Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: steel fiber

27 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar

Abstract:

An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: Basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior.

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26 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas

Abstract:

Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: Chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete.

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25 Design and Production of Thin-Walled UHPFRC Footbridge

Authors: P. Tej, P. Kněž, M. Blank

Abstract:

The paper presents design and production of thin-walled U-profile footbridge made of UHPFRC. The main structure of the bridge is one prefabricated shell structure made of UHPFRC with dispersed steel fibers without any conventional reinforcement. The span of the bridge structure is 10 m and the clear width of 1.5 m. The thickness of the UHPFRC shell structure oscillated in an interval of 30-45 mm. Several calculations were made during the bridge design and compared with the experiments. For the purpose of verifying the calculations, a segment of 1.5 m was first produced, followed by the whole footbridge for testing. After the load tests were done, the design was optimized to cast the final footbridge.

Keywords: Footbridge, UHPFRC, non-linear analysis, shell structure.

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24 Design Approach to Incorporate Unique Performance Characteristics of Special Concrete

Authors: Devendra Kumar Pandey, Debabrata Chakraborty

Abstract:

The advancement in various concrete ingredients like plasticizers, additives and fibers, etc. has enabled concrete technologists to develop many viable varieties of special concretes in recent decades. Such various varieties of concrete have significant enhancement in green as well as hardened properties of concrete. A prudent selection of appropriate type of concrete can resolve many design and application issues in construction projects. This paper focuses on usage of self-compacting concrete, high early strength concrete, structural lightweight concrete, fiber reinforced concrete, high performance concrete and ultra-high strength concrete in the structures. The modified properties of strength at various ages, flowability, porosity, equilibrium density, flexural strength, elasticity, permeability etc. need to be carefully studied and incorporated into the design of the structures. The paper demonstrates various mixture combinations and the concrete properties that can be leveraged. The selection of such products based on the end use of structures has been proposed in order to efficiently utilize the modified characteristics of these concrete varieties. The study involves mapping the characteristics with benefits and savings for the structure from design perspective. Self-compacting concrete in the structure is characterized by high shuttering loads, better finish, and feasibility of closer reinforcement spacing. The structural design procedures can be modified to specify higher formwork strength, height of vertical members, cover reduction and increased ductility. The transverse reinforcement can be spaced at closer intervals compared to regular structural concrete. It allows structural lightweight concrete structures to be designed for reduced dead load, increased insulation properties. Member dimensions and steel requirement can be reduced proportionate to about 25 to 35 percent reduction in the dead load due to self-weight of concrete. Steel fiber reinforced concrete can be used to design grade slabs without primary reinforcement because of 70 to 100 percent higher tensile strength. The design procedures incorporate reduction in thickness and joint spacing. High performance concrete employs increase in the life of the structures by improvement in paste characteristics and durability by incorporating supplementary cementitious materials. Often, these are also designed for slower heat generation in the initial phase of hydration. The structural designer can incorporate the slow development of strength in the design and specify 56 or 90 days strength requirement. For designing high rise building structures, creep and elasticity properties of such concrete also need to be considered. Lastly, certain structures require a performance under loading conditions much earlier than final maturity of concrete. High early strength concrete has been designed to cater to a variety of usages at various ages as early as 8 to 12 hours. Therefore, an understanding of concrete performance specifications for special concrete is a definite door towards a superior structural design approach.

Keywords: High performance concrete, special concrete, structural design, structural lightweight concrete.

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23 Stress-Strain Relation for Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Josef Novák, Alena Kohoutková

Abstract:

The performance of concrete structures in fire depends on several factors which include, among others, the change in material properties due to the fire. Today, fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) belongs to materials which have been widely used for various structures and elements. While the knowledge and experience with FRC behavior under ambient temperature is well-known, the effect of elevated temperature on its behavior has to be deeply investigated. This paper deals with an experimental investigation and stress‑strain relations for hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) which contains siliceous aggregates, polypropylene and steel fibers. The main objective of the experimental investigation is to enhance a database of mechanical properties of concrete composites with addition of fibers subject to elevated temperature as well as to validate existing stress-strain relations for HFRC. Within the investigation, a unique heat transport test, compressive test and splitting tensile test were performed on 150 mm cubes heated up to 200, 400, and 600 °C with the aim to determine a time period for uniform heat distribution in test specimens and the mechanical properties of the investigated concrete composite, respectively. Both findings obtained from the presented experimental test as well as experimental data collected from scientific papers so far served for validating the computational accuracy of investigated stress-strain relations for HFRC which have been developed during last few years. Owing to the presence of steel and polypropylene fibers, HFRC becomes a unique material whose structural performance differs from conventional plain concrete when exposed to elevated temperature. Polypropylene fibers in HFRC lower the risk of concrete spalling as the fibers burn out shortly with increasing temperature due to low ignition point and as a consequence pore pressure decreases. On the contrary, the increase in the concrete porosity might affect the mechanical properties of the material. To validate this thought requires enhancing the existing result database which is very limited and does not contain enough data. As a result of the poor database, only few stress-strain relations have been developed so far to describe the structural performance of HFRC at elevated temperature. Moreover, many of them are inconsistent and need to be refined. Most of them also do not take into account the effect of both a fiber type and fiber content. Such approach might be vague especially when high amount of polypropylene fibers are used. Therefore, the existing relations should be validated in detail based on other experimental results.

Keywords: Elevated temperature, fiber reinforced concrete, mechanical properties, stress strain relation.

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22 Constitutive Modeling of Different Types of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Khashayar Jafari, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

The cost of experiments on different types of concrete has raised the demand for prediction of their behavior with numerical analysis. In this research, an advanced numerical model has been presented to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of polymer concrete (PC), high-strength concrete (HSC), high performance concrete (HPC) along with different steel fiber contents under uniaxial compression. The accuracy of the numerical response was satisfactory as compared to other conventional simple models such as Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager. In order to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of specimens including softening behavior, disturbed state concept (DSC) was implemented by nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA) and hierarchical single surface (HISS) failure criterion, which is a failure surface without any singularity.

Keywords: Disturbed state concept, hierarchical single surface, failure criterion, high performance concrete, high-strength concrete, nonlinear finite element analysis, polymer concrete, steel fibers, uniaxial compression test.

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21 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: Ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber.

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20 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Jozefita Marku, Thomas Bier

Abstract:

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

Keywords: Compressive strength, polypropylene fiber, steel fiber, ultrasonic pulse velocity, volume, type of fiber.

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19 Development of Tensile Stress-Strain Relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: H. A. Alguhi, W. A. Elsaigh

Abstract:

This paper provides a tensile stress-strain (σ-ε) relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HSFRC). Load-deflection (P-δ) behavior of HSFRC beams tested under four-point flexural load were used with inverse analysis to calculate the tensile σ-ε relationship for various tested concrete grades (70 and 90MPa) containing 60 kg/m3 (0.76 %) of hook-end steel fibers. A first estimate of the tensile (σ-ε) relationship is obtained using RILEM TC 162-TDF and other methods available in literature, frequently used for determining tensile σ-ε relationship of Normal-Strength Concrete (NSC) Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) package ABAQUS® is used to model the beam’s P-δ behavior. The results have shown that an element-size dependent tensile σ-ε relationship for HSFRC can be successfully generated and adopted for further analyses involving HSFRC structures.

Keywords: Tensile stress-strain, flexural response, high strength concrete, steel fibers, non-linear finite element analysis.

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18 Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Pet Fiber Reinforced Concrete Matrix

Authors: Comingstarful Marthong, Deba Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

Concrete is strong in compression however weak in tension. The tensile strength as well as ductile property of concrete could be improved by addition of short dispersed fibers. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber obtained from hand cutting or mechanical slitting of plastic sheets generally used as discrete reinforcement in substitution of steel fiber. PET fiber obtained from the former process is in the form of straight slit sheet pattern that impart weaker mechanical bonding behavior in the concrete matrix. To improve the limitation of straight slit sheet fiber the present study considered two additional geometry of fiber namely (a) flattened end slit sheet and (b) deformed slit sheet. The mix for plain concrete was design for a compressive strength of 25 MPa at 28 days curing time with a watercement ratio of 0.5. Cylindrical and beam specimens with 0.5% fibers volume fraction and without fibers were cast to investigate the influence of geometry on the mechanical properties of concrete. The performance parameters mainly studied include flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV). Test results show that geometry of fiber has a marginal effect on the workability of concrete. However, it plays a significant role in achieving a good compressive and tensile strength of concrete. Further, significant improvement in term of flexural and energy dissipation capacity were observed from other fibers as compared to the straight slit sheet pattern. Also, the inclusion of PET fiber improved the ability in absorbing energy in the post-cracking state of the specimen as well as no significant porous structures.

Keywords: Concrete matrix, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers, mechanical bonding, mechanical properties, UPV.

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17 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: Bond stress, Compressive strength, Elevated temperatures, Fiber reinforced concrete, Modulus of rapture.

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16 Non-Homogeneous Layered Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

Fiber reinforced concrete is important material for load bearing structural elements. Usually fibers are homogeneously distributed in a concrete body having arbitrary spatial orientations. At the same time, in many situations, fiber concrete with oriented fibers is more optimal. Is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented short fibers in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of such approaches- fiber reinforced concrete prisms having dimensions 100mm ×100mm ×400mmwith layers of non-homogeneously distributed fibers inside them were fabricated.

Simultaneously prisms with homogeneously dispersed fibers were produced for reference as well. Prisms were tested under four point bending conditions. During the tests vertical deflection at the center of every prism and crack opening were measured (using linear displacements transducers in real timescale). Prediction results were discussed.

Keywords: Fiber reinforced concrete, 4-point bending, steel fiber.

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15 Crack Opening Investigation in Fiberconcrete

Authors: Arturs Macanovskis, Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

This work had three stages. In the first stage was examined pull-out process for steel fiber was embedded into a concrete by one end and was pulled out of concrete under the angle to pulling out force direction. Angle was varied. On the obtained forcedisplacement diagrams were observed jumps. For such mechanical behavior explanation, fiber channel in concrete surface microscopical experimental investigation, using microscope KEYENCE VHX2000, was performed. At the second stage were obtained diagrams for load- crack opening displacement for breaking homogeneously reinforced and layered fiberconcrete prisms (with dimensions 10x10x40cm) subjected to 4-point bending. After testing was analyzed main crack. At the third stage elaborated prediction model for the fiberconcrete beam, failure under bending, using the following data: a) diagrams for fibers pulling out at different angles; b) experimental data about steel-straight fibers locations in the main crack. Experimental and theoretical (modeling) data were compared.

Keywords: Fiberconcrete, pull-out, fiber channel, layered fiberconcrete.

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14 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan

Abstract:

This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concreteincreased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: Concrete, compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength.

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13 The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin

Authors: Min Ho Kwon, Woo Young Jung, Hyun Su Seo

Abstract:

A polymer cement mortar (PCM) has been widely used  as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure;  however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant.  Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to  environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the  environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM  using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM  resin were mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA  fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were  added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were  performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM.  Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using  UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement  mortar.

 

Keywords: Polymer cement mortar (PCM), UM resin, Compressive strength, PVA fiber, Steel fiber.

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12 Thermal Elastic Stress Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Composites

Authors: M. R. Haboğlu, A. Kurşun, Ş. Aksoy, H. Aykul, N. B. Bektaş

Abstract:

Athermal elastic stress analysis of steel fiber reinforced aluminum laminated composite plate is investigated. Four sides of the composite plate are clamped and subjected to a uniform temperature load. The analysis is performed both analytically and numerically. Laminated composite is manufactured via hot pressing method. The investigation of the effects of the orientation angle is provided. Different orientation angles are used such as [0°/90°]s, [30°/-30°]s, [45°/-45°]s, and [60/-60]s. The analytical solution is obtained via classical laminated composite theory and the numerical solution is obtained by applying finite element method via ANSYS.

Keywords: Laminated Composites, Thermo Elastic Stress, Finite Element Method.

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11 Elastic Stress Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam Loaded Uniformly

Authors: A. Kurşun, M. Tunay Çetin, E. Çetin, H. Aykul

Abstract:

In this investigation an elastic stress analysis is carried out a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beam loaded uniformly at the upper surface. The composite beam material consists of low density polyethylene as a thermoplastic (LDFE, f.2.12) and woven steel fibers. Granules of the polyethylene are put into the moulds and they are heated up to 160°C by using electrical resistance. Subsequently, the material is held for 5min under 2.5 MPa at this temperature. The temperature is decreased to 30°C under 15 MPa pressure in 3min. Closed form solution is found satisfying both the governing differential equation and boundary conditions. We investigated orientation angle effect on stress distribution of composite cantilever beams. The results show that orientation angle play an important role in determining the responses of a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beams and an optimal design of these structures.

Keywords: Cantilever beam, elastic stress analysis, orientation angle, thermoplastic.

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10 Effect of Steel Fibers on Flexural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete

Authors: K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh, M. J. Shannag

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of hooked-end steel fibers on the flexural behavior of normal and high strength concrete matrices. The fibers content appropriate for the concrete matrices investigated was also determined based on flexural tests on standard prisms. Parameters investigated include: matrix compressive strength ranging from 45 MPa to 70 MPa, corresponding to normal and high strength concrete matrices respectively; fibers volume fraction including 0, 0.5%, 0.76% and 1%, equivalent to 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg/m3 of hooked-end steel fibers respectively. Test results indicated that flexural strength and toughness of normal and high strength concrete matrices were significantly improved with the increase in the fibers content added; whereas a slight improvement in compressive strength was observed for the same matrices. Furthermore, the test results indicated that the effect of increasing the fibers content was more pronounced on increasing the flexural strength of high strength concrete than that of normal concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, flexural strength, toughness, steel fibers.

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9 The Influence of Zeolitic Spent Refinery Admixture on the Rheological and Technological Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Ž. Rudžionis, P. Grigaliūnas, D. Vaičiukynienė

Abstract:

By planning this experimental work to investigate the effect of zeolitic waste on rheological and technological properties of self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete, we had an intention to draw attention to the environmental factor. Large amount of zeolitic waste, as secondary raw materials are not in use properly and large amount of it is collected without a clear view of its usage in future. The principal aim of this work is to assure, that zeolitic waste admixture takes positive effect to the self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete mixes stability, flowability and other properties by using the experimental research methods. In addition to that a research on cement and zeolitic waste mortars were implemented to clarify the effect of zeolitic waste on properties of cement paste and stone. Primary studies indicates that zeolitic waste characterizes clear pozzolanic behavior, do not deteriorate and in some cases ensure positive rheological and mechanical characteristics of self-compacting concrete mixes.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete, zeolitic waste, rheological properties of concrete, slump flow.

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8 Dimensional Variations of Cement Matrices in the Presence of Metal Fibers

Authors: Fatima Setti, Ezziane Karim, Setti Bakhti, Negadi Kheira

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to present and to analyze the feasibility of using steel fibers as reinforcement in the cementations matrix to minimize the effect of free shrinkage which is a major cause of cracks that have can observe on concrete structures, also to improve the mechanical resistances of this concrete reinforced. The experimental study was performed on specimens with geometric characteristics adapted to the testing. The tests of shrinkage apply on prismatic specimens, equipped with rods fixed to the ends with different dosages of fibers, it should be noted that the fibers used are hooked end of 50mm length and 67 slenderness. The results show that the compressive strength and flexural strength increases as the degree of incorporation of fibbers increases. And the shrinkage deformations are generally less important for fibers-reinforced concrete to those appearing in the concrete without fibers.

Keywords: Concrete, Steel fibers, Compression, Flexural, Deformation.

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7 Effect of Silica Fume on the Properties of Steel-Fiber Reinforced Self-compacting Concrete

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, M. F. Nuruddin, Ali Elheber

Abstract:

Implementing significant advantages in the supply of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is necessary because of the, negative features of SCC. Examples of these features are the ductility problem along with the very high cost of its constituted materials. Silica fume with steel fiber can fix this matter by improving the ductility and decreasing the total cost of SCC by varying the cement ingredients. Many different researchers have found that there have not been enough research carried out on the steel fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) produced with silica fume. This paper inspects both the fresh and the mechanical properties of SFRSCC with silica fume, the fresh qualities where slump flow, slump T50 and V- funnel. While, the mechanical characteristics were the compressive strength, ultrasound pulse velocity (UPV) and elastic modulus of the concrete samples. The experimental results have proven that steel fiber can enhance the mechanical features. In addition, the silica fume within the entire hybrid mix may possibly adapt the fiber dispersion and strengthen deficits due to the fibers. It could also improve the strength plus the bond between the fiber and the matrix with a dense calcium silicate-hydrate gel in SFRSCC. The concluded result was predicted using linear mathematical models and was found to be in great agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh and mechanical properties.

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6 Study Punching Shear of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete Slabs by Nonlinear Analysis

Authors: Khaled S. Ragab

Abstract:

This paper deals with behavior and capacity of punching shear force for flat slabs produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC) by application nonlinear finite element method. Nonlinear finite element analysis on nine slab specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. A general description of the finite element method, theoretical modeling of concrete and reinforcement are presented. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete slabs in the post elastic range or the ultimate strength of a flat slabs produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC). In order to verify the analytical model used in this research using test results of the experimental data, the finite element analysis were performed then a parametric study of the effect ratio of flexural reinforcement, ratio of the upper reinforcement, and volume fraction of steel fibers were investigated. A comparison between the experimental results and those predicted by the existing models are presented. Results and conclusions may be useful for designers, have been raised, and represented.

Keywords: Nonlinear FEM, Punching shear behavior, Flat slabs and Steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC).

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5 Torsion Behavior of Steel Fibered High Strength Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRB Bars

Authors: Khaled S. Ragab, Ahmed S. Eisa

Abstract:

This paper investigates experimentally and analytically the torsion behavior of steel fibered high strength self compacting concrete beams reinforced by GFRP bars. Steel fibered high strength self compacting concrete (SFHSSCC) and GFRP bars became in the recent decades a very important materials in the structural engineering field. The use of GFRP bars to replace steel bars has emerged as one of the many techniques put forward to enhance the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures. High strength concrete and GFRP bars attract designers and architects as it allows improving the durability as well as the esthetics of a construction. One of the trends in SFHSSCC structures is to provide their ductile behavior and additional goal is to limit development and propagation of macro-cracks in the body of SFHSSCC elements. SFHSSCC and GFRP bars are tough, improve the workability, enhance the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures, and demonstrate high residual strengths after appearance of the first crack. Experimental studies were carried out to select effective fiber contents. Three types of volume fraction from hooked shape steel fibers are used in this study, the hooked steel fibers were evaluated in volume fractions ranging between 0.0%, 0.75% and 1.5%. The beams shape is chosen to create the required forces (i.e. torsion and bending moments simultaneously) on the test zone. A total of seven beams were tested, classified into three groups. All beams, have 200cm length, cross section of 10×20cm, longitudinal bottom reinforcement of 3

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, torsion behavior, steel fiber, steel fiber reinforced high strength self compacting concrete (SFRHSCC), GFRP bars.

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4 The Effects of Aggregate Sizes and Fiber Volume Fraction on Bending Toughness and Direct Tension of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho, Jae-Heum Moon, Jang-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

In order to supplement the brittle property of concrete, fibers are added into concrete mixtures. Compared to general concrete, various characteristics such as tensile strength, bending strength, bending toughness, and resistance to crack are superior, and even when cracks occur, improvements on toughness as well as resistance to shock are excellent due to the growth of fracture energy. Increased function of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be differentiated depending on the fiber dispersion, and sand percentage can be an important influence on the fiber dispersion. Therefore, in this research, experiments were planned on sand percentage in order to apprehend the influence of sand percentage on the bending properties and direct tension of SFRC and basic experiments were conducted on bending and direct tension in order to recognize the properties of bending properties and direct tension following the size of the aggregates and sand percentage.

Keywords: Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Bending Toughness, Direct tension.

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3 Post-Cracking Behaviour of High Strength Fiber Concrete Prediction and Validation

Authors: Andrejs Krasnikovs, Olga Kononova, Amjad Khabbaz, Edgar Machanovsky, Artur Machanovsky

Abstract:

Fracture process in mechanically loaded steel fiber reinforced high-strength (SFRHSC) concrete is characterized by fibers bridging the crack providing resistance to its opening. Structural SFRHSC fracture model was created; material fracture process was modeled, based on single fiber pull-out laws, which were determined experimentally (for straight fibers, fibers with end hooks (Dramix), and corrugated fibers (Tabix)) as well as obtained numerically ( using FEM simulations). For this purpose experimental program was realized and pull-out force versus pull-out fiber length was obtained (for fibers embedded into concrete at different depth and under different angle). Model predictions were validated by 15x15x60cm prisms 4 point bending tests. Fracture surfaces analysis was realized for broken prisms with the goal to improve elaborated model assumptions. Optimal SFRHSC structures were recognized.

Keywords: crack, fiber concrete, fiber pull-out, strength.

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2 Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting

Authors: Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs , Videvuds Lapsa, Jurijs Kalinka, Angelina Galushchak

Abstract:

Post cracking behavior and load –bearing capacity of the steel fiber reinforced high-strength concrete (SFRHSC) are dependent on the number of fibers are crossing the weakest crack (bridged the crack) and their orientation to the crack surface. Filling the mould by SFRHSC, fibers are moving and rotating with the concrete matrix flow till the motion stops in each internal point of the concrete body. Filling the same mould from the different ends SFRHSC samples with the different internal structures (and different strength) can be obtained. Numerical flow simulations (using Newton and Bingham flow models) were realized, as well as single fiber planar motion and rotation numerical and experimental investigation (in viscous flow) was performed. X-ray pictures for prismatic samples were obtained and internal fiber positions and orientations were analyzed. Similarly fiber positions and orientations in cracked cross-section were recognized and were compared with numerically simulated. Structural SFRHSC fracture model was created based on single fiber pull-out laws, which were determined experimentally. Model predictions were validated by 15x15x60cm prisms 4 point bending tests.

Keywords: fibers, orientation, high strength concrete, flow

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1 Comparison of Conventional and “ECO“Transportation Pavements in Cyprus using Life Cycle Approach

Authors: Constantia Achilleos, Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis

Abstract:

Road industry has challenged the prospect of ecoconstruction. Pavements may fit within the framework of sustainable development. Hence, research implements assessments of conventional pavements impacts on environment in use of life cycle approach. To meet global, and often national, targets on pollution control, newly introduced pavement designs are under study. This is the case of Cyprus demonstration, which occurred within EcoLanes project work. This alternative pavement differs on concrete layer reinforced with tire recycling product. Processing of post-consumer tires produces steel fibers improving strength capacity against cracking. Thus maintenance works are relevantly limited in comparison to flexible pavement. This enables to be more ecofriendly, referenced to current study outputs. More specific, proposed concrete pavement life cycle processes emits 15 % less air pollutants and consumes 28 % less embodied energy than those of the asphalt pavement. In addition there is also a reduction on costs by 0.06 %.

Keywords: Environmental impact assessment, life cycle, tirerecycling, transportation pavement.

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