Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 746

Search results for: finite element

746 Towards Finite Element Modeling of the Accoustics of Human Head

Authors: Maciej Paszynski, Leszek Demkowicz, Jason Kurtz

Abstract:

In this paper, a new formulation for acoustics coupled with linear elasticity is presented. The primary objective of the work is to develop a three dimensional hp adaptive finite element method code destinated for modeling of acoustics of human head. The code will have numerous applications e.g. in designing hearing protection devices for individuals working in high noise environments. The presented work is in the preliminary stage. The variational formulation has been implemented and tested on a sequence of meshes with concentric multi-layer spheres, with material data representing the tissue (the brain), skull and the air. Thus, an efficient solver for coupled elasticity/acoustics problems has been developed, and tested on high contrast material data representing the human head.

Keywords: finite element method, acoustics, coupled problems, biomechanics

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745 Seismic Safety Evaluation of Weir Structures Using the Finite and Infinite Element Method

Authors: Ho Young Son, Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

This study presents the seismic safety evaluation of weir structure subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, as a flood defense structure in civil engineering structures. The seismic safety analysis procedure was illustrated through development of Finite Element (FE) and InFinite Element (IFE) method in ABAQUS platform. The IFE model was generated by CINPS4, 4-node linear one-way infinite model as a sold continuum infinite element in foundation areas of the weir structure and then nonlinear FE model using friction model for soil-structure interactions was applied in this study. In order to understand the complex behavior of weir structures, nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, it was interesting to note that the compressive stress gave more vulnerability to the weir structure, in comparison to the tensile stress, during an earthquake. The stress concentration of the weir structure was shown at the connection area between the weir body and stilling basin area. The stress both tension and compression was reduced in IFE model rather than FE model of weir structures.

Keywords: Weir, Finite Element, Infinite Element, Nonlinear, Earthquake.

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744 Mechanism of Damping in Welded Structures using Finite Element Approach

Authors: B. Singh, B. K. Nanda

Abstract:

The characterization and modeling of the dynamic behavior of many built-up structures under vibration conditions is still a subject of current research. The present study emphasizes the theoretical investigation of slip damping in layered and jointed welded cantilever structures using finite element approach. Application of finite element method in damping analysis is relatively recent, as such, some problems particularly slip damping analysis has not received enough attention. To validate the finite element model developed, experiments have been conducted on a number of mild steel specimens under different initial conditions of vibration. Finite element model developed affirms that the damping capacity of such structures is influenced by a number of vital parameters such as; pressure distribution, kinematic coefficient of friction and micro-slip at the interfaces, amplitude, frequency of vibration, length and thickness of the specimen. Finite element model developed can be utilized effectively in the design of machine tools, automobiles, aerodynamic and space structures, frames and machine members for enhancing their damping capacity.

Keywords: Amplitude, finite element method, slip damping, tack welding.

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743 Finite Element Application to Estimate Inservice Material Properties using Miniature Specimen

Authors: G. Partheepan, D.K. Sehgal, R.K. Pandey

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for determining the uniaxial tensile properties such as Young-s modulus, yield strength and the flow behaviour of a material in a virtually non-destructive manner. To achieve this, a new dumb-bell shaped miniature specimen has been designed. This helps in avoiding the removal of large size material samples from the in-service component for the evaluation of current material properties. The proposed miniature specimen has an advantage in finite element modelling with respect to computational time and memory space. Test fixtures have been developed to enable the tension tests on the miniature specimen in a testing machine. The studies have been conducted in a chromium (H11) steel and an aluminum alloy (AR66). The output from the miniature test viz. load-elongation diagram is obtained and the finite element simulation of the test is carried out using a 2D plane stress analysis. The results are compared with the experimental results. It is observed that the results from the finite element simulation corroborate well with the miniature test results. The approach seems to have potential to predict the mechanical properties of the materials, which could be used in remaining life estimation of the various in-service structures.

Keywords: ABAQUS, finite element, miniature test, tensileproperties

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742 Verification and Application of Finite Element Model Developed for Flood Routing in Rivers

Authors: A. L. Qureshi, A. A. Mahessar, A. Baloch

Abstract:

Flood wave propagation in river channel flow can be enunciated by nonlinear equations of motion for unsteady flow. It is difficult to find analytical solution of these non-linear equations. Hence, in this paper verification of the finite element model has been carried out against available numerical predictions and field data. The results of the model indicate a good matching with both Preissmann scheme and HEC-RAS model for a river reach of 29km at both sites (15km from upstream and at downstream end) for discharge hydrographs. It also has an agreeable comparison with the Preissemann scheme for the flow depth (stage) hydrographs. The proposed model has also been applying to forecast daily discharges at 400km downstream in the Indus River from Sukkur barrage of Sindh, Pakistan, which demonstrates accurate model predictions with observed the daily discharges. Hence, this model may be utilized for flood warnings in advance.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Flood Forecasting, HEC-RAS, Indus river.

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741 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Bu Seog Ju

Abstract:

This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: Bridge, Finite Element, 3D model, Earthquake, Spectrum.

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740 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji

Abstract:

Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: Nondestructive testing, Pavement moduli backcalculation, Finite Element Method, FEM, concrete pavements.

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739 Finite Element Study of a DfD Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Zhi Sheng Lin, K. C. G. Ong, Lado Riannevo Chandra, Bee Hong Angeline Tan, Chat Tim Tam, Sze Dai Pang

Abstract:

Design for Disassembly (DfD) aims to reuse the structural components instead of demolition followed by recycling of the demolition debris. This concept preserves the invested embodied energy of materials, thus reducing inputs of new embodied energy during materials reprocessing or remanufacturing. Both analytical and experimental research on a proposed DfD beam-column connection for use in residential apartments is currently investigated at the National University of Singapore in collaboration with the Housing and Development Board of Singapore. The present study reports on the results of a numerical analysis of the proposed connection utilizing finite element analysis. The numerical model was calibrated and validated by comparison against experimental results. Results of a parametric study will also be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Design for Disassembly (DfD), finite element analysis, parametric study.

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738 Finite Element Modeling of two-dimensional Nanoscale Structures with Surface Effects

Authors: Weifeng Wang, Xianwei Zeng, Jianping Ding

Abstract:

Nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention during the last two decades, due to their unusual electrical, mechanical and other physical properties as compared with their bulky counterparts. The mechanical properties of nanostructured materials show strong size dependency, which has been explained within the framework of continuum mechanics by including the effects of surface stress. The size-dependent deformations of two-dimensional nanosized structures with surface effects are investigated in the paper by the finite element method. Truss element is used to evaluate the contribution of surface stress to the total potential energy and the Gurtin and Murdoch surface stress model is implemented with ANSYS through its user programmable features. The proposed approach is used to investigate size-dependent stress concentration around a nanosized circular hole and the size-dependent effective moduli of nanoporous materials. Numerical results are compared with available analytical results to validate the proposed modeling approach.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, finite element method, sizedependency, surface stress

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737 Finite Element Study on Corono-Radicular Restored Premolars

Authors: Sandu L., Topală F., Porojan S.

Abstract:

Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is a common problem in dentistry, related to the fractures occurring in such teeth and to concentration of forces little information regarding variation of basic preparation guidelines in stress distribution has been available. To date, there is still no agreement in the literature about which material or technique can optimally restore endodontically treated teeth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the core height and restoration materials on corono-radicular restored upper first premolar. The first step of the study was to achieve 3D models in order to analyze teeth, dowel and core restorations and overlying full ceramic crowns. The FEM model was obtained by importing the solid model into ANSYS finite element analysis software. An occlusal load of 100 N was conducted, and stresses occurring in the restorations, and teeth structures were calculated. Numerical simulations provide a biomechanical explanation for stress distribution in prosthetic restored teeth. Within the limitations of the present study, it was found that the core height has no important influence on the stress generated in coronoradicular restored premolars. It can be drawn that the cervical regions of the teeth and restorations were subjected to the highest stress concentrations.

Keywords: 3D models, finite element analysis, dowel and core restoration, full ceramic crown, premolars, structural simulations.

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736 Investigation of Tearing in Hydroforming Process with Analytical Equations and Finite Element Method

Authors: H.Seidi, M.Jalali Azizpour, S.A.Zahedi

Abstract:

Today, Hydroforming technology provides an attractive alternative to conventional matched die forming, especially for cost-sensitive, lower volume production, and for parts with irregular contours. In this study the critical fluid pressures which lead to rupture in the workpiece has been investigated by theoretical and finite element methods. The axisymmetric analysis was developed to investigate the tearing phenomenon in cylindrical Hydroforming Deep Drawing (HDD). By use of obtained equations the effect of anisotropy, drawing ratio, sheet thickness and strain hardening exponent on tearing diagram were investigated.

Keywords: Hydroforming deep drawing, Pressure path, Axisymmetric analysis, Finite element simulation.

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735 A Coupled Extended-Finite-Discrete Element Method: On the Different Contact Schemes between Continua and Discontinua

Authors: Shervin Khazaeli, Shahab Haj-zamani

Abstract:

Recently, advanced geotechnical engineering problems related to soil movement, particle loss, and modeling of local failure (i.e. discontinua) as well as modeling the in-contact structures (i.e. continua) are of the great interest among researchers. The aim of this research is to meet the requirements with respect to the modeling of the above-mentioned two different domains simultaneously. To this end, a coupled numerical method is introduced based on Discrete Element Method (DEM) and eXtended-Finite Element Method (X-FEM). In the coupled procedure, DEM is employed to capture the interactions and relative movements of soil particles as discontinua, while X-FEM is utilized to model in-contact structures as continua, which may consist of different types of discontinuities. For verification purposes, the new coupled approach is utilized to examine benchmark problems including different contacts between/within continua and discontinua. Results are validated by comparison with those of existing analytical and numerical solutions. This study proves that extended-finite-discrete element method can be used to robustly analyze not only contact problems, but also other types of discontinuities in continua such as (i) crack formations and propagations, (ii) voids and bimaterial interfaces, and (iii) combination of previous cases. In essence, the proposed method can be used vastly in advanced soil-structure interaction problems to investigate the micro and macro behaviour of the surrounding soil and the response of the embedded structure that contains discontinuities.

Keywords: Contact problems, discrete element method, extended-finite element method, soil-structure interaction.

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734 Seismic Analysis of a S-Curved Viaduct using Stick and Finite Element Models

Authors: Sourabh Agrawal, Ashok K. Jain

Abstract:

Stick models are widely used in studying the behaviour of straight as well as skew bridges and viaducts subjected to earthquakes while carrying out preliminary studies. The application of such models to highly curved bridges continues to pose challenging problems. A viaduct proposed in the foothills of the Himalayas in Northern India is chosen for the study. It is having 8 simply supported spans @ 30 m c/c. It is doubly curved in horizontal plane with 20 m radius. It is inclined in vertical plane as well. The superstructure consists of a box section. Three models have been used: a conventional stick model, an improved stick model and a 3D finite element model. The improved stick model is employed by making use of body constraints in order to study its capabilities. The first 8 frequencies are about 9.71% away in the latter two models. Later the difference increases to 80% in 50th mode. The viaduct was subjected to all three components of the El Centro earthquake of May 1940. The numerical integration was carried out using the Hilber- Hughes-Taylor method as implemented in SAP2000. Axial forces and moments in the bridge piers as well as lateral displacements at the bearing levels are compared for the three models. The maximum difference in the axial forces and bending moments and displacements vary by 25% between the improved and finite element model. Whereas, the maximum difference in the axial forces, moments, and displacements in various sections vary by 35% between the improved stick model and equivalent straight stick model. The difference for torsional moment was as high as 75%. It is concluded that the stick model with body constraints to model the bearings and expansion joints is not desirable in very sharp S curved viaducts even for preliminary analysis. This model can be used only to determine first 10 frequency and mode shapes but not for member forces. A 3D finite element analysis must be carried out for meaningful results.

Keywords: Bearing, body constraint, box girder, curved viaduct, expansion joint, finite element, link element, seismic, stick model, time history analysis.

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733 Modeling and Simulation of Ship Structures Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Javid Iqbal, Zhu Shifan

Abstract:

The development in the construction of unconventional ships and the implementation of lightweight materials have shown a large impulse towards finite element (FE) method, making it a general tool for ship design. This paper briefly presents the modeling and analysis techniques of ship structures using FE method for complex boundary conditions which are difficult to analyze by existing Ship Classification Societies rules. During operation, all ships experience complex loading conditions. These loads are general categories into thermal loads, linear static, dynamic and non-linear loads. General strength of the ship structure is analyzed using static FE analysis. FE method is also suitable to consider the local loads generated by ballast tanks and cargo in addition to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads. Vibration analysis of a ship structure and its components can be performed using FE method which helps in obtaining the dynamic stability of the ship. FE method has developed better techniques for calculation of natural frequencies and different mode shapes of ship structure to avoid resonance both globally and locally. There is a lot of development towards the ideal design in ship industry over the past few years for solving complex engineering problems by employing the data stored in the FE model. This paper provides an overview of ship modeling methodology for FE analysis and its general application. Historical background, the basic concept of FE, advantages, and disadvantages of FE analysis are also reported along with examples related to hull strength and structural components.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, finite element methods, ship structure, vibration analysis.

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732 Finite Element Analysis of Crack Welding Process

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

The numerical simulation of the crack welding process is reported in this paper. The thermo-electro-structural coupled-field finite element analysis is adopted to investigate the welding process of crack surfaces. In the simulation, the pressure-dependent and temperature-dependent electrical contact conditions are considered. From the results, the crack surfaces can melt and weld together under the compressive load and electric current. The contact pressure effect must be considered in the finite element analysis to obtain more practical results.

Keywords: Crack welding, contact pressure, Joule heating, finite element, coupled-field.

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731 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha

Abstract:

The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependance. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: Laminated glass, finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, Newton method.

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730 Hydrodynamic Modeling of Infinite Reservoir using Finite Element Method

Authors: M. A. Ghorbani, M. Pasbani Khiavi

Abstract:

In this paper, the dam-reservoir interaction is analyzed using a finite element approach. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible, irrotational and inviscid. The assumed boundary conditions are that the interface of the dam and reservoir is vertical and the bottom of reservoir is rigid and horizontal. The governing equation for these boundary conditions is implemented in the developed finite element code considering the horizontal and vertical earthquake components. The weighted residual standard Galerkin finite element technique with 8-node elements is used to discretize the equation that produces a symmetric matrix equation for the damreservoir system. A new boundary condition is proposed for truncating surface of unbounded fluid domain to show the energy dissipation in the reservoir, through radiation in the infinite upstream direction. The Sommerfeld-s and perfect damping boundary conditions are also implemented for a truncated boundary to compare with the proposed far end boundary. The results are compared with an analytical solution to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed formulation and other truncated boundary conditions in modeling the hydrodynamic response of an infinite reservoir.

Keywords: Reservoir, finite element, truncated boundary, hydrodynamic pressure

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729 3D Modeling of Temperature by Finite Element in Machining with Experimental Authorization

Authors: P. Mottaghizadeh, M. Bagheri

Abstract:

In the present paper, the three-dimensional temperature field of tool is determined during the machining and compared with experimental work on C45 workpiece using carbide cutting tool inserts. During the metal cutting operations, high temperature is generated in the tool cutting edge which influence on the rate of tool wear. Temperature is most important characteristic of machining processes; since many parameters such as cutting speed, surface quality and cutting forces depend on the temperature and high temperatures can cause high mechanical stresses which lead to early tool wear and reduce tool life. Therefore, considerable attention is paid to determine tool temperatures. The experiments are carried out for dry and orthogonal machining condition. The results show that the increase of tool temperature depends on depth of cut and especially cutting speed in high range of cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element method, Machining, Temperature measurement, Thermal fields

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728 A Finite Element/Finite Volume Method for Dam-Break Flows over Deformable Beds

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Ashraf Osman, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

A coupled two-layer finite volume/finite element method was proposed for solving dam-break flow problem over deformable beds. The governing equations consist of the well-balanced two-layer shallow water equations for the water flow and a linear elastic model for the bed deformations. Deformations in the topography can be caused by a brutal localized force or simply by a class of sliding displacements on the bathymetry. This deformation in the bed is a source of perturbations, on the water surface generating water waves which propagate with different amplitudes and frequencies. Coupling conditions at the interface are also investigated in the current study and two mesh procedure is proposed for the transfer of information through the interface. In the present work a new procedure is implemented at the soil-water interface using the finite element and two-layer finite volume meshes with a conservative distribution of the forces at their intersections. The finite element method employs quadratic elements in an unstructured triangular mesh and the finite volume method uses the Rusanove to reconstruct the numerical fluxes. The numerical coupled method is highly efficient, accurate, well balanced, and it can handle complex geometries as well as rapidly varying flows. Numerical results are presented for several test examples of dam-break flows over deformable beds. Mesh convergence study is performed for both methods, the overall model provides new insight into the problems at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: Dam-break flows, deformable beds, finite element method, finite volume method, linear elasticity, Shallow water equations.

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727 Elastic and Plastic Collision Comparison Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Gustavo Rodrigues, Hans Weber, Larissa Driemeier

Abstract:

The prevision of post-impact conditions and the behavior of the bodies during the impact have been object of several collision models. The formulation from Hertz’s theory is generally used dated from the 19th century. These models consider the repulsive force as proportional to the deformation of the bodies under contact and may consider it proportional to the rate of deformation. The objective of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the bodies during impact using the Finite Element Method (FEM) with elastic and plastic material models. The main parameters to evaluate are, the contact force, the time of contact and the deformation of the bodies. An advantage of using the FEM approach is the possibility to apply a plastic deformation to the model according to the material definition: there will be used Johnson–Cook plasticity model whose parameters are obtained through empirical tests of real materials. This model allows analyzing the permanent deformation caused by impact, phenomenon observed in real world depending on the forces applied to the body. These results are compared between them and with the model-based Hertz theory.

Keywords: Collision, finite element method, Hertz’s Theory, impact models.

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726 Finite Element Analysis for Damped Vibration Properties of Panels Laminated Porous Media

Authors: Y. Kurosawa, T. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for sound-proof structures involving elastic body, viscoelastic body, and porous media. For elastic and viscoelastic body displacement is modeled using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantities to represent damped sound fields in the porous media. Particle displacement in the porous media is discretised using finite element method. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous media. Further, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived using asymptotic method. Eigenvalue analysis and frequency responded were calculated for automotive test panel laminated viscoelastic and porous structures using this technique, the results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: Damping, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, Computer Aided Engineering.

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725 2D and 3D Finite Element Method Packages of CEMTool for Engineering PDE Problems

Authors: Choon Ki Ahn, Jung Hun Park, Wook Hyun Kwon

Abstract:

CEMTool is a command style design and analyzing package for scientific and technological algorithm and a matrix based computation language. In this paper, we present new 2D & 3D finite element method (FEM) packages for CEMTool. We discuss the detailed structures and the important features of pre-processor, solver, and post-processor of CEMTool 2D & 3D FEM packages. In contrast to the existing MATLAB PDE Toolbox, our proposed FEM packages can deal with the combination of the reserved words. Also, we can control the mesh in a very effective way. With the introduction of new mesh generation algorithm and fast solving technique, our FEM packages can guarantee the shorter computational time than MATLAB PDE Toolbox. Consequently, with our new FEM packages, we can overcome some disadvantages or limitations of the existing MATLAB PDE Toolbox.

Keywords: CEMTool, Finite element method (FEM), Numericalanalysis, Partial differential equation (PDE)

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724 Comparison of Electrical Parameters of Oil-Immersed and Dry-Type Transformer Using Finite Element Method

Authors: U. Amin, A. Talib, S. A. Qureshi, M. J. Hossain, G. Ahmad

Abstract:

The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that, for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating, oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.

Keywords: Finite element method, flux density, transformer, voltage gradient.

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723 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behavior of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency, and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-toconcrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model.

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722 Identification of High Stress and Strain Regions in Proximal Femur during Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: H. Kheirollahi, Y. Luo

Abstract:

Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress.

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721 Finite Element Analysis of Sheet Metal Airbending Using Hyperform LS-DYNA

Authors: Himanshu V. Gajjar, Anish H. Gandhi, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Air bending is one of the important metal forming processes, because of its simplicity and large field application. Accuracy of analytical and empirical models reported for the analysis of bending processes is governed by simplifying assumption and do not consider the effect of dynamic parameters. Number of researches is reported on the finite element analysis (FEA) of V-bending, Ubending, and air V-bending processes. FEA of bending is found to be very sensitive to many physical and numerical parameters. FE models must be computationally efficient for practical use. Reported work shows the 3D FEA of air bending process using Hyperform LSDYNA and its comparison with, published 3D FEA results of air bending in Ansys LS-DYNA and experimental results. Observing the planer symmetry and based on the assumption of plane strain condition, air bending problem was modeled in 2D with symmetric boundary condition in width. Stress-strain results of 2D FEA were compared with 3D FEA results and experiments. Simplification of air bending problem from 3D to 2D resulted into tremendous reduction in the solution time with only marginal effect on stressstrain results. FE model simplification by studying the problem symmetry is more efficient and practical approach for solution of more complex large dimensions slow forming processes.

Keywords: Air V-bending, Finite element analysis, HyperformLS-DYNA, Planner symmetry.

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720 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Frames in Wheelchair under Upward Loading

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Jin-Wei Liang, Wei-Long Chen, Teng-Hui Chen

Abstract:

The finite element analysis is adopted in this primary study. Using the Tsai-Wu criterion and delamination criterion, the stacking sequence [45/04/-454/904]s is the final optimal design for the wheelchair frame. On the contrary, the uni-directional laminates, i.e. [9013]s, [4513]s and [-4513]s, are bad designs due to the higher failure indexes.

Keywords: Wheelchair frame, stacking sequence, failure index, finite element.

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719 Backcalculation of HMA Stiffness Based On Finite Element Model

Authors: Md Rashadul Islam, Umme Amina Mannan, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

Stiffness of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) in flexible pavement is largely dependent of temperature, mode of testing and age of pavement. Accurate measurement of HMA stiffness is thus quite challenging. This study determines HMA stiffness based on Finite Element Model (FEM) and validates the results using field data. As a first step, stiffnesses of different layers of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40) in New Mexico were determined by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Pavement temperature was not measured at that time due to lack of temperature probe. Secondly, a FE model is developed in ABAQUS. Stiffness of the base, subbase and subgrade were taken from the FWD test output obtained from the first step. As HMA stiffness largely varies with temperature it was assigned trial and error approach. Thirdly, horizontal strain and vertical stress at the bottom of the HMA and temperature at different depths of the pavement were measured with installed sensors on the whole day on December 25th, 2012. Fourthly, outputs of FEM were correlated with measured stress-strain responses. After a number of trials a relationship was developed between the trial stiffness of HMA and measured mid-depth HMA temperature. At last, the obtained relationship between stiffness and temperature is verified by further FWD test when pavement temperature was recorded. A promising agreement between them is observed. Therefore, conclusion can be drawn that linear elastic FEM can accurately predict the stiffness and the structural response of flexible pavement.

Keywords: Asphalt pavement, falling weight deflectometer test, field instrumentation, finite element model, horizontal strain, temperature probes.

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718 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady

Abstract:

In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method. 

Keywords: Cable ampacity, Finite element method, underground cable, thermal rating.

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717 The Shaping of a Triangle Steel Plate into an Equilateral Vertical Steel by Finite-Element Modeling

Authors: Tsung-Chia Chen

Abstract:

The orthogonal processes to shape the triangle steel plate into a equilateral vertical steel are examined by an incremental elasto-plastic finite-element method based on an updated Lagrangian formulation. The highly non-linear problems due to the geometric changes, the inelastic constitutive behavior and the boundary conditions varied with deformation are taken into account in an incremental manner. On the contact boundary, a modified Coulomb friction mode is specially considered. A weighting factor r-minimum is employed to limit the step size of loading increment to linear relation. In particular, selective reduced integration was adopted to formulate the stiffness matrix. The simulated geometries of verticality could clearly demonstrate the vertical processes until unloading. A series of experiments and simulations were performed to validate the formulation in the theory, leading to the development of the computer codes. The whole deformation history and the distribution of stress, strain and thickness during the forming process were obtained by carefully considering the moving boundary condition in the finite-element method. Therefore, this modeling can be used for judging whether a equilateral vertical steel can be shaped successfully. The present work may be expected to improve the understanding of the formation of the equilateral vertical steel.

Keywords: Elasto-plastic, finite element, orthogonal pressing process, vertical steel.

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