single objective and multiobjective optimization is carried with the objective of minimizing hub vibration and flap power. The optimization result shows that the inboard flap location at low Ct /σ ratio move farther from the baseline value and at high Ct /σ ratio move towards the root of the blade for minimizing hub vibration.

Keywords: Helicopter rotor, Trailing-edge flap, Thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratio, Optimization.

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2988 Distributed Architecture of an Autonomous Four Rotor Mini-Rotorcraft based on Multi-Agent System

Authors: H. Ifassiouen, H. Medromi, N. E. Radhy

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the recently implemented approach allowing dynamics systems to plan its actions, taking into account the environment perception changes, and to control their execution when uncertainty and incomplete knowledge are the major characteristics of the situated environment [1],[2],[3],[4]. The control distributed architecture has three modules and the approach is related to hierarchical planning: the plan produced by the planner is further refined at the control layer that in turn supervises its execution by a functional level. We propose a new intelligent distributed architecture constituted by: Multi-Agent subsystem of the sensor, of the interpretation and representation of environment [9], of the dynamic localization and of the action. We tested this distributed architecture with dynamic system in the known environment. The autonomous for Rotor Mini Rotorcraft task is described by the primitive actions. The distributed controlbased on multi-agent system is in charge of achieving each task in the best possible way taking into account the context and sensory feedback.

Keywords: Autonomous four rotors helicopter, Control system, Hierarchical planning, Intelligent Distributed Architecture.

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2987 Simulation and Workspace Analysis of a Tripod Parallel Manipulator

Authors: A. Arockia Selvakumar, R. Sivaramakrishnan, Srinivasa Karthik.T.V, Valluri Siva Ramakrishna, B.Vinodh.

Abstract:

Industrial robots play a vital role in automation however only little effort are taken for the application of robots in machining work such as Grinding, Cutting, Milling, Drilling, Polishing etc. Robot parallel manipulators have high stiffness, rigidity and accuracy, which cannot be provided by conventional serial robot manipulators. The aim of this paper is to perform the modeling and the workspace analysis of a 3 DOF Parallel Manipulator (3 DOF PM). The 3 DOF PM was modeled and simulated using 'ADAMS'. The concept involved is based on the transformation of motion from a screw joint to a spherical joint through a connecting link. This paper work has been planned to model the Parallel Manipulator (PM) using screw joints for very accurate positioning. A workspace analysis has been done for the determination of work volume of the 3 DOF PM. The position of the spherical joints connected to the moving platform and the circumferential points of the moving platform were considered for finding the workspace. After the simulation, the position of the joints of the moving platform was noted with respect to simulation time and these points were given as input to the 'MATLAB' for getting the work envelope. Then 'AUTOCAD' is used for determining the work volume. The obtained values were compared with analytical approach by using Pappus-Guldinus Theorem. The analysis had been dealt by considering the parameters, link length and radius of the moving platform. From the results it is found that the radius of moving platform is directly proportional to the work volume for a constant link length and the link length is also directly proportional to the work volume, at a constant radius of the moving platform.

Keywords: Three Degrees of freedom Parallel Manipulator (3DOF PM), ADAMS, Work volume, MATLAB, AUTOCAD, Pappus- Guldinus Theorem.

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2986 Motion Control of TUAV having Eight Rotors for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Andrus Pedai

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a two stage flight control procedure using two autonomous control subsystems to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference in initial and final stages of flight trajectory for a nontrivial nonlinear eight-rotor helicopter model. This control strategy for chosen model of mini-TUAV has been verified by simulation of hovering maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of engines in hovering, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy of batteries can be asserted during search-andrescue operations.

Keywords: Flight control, eight-rotor helicopter, situational awareness, tactical unmanned aerial vehicle

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2985 An Experimental Helicopter Wind Envelope for Ship Operations

Authors: R. Bardera Mora

Abstract:

Launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for a ship type was determined as the first step to the helicopter qualification program. Flight deck velocities data were obtained by means of a two components laser Doppler anemometer testing a 1/50th model in the wind tunnel stream. Full-scale flight deck measurements were obtained on board the ship using a sonic anemometer. Wind tunnel and full-scale measurements were compared, showing good agreement and finally, a preliminary launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for this specific ship was built.

Keywords: Flight deck flow, relative wind, ship airwake, wind envelope

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2984 Increasing Performance of Autopilot Guided Small Unmanned Helicopter

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mustafa Soylak, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Orhan Kizilkaya

Abstract:

In this paper, autonomous performance of a small manufactured unmanned helicopter is tried to be increased. For this purpose, a small unmanned helicopter is manufactured in Erciyes University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is called as ZANKA-Heli-I. For performance maximization, autopilot parameters are determined via minimizing a cost function consisting of flight performance parameters such as settling time, rise time, overshoot during trajectory tracking. For this purpose, a stochastic optimization method named as simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation is benefited. Using this approach, considerable autonomous performance increase (around %23) is obtained.

Keywords: Small helicopters, hierarchical control, stochastic optimization, autonomous performance maximization, autopilots.

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2983 Nonlinear Observer Design and Sliding Mode Control of Four Rotors Helicopter

Authors: H. Bouadi, M. Tadjine

Abstract:

In this paper; we are interested in dynamic modelling of quadrotor while taking into account the high-order nonholonomic constraints as well as the various physical phenomena, which can influence the dynamics of a flying structure. These permit us to introduce a new state-space representation and new control scheme. We present after the development and the synthesis of a stabilizing control laws design based on sliding mode in order to perform best tracking results. It ensures locally asymptotic stability and desired tracking trajectories. Nonlinear observer is then synthesized in order to estimate the unmeasured states and the effects of the external disturbances such as wind and noise. Finally simulation results are also provided in order to illustrate the performances of the proposed controllers.

Keywords: Dynamic modelling, nonholonomic constraints, sliding mode, nonlinear observer.

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2982 Rotorcraft Performance and Environmental Impact Evaluation by Multidisciplinary Modelling

Authors: Pierre-Marie Basset, Gabriel Reboul, Binh DangVu, Sébastien Mercier

Abstract:

Rotorcraft provides invaluable services thanks to their Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL), hover and low speed capabilities. Yet their use is still often limited by their cost and environmental impact, especially noise and energy consumption. One of the main brakes to the expansion of the use of rotorcraft for urban missions is the environmental impact. The first main concern for the population is the noise. In order to develop the transversal competency to assess the rotorcraft environmental footprint, a collaboration has been launched between six research departments within ONERA. The progress in terms of models and methods are capitalized into the numerical workshop C.R.E.A.T.I.O.N. “Concepts of Rotorcraft Enhanced Assessment Through Integrated Optimization Network”. A typical mission for which the environmental impact issue is of great relevance has been defined. The first milestone is to perform the pre-sizing of a reference helicopter for this mission. In a second milestone, an alternate rotorcraft concept has been defined: a tandem rotorcraft with optional propulsion. The key design trends are given for the pre-sizing of this rotorcraft aiming at a significant reduction of the global environmental impact while still giving equivalent flight performance and safety with respect to the reference helicopter. The models and methods have been improved for catching sooner and more globally, the relative variations on the environmental impact when changing the rotorcraft architecture, the pre-design variables and the operation parameters.

Keywords: Environmental impact, flight performance, helicopter, rotorcraft pre-sizing.

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2981 Robust Nonlinear Control of a Miniature Autonomous Helicopter using Sliding Mode Control Structure

Authors: H. Ifassiouen, M. Guisser, H.Medromi

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a robust sliding mode control structure, designed using the exact feedback linearization procedure of the dynamic of a small-size autonomous helicopter in hover. The robustness of the controller in the context of stabilization and trajectory tracking with respect to small body forces and air resistance on the main and tail rotor, is analytically proved using Lyapunov approach. Some simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance and robustness of such controller in the presence of small body forces and air resistance.

Keywords: Robust control, sliding mode, stability, Lyapunovapproach.

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2980 Application of Japanese Origami Ball for Floating Multirotor Aerial Robot

Authors: P. H. Le, J. Molina, S. Hirai

Abstract:

In this work, we propose the application of Japanese “Origami” art for a floating function of a small aerial vehicle such as a hexarotor. A preliminary experiment was conducted using Origami magic balls mounted under a hexarotor. This magic ball can expand and shrink using an air pump during free flying. Using this interesting and functional concept, it promises to reduce the resistance of wind as well as reduce the energy consumption when the Origami balls are deflated. This approach can be particularly useful in rescue emergency situations. Furthermore, there are many unexpected reasons that may cause the multi-rotor has to land on the surface of water due to problems with the communication between the aircraft and the ground station. In addition, a complementary experiment was designed to prove that the hexarotor can fly maintaining the stability and also, takes off and lands on the surface of water using air balloons.

Keywords: Helicopter, Japanese Origami ball, Floating, Aerial Robots, Rescue.

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2979 Web Driving Performance Monitoring System

Authors: Ahmad Aljaafreh

Abstract:

Safer driver behavior promoting is the main goal of this paper. It is a fact that drivers behavior is relatively safer when being monitored. Thus, in this paper, we propose a monitoring system to report specific driving event as well as the potentially aggressive events for estimation of the driving performance. Our driving monitoring system is composed of two parts. The first part is the in-vehicle embedded system which is composed of a GPS receiver, a two-axis accelerometer, radar sensor, OBD interface, and GPRS modem. The design considerations that led to this architecture is described in this paper. The second part is a web server where an adaptive hierarchical fuzzy system is proposed to classify the driving performance based on the data that is sent by the in-vehicle embedded system and the data that is provided by the geographical information system (GIS). Our system is robust, inexpensive and small enough to fit inside a vehicle without distracting the driver.

Keywords: Driving monitoring system, In-vehicle embedded system, Hierarchical fuzzy system.

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2978 Optimized Data Fusion in an Intelligent Integrated GPS/INS System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ali Asadian, Behzad Moshiri, Ali Khaki Sedigh, Caro Lucas

Abstract:

Most integrated inertial navigation systems (INS) and global positioning systems (GPS) have been implemented using the Kalman filtering technique with its drawbacks related to the need for predefined INS error model and observability of at least four satellites. Most recently, a method using a hybrid-adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been proposed which is trained during the availability of GPS signal to map the error between the GPS and the INS. Then it will be used to predict the error of the INS position components during GPS signal blockage. This paper introduces a genetic optimization algorithm that is used to update the ANFIS parameters with respect to the INS/GPS error function used as the objective function to be minimized. The results demonstrate the advantages of the genetically optimized ANFIS for INS/GPS integration in comparison with conventional ANFIS specially in the cases of satellites- outages. Coping with this problem plays an important role in assessment of the fusion approach in land navigation.

Keywords: Adaptive Network based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Genetic optimization, Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS).

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2977 A Vehicular Visual Tracking System Incorporating Global Positioning System

Authors: Hsien-Chou Liao, Yu-Shiang Wang

Abstract:

Surveillance system is widely used in the traffic monitoring. The deployment of cameras is moving toward a ubiquitous camera (UbiCam) environment. In our previous study, a novel service, called GPS-VT, was firstly proposed by incorporating global positioning system (GPS) and visual tracking techniques for the UbiCam environment. The first prototype is called GODTA (GPS-based Moving Object Detection and Tracking Approach). For a moving person carried GPS-enabled mobile device, he can be tracking when he enters the field-of-view (FOV) of a camera according to his real-time GPS coordinate. In this paper, GPS-VT service is applied to the tracking of vehicles. The moving speed of a vehicle is much faster than a person. It means that the time passing through the FOV is much shorter than that of a person. Besides, the update interval of GPS coordinate is once per second, it is asynchronous with the frame rate of the real-time image. The above asynchronous is worsen by the network transmission delay. These factors are the main challenging to fulfill GPS-VT service on a vehicle.In order to overcome the influence of the above factors, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) is used to predict the possible lane before the vehicle enters the FOV of a camera. Then, a template matching technique is used for the visual tracking of a target vehicle. The experimental result shows that the target vehicle can be located and tracking successfully. The success location rate of the implemented prototype is higher than that of the previous GODTA.

Keywords: visual surveillance, visual tracking, globalpositioning system, intelligent transportation system

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2976 VISMA: A Method for System Analysis in Early Lifecycle Phases

Authors: Walter Sebron, Hans Tschürtz, Peter Krebs

Abstract:

The choice of applicable analysis methods in safety or systems engineering depends on the depth of knowledge about a system, and on the respective lifecycle phase. However, the analysis method chain still shows gaps as it should support system analysis during the lifecycle of a system from a rough concept in pre-project phase until end-of-life. This paper’s goal is to discuss an analysis method, the VISSE Shell Model Analysis (VISMA) method, which aims at closing the gap in the early system lifecycle phases, like the conceptual or pre-project phase, or the project start phase. It was originally developed to aid in the definition of the system boundary of electronic system parts, like e.g. a control unit for a pump motor. Furthermore, it can be also applied to non-electronic system parts. The VISMA method is a graphical sketch-like method that stratifies a system and its parts in inner and outer shells, like the layers of an onion. It analyses a system in a two-step approach, from the innermost to the outermost components followed by the reverse direction. To ensure a complete view of a system and its environment, the VISMA should be performed by (multifunctional) development teams. To introduce the method, a set of rules and guidelines has been defined in order to enable a proper shell build-up. In the first step, the innermost system, named system under consideration (SUC), is selected, which is the focus of the subsequent analysis. Then, its directly adjacent components, responsible for providing input to and receiving output from the SUC, are identified. These components are the content of the first shell around the SUC. Next, the input and output components to the components in the first shell are identified and form the second shell around the first one. Continuing this way, shell by shell is added with its respective parts until the border of the complete system (external border) is reached. Last, two external shells are added to complete the system view, the environment and the use case shell. This system view is also stored for future use. In the second step, the shells are examined in the reverse direction (outside to inside) in order to remove superfluous components or subsystems. Input chains to the SUC, as well as output chains from the SUC are described graphically via arrows, to highlight functional chains through the system. As a result, this method offers a clear and graphical description and overview of a system, its main parts and environment; however, the focus still remains on a specific SUC. It helps to identify the interfaces and interfacing components of the SUC, as well as important external interfaces of the overall system. It supports the identification of the first internal and external hazard causes and causal chains. Additionally, the method promotes a holistic picture and cross-functional understanding of a system, its contributing parts, internal relationships and possible dangers within a multidisciplinary development team.

Keywords: Analysis methods, functional safety, hazard identification, system and safety engineering, system boundary definition, system safety.

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2975 Introduction to Techno-Sectoral Innovation System Modeling and Functions Formulating

Authors: S. M. Azad, H. Ghodsipour, F. Roshannafas

Abstract:

In recent years ‘technology management and policymaking’ is one of the most important problems in management science. In this field, different generations of innovation and technology management are presented which the earliest one is Innovation System (IS) approach. In a general classification, innovation systems are divided in to 4 approaches: technical, sectoral, regional, and national. There are many researches in relation to each of these approaches in different academic fields. Every approach has some benefits. If two or more approaches hybrid, their benefits would be combined. In addition, according to the sectoral structure of the governance model in Iran, in many sectors, such as information technology, the combination of three other approaches with sectoral approach is essential. Hence, in this paper, combining two IS approaches (technical and sectoral) and using system dynamics, a generic model is presented for a sample of software industry. As a complimentary point, this article is introducing a new hybrid approach called Techno-Sectoral Innovation System. This TSIS model is accomplished by Changing concepts of the ‘functions’-which came from Technological IS literature- and using them into sectoral system as measurable indicators.

Keywords: Innovation system, technology, techno-sectoral system, functional indicators, system dynamics.

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2974 Tuning of Power System Stabilizers in a Multi- Machine Power System using C-Catfish PSO

Authors: M. H. Moradi, S. M. Moosavi, A. R. Reisi

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to investigate the enhancement of power system stability via coordinated tuning of Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) in a multi-machine power system. The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem. Chaotic catfish particle swarm optimization (C-Catfish PSO) algorithm is used to minimize the ITAE objective function. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a two-area, 4- machines system. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is verified on this system under different operating conditions and applying a three-phase fault. The nonlinear time-domain simulation results and some performance indices show the effectiveness of the proposed controller in damping power system oscillations and this novel optimization algorithm is compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO).

Keywords: Power system stabilizer, C-Catfish PSO, ITAE objective function, Power system control, Multi-machine power system

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2973 A Multi-Agent Intelligent System for Monitoring Health Conditions of Elderly People

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a multi-agent intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of elderly people. Monitoring the health condition of elderly people is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring. Such expert system is highly needed in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians or nurses. Such monitoring must have autonomous interactions between these medical units in order to be effective. A multi-agent system is formed by a community of agents that exchange information and proactively help one another to achieve the goal of elderly monitoring. The agents in the developed system are equipped with intelligent decision maker that arms them with the rule-based reasoning capability that can assist the physicians in making decisions regarding the medical condition of elderly people.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Inference system, Monitoring system, Multi-agent system.

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2972 Analysis of a WDM System for Tanzania

Authors: Shaban Pazi, Chris Chatwin, Rupert Young, Philip Birch

Abstract:

Internet infrastructures in most places of the world have been supported by the advancement of optical fiber technology, most notably wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. Optical technology by means of WDM system has revolutionized long distance data transport and has resulted in high data capacity, cost reductions, extremely low bit error rate, and operational simplification of the overall Internet infrastructure. This paper analyses and compares the system impairments, which occur at data transmission rates of 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per wavelength channel in our proposed optical WDM system for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania. The results show that the data transmission rate of 2.5 Gb/s has minimum system impairments compared with a rate of 10 Gb/s per wavelength channel, and achieves a sufficient system performance to provide a good Internet access service.

Keywords: Internet infrastructure, WDM system, standard single mode fibers, system impairments.

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2971 An Approach of Control System for Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS)

Authors: M. Soyaslan, A. Fenercioglu, C. Kozkurt

Abstract:

Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) become frequently used systems in warehouses. There has been a transition from human based forklift applications to fast and safe AS/RS applications in firm-s warehouse systems. In this study, basic components and automation systems of the AS/RS are examined. Proposed system's automation components and their tasks in the system control algorithm were stated. According to this control algorithm the control system structure was obtained.

Keywords: AS/RS, Automatic Storage and Retrieval System, Warehouse Control System

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2970 Integrated Drunken Driving Prevention System

Authors: T. Shyam Ramanath, A. Sudharsan, A. Kavitha

Abstract:

As is needless to say; a majority of accidents, which occur, are due to drunk driving. As such, there is no effective mechanism to prevent this. Here we have designed an integrated system for the same purpose. Alcohol content in the driver-s body is detected by means of an infrared breath analyzer placed at the steering wheel. An infrared cell directs infrared energy through the sample and any unabsorbed energy at the other side is detected. The higher the concentration of ethanol, the more infrared absorption occurs (in much the same way that a sunglass lens absorbs visible light, alcohol absorbs infrared light). Thus the alcohol level of the driver is continuously monitored and calibrated on a scale. When it exceeds a particular limit the fuel supply is cutoff. If the device is removed also, the fuel supply will be automatically cut off or an alarm is sounded depending upon the requirement. This does not happen abruptly and special indicators are fixed at the back to avoid inconvenience to other drivers using the highway signals. Frame work for integration of sensors and control module in a scalable multi-agent system is provided .A SMS which contains the current GPS location of the vehicle is sent via a GSM module to the police control room to alert the police. The system is foolproof and the driver cannot tamper with it easily. Thus it provides an effective and cost effective solution for the problem of drunk driving in vehicles.

Keywords: Global system monitoring, global positioning system.

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2969 The Hybrid Dimming Control System for Solar Charging Robot

Authors: A. Won-Yong Chae, B. Hyung-Nam Kim, C. Kyoung-Jun Lee, D. Hee-Je Kim

Abstract:

The renewable energy has been attracting attention as a new alternative energy due to the problem of environmental pollution and resource depletion. In particular, daylighting and PV system are regarded as the solutions. In this paper, the hybrid dimming control system supplied by solar cell and daylighting system was designed. Daylighting system is main source and PV system is spare source. PV system operates the LED lamp which supports daylighting system because daylighting system is unstable due to the variation of irradiance. In addition, PV system has a role charging batteries. Battery charging has a benefit that PV system operate LED lamp in the bad weather. However, LED lamp always can`t turn on that-s why dimming control system was designed. In particular, the solar charging robot was designed to check the interior irradiance intensity. These systems and the application of the solar charging robot are expected to contribute developing alternative energy in the near future.

Keywords: Daylighting system, PV system, LED lamp, Suntracking robot.

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2968 Studies on Lucrative Design of Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

Abstract:

In this paper comprehensive studies have been carried out for the design optimization of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Numerical studies have been carried for the geometry optimization of a waste heat recovery system for domestic air conditioners. Numerical computations have been carried out using a validated 2d pressure based, unsteady, 2nd-order implicit, SST k-ω turbulence model. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier- Stokes equations is employed. At identical inflow and boundary conditions various geometries were tried and effort has been taken for proposing the best design criteria. Several combinations of pipe line shapes viz., straight and spiral with different number of coils for the radiator have been attempted and accordingly the design criteria has been proposed for the waste heat recovery system design. We have concluded that, within the given envelope, the geometry optimization is a meaningful objective for getting better performance of waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: Air-conditioning system, Energy conversion system, Hot water production from waste heat, Waste heat recovery system.

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2967 Performance of Chaotic Lu System in CDMA Satellites Communications Systems

Authors: K. Kemih, M. Benslama

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of spreading sequence and receiver code synchronization techniques for satellite based CDMA communications systems. The performance of CDMA system depends on the autocorrelation and cross-correlation properties of the used spreading sequences. In this paper we propose the uses of chaotic Lu system to generate binary sequences for spreading codes in a direct sequence spread CDMA system. To minimize multiple access interference (MAI) we propose the use of genetic algorithm for optimum selection of chaotic spreading sequences. To solve the problem of transmitter-receiver synchronization, we use the passivity controls. The concept of semipassivity is defined to find simple conditions which ensure boundedness of the solutions of coupled Lu systems. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: About Chaotic Lu system, synchronization, Spreading sequence, Genetic Algorithm. Passive System

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2966 Tele-Diagnosis System for Rural Thailand

Authors: C. Snae Namahoot, M. Brueckner

Abstract:

Thailand-s health system is challenged by the rising number of patients and decreasing ratio of medical practitioners/patients, especially in rural areas. This may tempt inexperienced GPs to rush through the process of anamnesis with the risk of incorrect diagnosis. Patients have to travel far to the hospital and wait for a long time presenting their case. Many patients try to cure themselves with traditional Thai medicine. Many countries are making use of the Internet for medical information gathering, distribution and storage. Telemedicine applications are a relatively new field of study in Thailand; the infrastructure of ICT had hampered widespread use of the Internet for using medical information. With recent improvements made health and technology professionals can work out novel applications and systems to help advance telemedicine for the benefit of the people. Here we explore the use of telemedicine for people with health problems in rural areas in Thailand and present a Telemedicine Diagnosis System for Rural Thailand (TEDIST) for diagnosing certain conditions that people with Internet access can use to establish contact with Community Health Centers, e.g. by mobile phone. The system uses a Web-based input method for individual patients- symptoms, which are taken by an expert system for the analysis of conditions and appropriate diseases. The analysis harnesses a knowledge base and a backward chaining component to find out, which health professionals should be presented with the case. Doctors have the opportunity to exchange emails or chat with the patients they are responsible for or other specialists. Patients- data are then stored in a Personal Health Record.

Keywords: Biomedical engineering, data acquisition, expert system, information management system, and information retrieval.

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