Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 963

Search results for: Flight Dynamics

963 PID Parameter Optimization of an UAV Longitudinal Flight Control System

Authors: Kamran Turkoglu, Ugur Ozdemir, Melike Nikbay, Elbrous M. Jafarov

Abstract:

In this paper, an automatic control system design based on Integral Squared Error (ISE) parameter optimization technique has been implemented on longitudinal flight dynamics of an UAV. It has been aimed to minimize the error function between the reference signal and the output of the plant. In the following parts, objective function has been defined with respect to error dynamics. An unconstrained optimization problem has been solved analytically by using necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality, optimum PID parameters have been obtained and implemented in control system dynamics.

Keywords: Optimum Design, KKT Conditions, UAV, Longitudinal Flight Dynamics, ISE Parameter Optimization.

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962 Numerical Study of Flapping-Wing Flight of Hummingbird Hawkmoth during Hovering: Longitudinal Dynamics

Authors: Yao Jie, Yeo Khoon Seng

Abstract:

In recent decades, flapping wing aerodynamics has attracted great interest. Understanding the physics of biological flyers such as birds and insects can help improve the performance of micro air vehicles. The present research focuses on the aerodynamics of insect-like flapping wing flight with the approach of numerical computation. Insect model of hawkmoth is adopted in the numerical study with rigid wing assumption currently. The numerical model integrates the computational fluid dynamics of the flow and active control of wing kinematics to achieve stable flight. The computation grid is a hybrid consisting of background Cartesian nodes and clouds of mesh-free grids around immersed boundaries. The generalized finite difference method is used in conjunction with single value decomposition (SVD-GFD) in computational fluid dynamics solver to study the dynamics of a free hovering hummingbird hawkmoth. The longitudinal dynamics of the hovering flight is governed by three control parameters, i.e., wing plane angle, mean positional angle and wing beating frequency. In present work, a PID controller works out the appropriate control parameters with the insect motion as input. The controller is adjusted to acquire desired maneuvering of the insect flight. The numerical scheme in present study is proven to be accurate and stable to simulate the flight of the hummingbird hawkmoth, which has relatively high Reynolds number. The PID controller is responsive to provide feedback to the wing kinematics during the hovering flight. The simulated hovering flight agrees well with the real insect flight. The present numerical study offers a promising route to investigate the free flight aerodynamics of insects, which could overcome some of the limitations of experiments.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, flight control, computational fluid dynamics, flapping-wing flight.

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961 CFD Modeling of Insect Flight at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Wu Di, Yeo Khoon Seng, Lim Tee Tai

Abstract:

The typical insects employ a flapping-wing mode of flight. The numerical simulations on free flight of a model fruit fly (Re=143) including hovering and are presented in this paper. Unsteady aerodynamics around a flapping insect is studied by solving the three-dimensional Newtonian dynamics of the flyer coupled with Navier-Stokes equations. A hybrid-grid scheme (Generalized Finite Difference Method) that combines great geometry flexibility and accuracy of moving boundary definition is employed for obtaining flow dynamics. The results show good points of agreement and consistency with the outcomes and analyses of other researchers, which validate the computational model and demonstrate the feasibility of this computational approach on analyzing fluid phenomena in insect flight. The present modeling approach also offers a promising route of investigation that could complement as well as overcome some of the limitations of physical experiments in the study of free flight aerodynamics of insects. The results are potentially useful for the design of biomimetic flapping-wing flyers.

Keywords: Free hovering flight, flapping wings, fruit fly, insect aerodynamics, leading edge vortex (LEV), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Navier-Stokes equations (N-S), fluid structure interaction (FSI), generalized finite-difference method (GFD).

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960 Flight Control of a Trirotor Mini-UAV for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Andrus Pedai

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Autonomous vertical flight is a challenging but important task for tactical UAVs to achieve high level of autonomy under adverse conditions. With the SA strategy, we proposed a two stage flight control procedure using two autonomous control subsystems to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference in initial and final stages of flight trajectory for a nontrivial nonlinear trirotor mini-UAV model. This control strategy for chosen mini-UAV model has been verified by simulation of hovering maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast SA in realtime search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Flight control, trirotor aircraft, situational awareness, unmanned aerial vehicle.

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959 Quantification of Aerodynamic Variables Using Analytical Technique and Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Adil Loya, Kamran Maqsood, Muhammad Duraid

Abstract:

Aerodynamic stability coefficients are necessary to be known before any unmanned aircraft flight is performed. This requires expertise on aerodynamics and stability control of the aircraft. To enable efficacious performance of aircraft requires that a well-defined flight path and aerodynamics should be defined beforehand. This paper presents a study on the aerodynamics of an unmanned aero vehicle (UAV) during flight conditions. Current research holds comparative studies of different parameters for flight aerodynamic, measured using two different open source analytical software programs. These software packages are DATCOM and XLRF5, which help in depicting the flight aerodynamic variables. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was also used to perform aerodynamic analysis for which Star CCM+ was used. Output trends of the study demonstrate high accuracies between the two software programs with that of CFD. It can be seen that the Coefficient of Lift (CL) obtained from DATCOM and XFLR is similar to CL of CFD simulation. In the similar manner, other potential aerodynamic stability parameters obtained from analytical software are in good agreement with CFD.

Keywords: XFLR5, DATCOM, computational fluid dynamic, unmanned aero vehicle.

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958 Development of a Novel Low-Cost Flight Simulator for Pilot Training

Authors: Hongbin Gu, Dongsu Wu, Hui Liu

Abstract:

A novel low-cost flight simulator with the development goals cost effectiveness and high performance has been realized for meeting the huge pilot training needs of airlines. The simulator consists of an aircraft dynamics model, a sophisticated designed low-profile electrical driven motion system with a subsided cabin, a mixed reality based semi-virtual cockpit system, a control loading system and some other subsystems. It shows its advantages over traditional flight simulator by its features achieved with open architecture, software solutions and low-cost hardware.

Keywords: Flight simulator, mixed reality, motion system, control loading system.

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957 Modeling of a UAV Longitudinal Dynamics through System Identification Technique

Authors: Asadullah I. Qazi, Mansoor Ahsan, Zahir Ashraf, Uzair Ahmad

Abstract:

System identification of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), to acquire its mathematical model, is a significant step in the process of aircraft flight automation. The need for reliable mathematical model is an established requirement for autopilot design, flight simulator development, aircraft performance appraisal, analysis of aircraft modifications, preflight testing of prototype aircraft and investigation of fatigue life and stress distribution etc.  This research is aimed at system identification of a fixed wing UAV by means of specifically designed flight experiment. The purposely designed flight maneuvers were performed on the UAV and aircraft states were recorded during these flights. Acquired data were preprocessed for noise filtering and bias removal followed by parameter estimation of longitudinal dynamics transfer functions using MATLAB system identification toolbox. Black box identification based transfer function models, in response to elevator and throttle inputs, were estimated using least square error   technique. The identification results show a high confidence level and goodness of fit between the estimated model and actual aircraft response.

Keywords: Black box modeling, fixed wing aircraft, least square error, longitudinal dynamics, system identification.

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956 Development of a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Model Using System Identification Technique

Authors: Antonio Vitale, Nicola Genito, Giovanni Cuciniello, Ferdinando Montemari

Abstract:

The introduction of tilt-rotor aircraft into the existing civilian air transportation system will provide beneficial effects due to tilt-rotor capability to combine the characteristics of a helicopter and a fixed-wing aircraft into one vehicle. The disposability of reliable tilt-rotor simulation models supports the development of such vehicle. Indeed, simulation models are required to design automatic control systems that increase safety, reduce pilot's workload and stress, and ensure the optimal aircraft configuration with respect to flight envelope limits, especially during the most critical flight phases such as conversion from helicopter to aircraft mode and vice versa. This article presents a process to build a simplified tilt-rotor simulation model, derived from the analysis of flight data. The model aims to reproduce the complex dynamics of tilt-rotor during the in-flight conversion phase. It uses a set of scheduled linear transfer functions to relate the autopilot reference inputs to the most relevant rigid body state variables. The model also computes information about the rotor flapping dynamics, which are useful to evaluate the aircraft control margin in terms of rotor collective and cyclic commands. The rotor flapping model is derived through a mixed theoretical-empirical approach, which includes physical analytical equations (applicable to helicopter configuration) and parametric corrective functions. The latter are introduced to best fit the actual rotor behavior and balance the differences existing between helicopter and tilt-rotor during flight. Time-domain system identification from flight data is exploited to optimize the model structure and to estimate the model parameters. The presented model-building process was applied to simulated flight data of the ERICA Tilt-Rotor, generated by using a high fidelity simulation model implemented in FlightLab environment. The validation of the obtained model was very satisfying, confirming the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Flapping Dynamics, Flight Dynamics, System Identification, Tilt-Rotor Modeling and Simulation.

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955 Project and Experiment-Based Fluid Dynamics Education

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

This paper presents the project and experiment-based fluid dynamics education in Meisei University, a private institution in Tokyo, Japan. We pay attention not only to the basic engineering courses but also to the practical aspect of engineering experience. So, we prepare courses called the Projects from I to VI. The Projects I and II are designed for the first year, III and IV are designated for the second year, V and VI are prepared for the third year, respectively. Each supervisor is responsible for two of these projects every year. When students take the Project V and VI at the third year, we automatically assume that these students will join the lab of the project for the graduation thesis. We would like to show our experience in the Project I in the summer term, 2016. In this project, we introduce a traction flight vehicle called Cat Flyer. This is a kind of a kite towed by a car for example. This is very similar to parasailing, but flight is possible even on the roads. Experiments in mechanical engineering education are also very important, and we would like to explain our course on centrifugal pump, venture, and orifice. Although these are described in detail in the text books of fluid dynamics, it is still crucial to have practical experiments as a student.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, experiment, fluid dynamics, project.

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954 Motion Control of TUAV having Eight Rotors for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Andrus Pedai

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a two stage flight control procedure using two autonomous control subsystems to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference in initial and final stages of flight trajectory for a nontrivial nonlinear eight-rotor helicopter model. This control strategy for chosen model of mini-TUAV has been verified by simulation of hovering maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of engines in hovering, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy of batteries can be asserted during search-andrescue operations.

Keywords: Flight control, eight-rotor helicopter, situational awareness, tactical unmanned aerial vehicle

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953 Flight Control of Vectored Thrust Aerial Vehicle by Neural Network Predictive Controller for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Mikhail Pikkov, Rein Paluoja

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a flight control procedure to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference of flight trajectory for an unmanned helicopter model with vectored thrust configuration. This control strategy for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and forward maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of motors, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Neural network predictive controller, situational awareness, vectored thrust aerial vehicle.

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952 Numerical Simulation and Experiment of a Lifting Body with Leading-Edge Rotating Cylinder

Authors: A. Badarudin, C. S. Oon, S. N. Kazi, N. Nik-Ghazali, Y. J. Lee, W. T. Chong

Abstract:

An experimental and simulation flight test has been carried out to evaluate the longitudinal gliding characteristics of a lifting body with blunted half-cone geometry. The novelty here is the lifting body's pitch control mechanism, which consists of a pair of leading-edge rotating cylinders. Flight simulation uses aerodynamic data from computational fluid dynamics supported by wind-tunnel test. Flight test consists of releasing an aluminum lifting body model from a moving vehicle at the appropriate wind speed while measuring the lifting body's variation of altitude against time of flight. Results show that leading-edge rotating cylinder is able to give small amounts of improvement to the longitudinal stability and pitch control to the lifting body.

Keywords: Lifting body, pitch control, aerodynamic, rotating cylinder.

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951 Flight Control of TUAV with Coaxial Rotor and Ducted Fan Configuration by NARMA-L2 Controllers for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Andrus Pedai, Boris Gordon

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a two stage flight control procedure using two autonomous control subsystems to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference in initial and final stages of flight trajectory for an unmanned helicopter model with coaxial rotor and ducted fan configuration. This control strategy for chosen model of TUAV has been verified by simulation of hovering maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of engines in hovering, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Coaxial rotors, ducted fan, NARMA-L2 neurocontroller, situational awareness, tactical unmanned aerial vehicle.

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950 Development of Precise Ephemeris Generation Module for Thaichote Satellite Operations

Authors: Manop Aorpimai, Ponthep Navakitkanok

Abstract:

In this paper, the development of the ephemeris generation module used for the Thaichote satellite operations is presented. It is a vital part of the flight dynamics system, which comprises, the orbit determination, orbit propagation, event prediction and station-keeping maneouvre modules. In the generation of the spacecraft ephemeris data, the estimated orbital state vector from the orbit determination module is used as an initial condition. The equations of motion are then integrated forward in time to predict the satellite states. The higher geopotential harmonics, as well as other disturbing forces, are taken into account to resemble the environment in low-earth orbit. Using a highly accurate numerical integrator based on the Burlish-Stoer algorithm the ephemeris data can be generated for long-term predictions, by using a relatively small computation burden and short calculation time. Some events occurring during the prediction course that are related to the mission operations, such as the satellite’s rise/set viewed from the ground station, Earth and Moon eclipses, the drift in groundtrack as well as the drift in the local solar time of the orbital plane are all detected and reported. When combined with other modules to form a flight dynamics system, this application is aimed to be applied for the Thaichote satellite and successive Thailand’s Earth-observation missions. 

Keywords: Flight Dynamics System, Orbit Propagation, Satellite Ephemeris, Thailand’s Earth Observation Satellite.

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949 A Fuzzy TOPSIS Based Model for Safety Risk Assessment of Operational Flight Data

Authors: N. Borjalilu, P. Rabiei, A. Enjoo

Abstract:

Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) program assists an operator in aviation industries to identify, quantify, assess and address operational safety risks, in order to improve safety of flight operations. FDM is a powerful tool for an aircraft operator integrated into the operator’s Safety Management System (SMS), allowing to detect, confirm, and assess safety issues and to check the effectiveness of corrective actions, associated with human errors. This article proposes a model for safety risk assessment level of flight data in a different aspect of event focus based on fuzzy set values. It permits to evaluate the operational safety level from the point of view of flight activities. The main advantages of this method are proposed qualitative safety analysis of flight data. This research applies the opinions of the aviation experts through a number of questionnaires Related to flight data in four categories of occurrence that can take place during an accident or an incident such as: Runway Excursions (RE), Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT), Mid-Air Collision (MAC), Loss of Control in Flight (LOC-I). By weighting each one (by F-TOPSIS) and applying it to the number of risks of the event, the safety risk of each related events can be obtained.

Keywords: F-TOPSIS, fuzzy set, FDM, flight safety.

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948 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime

Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela

Abstract:

Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of selfsustain flight when a big airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in the airliner wake vortex. The paper presents results of a climb analysis with the goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliners cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Afterwards, flight performance of the UAV in a wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between an airliner and the UAV during a climb is determined. The results are encouraging. Therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.

Keywords: Flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortex.

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947 In-flight Meals, Passengers- Level of Satisfaction and Re-flying Intention

Authors: Mohd Zahari, M. S, Salleh, N. K., Kamaruddin, M. S. Y, Kutut, M. Z.

Abstract:

Service quality has become a centerpiece for airline companies in vying with one another and keeps their image in the minds of passengers. Many airlines have pushed service quality through service personalization which includes both ground and on board especially from the viewpoint of retaining satisfied passengers and attracting new ones. Besides those, in-flight meals/food service is another important aspect of the airline operation. The in flight meals/food services now are seen as part of marketing strategies in attracting business or leisure travelers. This study reports the outcomes of the investigation on in-flight meals/food attributes toward passengers- level of satisfaction and re-flying intention. Taste, freshness, appearance of in-flight meals/food served and menu choices are important to the airlines passengers especially for the long haul flight. Food not only contributes to the prediction of the airline passengers- levels of satisfaction but besides other factors slightly influence passengers- re- flying intention. Airline companies therefore should not ignore this element but take the opportunity to create more attractive and acceptable in-flight meals/food along with other matter as marketing tools in attracting passengers to re-flying with them.

Keywords: In-flight meal, passengers, satisfaction, re-flying and intention

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946 Flight School Perceptions of Electric Planes for Training

Authors: C. Edwards, P. Parker

Abstract:

Flight school members are facing a major disruption in the technologies available for them to fly as electric planes enter the aviation industry. The year 2020 marked a new era in aviation with the first type certification of an electric plane. The Pipistrel Velis Electro is a two-seat electric aircraft (e-plane) designed for flight training. Electric flight training has the potential to deeply reduce emissions, noise, and cost of pilot training. Though these are all attractive features, understanding must be developed on the perceptions of the essential actor of the technology, the pilot. This study asks student pilots, flight instructors, flight center managers, and other members of flight schools about their perceptions of e-planes. The questions were divided into three categories: safety and trust of the technology, expected costs in comparison to conventional planes, and interest in the technology, including their desire to fly electric planes. Participants were recruited from flight schools using a protocol approved by the Office of Research Ethics. None of these flight schools have an e-plane in their fleet so these views are based on perceptions rather than direct experience. The results revealed perceptions that were strongly positive with many qualitative comments indicating great excitement about the potential of the new electric aviation technology. Some concerns were raised regarding battery endurance limits. Overall, the flight school community is clearly in favor of introducing electric propulsion technology and reducing the environmental impacts of their industry.

Keywords: electric planes, flight training, green aircraft, student pilots, sustainable aviation

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945 GPS INS Integration Application in Flight Management System

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdurazag Ghila, Saleh Gashoot, Ahmed Abdulla

Abstract:

Flight management system (FMS) is a specialized computer system that automates a wide variety of in-flight tasks, reducing the workload on the flight crew to the point that modern aircraft no longer carry flight engineers or navigators. The primary function of FMS is to perform the in-flight management of the flight plan using various sensors (such as GPS and INS often backed up by radio navigation) to determine the aircraft's position. From the cockpit FMS is normally controlled through a Control Display Unit (CDU) which incorporates a small screen and keyboard or touch screen. This paper investigates the performance of GPS/ INS integration techniques in which the data fusion process is done using Kalman filtering. This will include the importance of sensors calibration as well as the alignment of the strap down inertial navigation system. The limitations of the inertial navigation systems are investigated in order to understand why INS sometimes is integrated with other navigation aids and not just operating in standalone mode. Finally, both the loosely coupled and tightly coupled configurations are analyzed for several types of situations and operational conditions.

Keywords: GPS, INS, Kalman Filter.

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944 Computational Prediction of Complicated Atmospheric Motion for Spinning or non- Spinning Projectiles

Authors: Dimitrios N. Gkritzapis, Elias E. Panagiotopoulos, Dionissios P. Margaris, Dimitrios G. Papanikas

Abstract:

A full six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics model is proposed for the accurate prediction of short and long-range trajectories of high spin and fin-stabilized projectiles via atmospheric flight to final impact point. The projectiles is assumed to be both rigid (non-flexible), and rotationally symmetric about its spin axis launched at low and high pitch angles. The mathematical model is based on the full equations of motion set up in the no-roll body reference frame and is integrated numerically from given initial conditions at the firing site. The projectiles maneuvering motion depends on the most significant force and moment variations, in addition to wind and gravity. The computational flight analysis takes into consideration the Mach number and total angle of attack effects by means of the variable aerodynamic coefficients. For the purposes of the present work, linear interpolation has been applied from the tabulated database of McCoy-s book. The developed computational method gives satisfactory agreement with published data of verified experiments and computational codes on atmospheric projectile trajectory analysis for various initial firing flight conditions.

Keywords: Constant-Variable aerodynamic coefficients, low and high pitch angles, wind.

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943 Neural Network Based Icing Identification and Fault Tolerant Control of a 340 Aircraft

Authors: F. Caliskan

Abstract:

This paper presents a Neural Network (NN) identification of icing parameters in an A340 aircraft and a reconfiguration technique to keep the A/C performance close to the performance prior to icing. Five aircraft parameters are assumed to be considerably affected by icing. The off-line training for identifying the clear and iced dynamics is based on the Levenberg-Marquard Backpropagation algorithm. The icing parameters are located in the system matrix. The physical locations of the icing are assumed at the right and left wings. The reconfiguration is based on the technique known as the control mixer approach or pseudo inverse technique. This technique generates the new control input vector such that the A/C dynamics is not much affected by icing. In the simulations, the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of an Airbus A340 aircraft model are considered, and the stability derivatives affected by icing are identified. The simulation results show the successful NN identification of the icing parameters and the reconfigured flight dynamics having the similar performance before the icing. In other words, the destabilizing icing affect is compensated.

Keywords: Aircraft Icing, Stability Derivatives, Neural NetworkIdentification, Reconfiguration.

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942 The Accuracy of the Flight Derivative Estimates Derived from Flight Data

Authors: Jung-hoon Lee, Eung Tai Kim, Byung-hee Chang, In-hee Hwang, Dae-sung Lee

Abstract:

The accuracy of estimated stability and control derivatives of a light aircraft from flight test data were evaluated. The light aircraft, named ChangGong-91, is the first certified aircraft from the Korean government. The output error method, which is a maximum likelihood estimation technique and considers measurement noise only, was used to analyze the aircraft responses measures. The multi-step control inputs were applied in order to excite the short period mode for the longitudinal and Dutch-roll mode for the lateral-directional motion. The estimated stability/control derivatives of Chan Gong-91 were analyzed for the assessment of handling qualities comparing them with those of similar aircraft. The accuracy of the flight derivative estimates derived from flight test measurement was examined in engineering judgment, scatter and Cramer-Rao bound, which turned out to be satisfactory with minor defects..

Keywords: Light Aircraft, Flight Test, Accuracy, Engineering Judgment, Scatter, Cramer-Rao Bound

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941 Design Process and Real-Time Validation of an Innovative Autonomous Mid-Air Flight and Landing System

Authors: De Lellis E., Di Vito V., Garbarino L., Lai C., Corraro F.

Abstract:

This paper describes the design process and the realtime validation of an innovative autonomous mid-air flight and landing system developed by the Italian Aerospace Research Center in the framework of the Italian national funded project TECVOL (Technologies for the Autonomous Flight). In the paper it is provided an insight of the whole development process of the system under study. In particular, the project framework is illustrated at first, then the functional context and the adopted design and testing approach are described, and finally the on-ground validation test rig on purpose designed is addressed in details. Furthermore, the hardwarein- the-loop validation of the autonomous mid-air flight and landing system by means of the real-time test rig is described and discussed.

Keywords: Autonomous landing, autonomous mid-air flight, design and test approach, real-time hardware-in-the-loop validation

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940 Applying Lagrangian Relaxation-Based Algorithm for the Airline Coordinated Flight Scheduling Problems

Authors: Chia-Hung Chen, Shangyao Yan

Abstract:

The solution algorithm, based on Lagrangian relaxation, a sub-gradient method and a heuristic to find the upper bound of the solution, is proposed to solve the coordinated fleet routing and flight scheduling problems. Numerical tests are performed to evaluate the proposed algorithm using real operating data from two Taiwan airlines. The test results indicate that the solution algorithm is a significant improvement over those obtained with CPLEX, consequently they could be useful for allied airlines to solve coordinated fleet routing and flight scheduling problems.

Keywords: Coordinated flight scheduling, multiple commodity network flow problem, Lagrangian relaxation.

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939 Neural Network Motion Control of VTAV by NARMA-L2 Controller for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Natalya Berezovski

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a neural network motion control procedure to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference of flight trajectory for a VTAV. This control strategy with using of NARMAL2 neurocontroller for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and forward maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of motors, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: NARMA-L2 neurocontroller, situational awareness, vectored thrust aerial vehicle.

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938 LQG Flight Control of VTAV for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Mikhail Pikkov, Rein Paluoja

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) flight control procedure for an unmanned helicopter model with vectored thrust configuration. This LQG control for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and landing maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast flight stabilization of model, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller, situational awareness, vectored thrust aerial vehicle.

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937 Optimization Based Tuning of Autopilot Gains for a Fixed Wing UAV

Authors: Mansoor Ahsan, Khalid Rafique, Farrukh Mazhar

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained tremendous importance, in both Military and Civil, during first decade of this century. In a UAV, onboard computer (autopilot) autonomously controls the flight and navigation of the aircraft. Based on the aircraft role and flight envelope, basic to complex and sophisticated controllers are used to stabilize the aircraft flight parameters. These controllers constitute the autopilot system for UAVs. The autopilot systems, most commonly, provide lateral and longitudinal control through Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers or Phase-lead or Lag Compensators. Various techniques are commonly used to ‘tune’ gains of these controllers. Some techniques used are, in-flight step-by-step tuning, software-in-loop or hardware-in-loop tuning methods. Subsequently, numerous in-flight tests are required to actually ‘fine-tune’ these gains. However, an optimization-based tuning of these PID controllers or compensators, as presented in this paper, can greatly minimize the requirement of in-flight ‘tuning’ and substantially reduce the risks and cost involved in flight-testing.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), autopilot, autonomous controls, PID controler gains tuning, optimization.

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936 Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recover Control Flight Control on a Nonlinear Model

Authors: T. Sanches, K. Bousson

Abstract:

As part of the development of a 4D autopilot system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), i.e. a time-dependent robust trajectory generation and control algorithm, this work addresses the problem of optimal path control based on the flight sensors data output that may be unreliable due to noise on data acquisition and/or transmission under certain circumstances. Although several filtering methods, such as the Kalman-Bucy filter or the Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recover Control (LQG/LTR), are available, the utter complexity of the control system, together with the robustness and reliability required of such a system on a UAV for airworthiness certifiable autonomous flight, required the development of a proper robust filter for a nonlinear system, as a way of further mitigate errors propagation to the control system and improve its ,performance. As such, a nonlinear algorithm based upon the LQG/LTR, is validated through computational simulation testing, is proposed on this paper.

Keywords: Autonomous flight, LQG/LTR, nonlinear state estimator, robust flight control and stability.

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935 Dispenser Longitudinal Movement ControlDesign Based on Auto - Disturbances –Rejection - Controller

Authors: Qiaozhen Song

Abstract:

Based on the feature of model disturbances and uncertainty being compensated dynamically in auto – disturbances-rejection-controller (ADRC), a new method using ADRC is proposed for the decoupling control of dispenser longitudinal movement in big flight envelope. Developed from nonlinear model directly, ADRC is especially suitable for dynamic model that has big disturbances. Furthermore, without changing the structure and parameters of the controller in big flight envelope, this scheme can simplify the design of flight control system. The simulation results in big flight envelope show that the system achieves high dynamic performance, steady state performance and the controller has strong robustness.

Keywords: ADRC, ESO, nonlinear system

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934 Development of an Avionics System for Flight Data Collection of an UAV Helicopter

Authors: Nikhil Ramaswamy, S.N.Omkar, Kashyap.H.Nathwani, Anil.M.Vanjare

Abstract:

In this present work, the development of an avionics system for flight data collection of a Raptor 30 V2 is carried out. For the data acquisition both onground and onboard avionics systems are developed for testing of a small-scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) helicopter. The onboard avionics record the helicopter state outputs namely accelerations, angular rates and Euler angles, in real time, and the on ground avionics system record the inputs given to the radio controlled helicopter through a transmitter, in real time. The avionic systems are designed and developed taking into consideration low weight, small size, anti-vibration, low power consumption, and easy interfacing. To mitigate the medium frequency vibrations embedded on the UAV helicopter during flight, a damper is designed and its performance is evaluated. A number of flight tests are carried out and the data obtained is then analyzed for accuracy and repeatability and conclusions are inferred.

Keywords: Data collection, Flight Testing, Onground and Onboard Avionics, UAV helicopter

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