Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8839

Search results for: Structural Analysis.

8839 Structural Analysis of Warehouse Rack Construction for Heavy Loads

Authors: C. Kozkurt, A. Fenercioglu, M. Soyaslan

Abstract:

In this study rack systems that are structural storage units of warehouses have been analyzed as structural with Finite Element Method (FEA). Each cell of discussed rack system storages pallets which have from 800 kg to 1000 kg weights and 0.80x1.15x1.50 m dimensions. Under this load, total deformations and equivalent stresses of structural elements and principal stresses, tensile stresses and shear stresses of connection elements have been analyzed. The results of analyses have been evaluated according to resistance limits of structural and connection elements. Obtained results have been presented as visual and magnitude.

Keywords: warehouse, structural analysis, AS/RS, FEM, FEA

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8838 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: Turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS.

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8837 Novel Design and Analysis of a Brake Rotor

Authors: Sharath Kumar T., S.Vinodh

Abstract:

Over the course of the past century, the global automotive industry-s stance towards safety has evolved from one of contempt to one nearing reverence. A suspension system that provides safe handling and cornering capabilities can, with the help of an efficient braking system, improve safety to a large extent. The aim of this research is to propose a new automotive brake rotor design and to compare it with automotive vented disk rotor. Static structural and transient thermal analysis have been carried out on the vented disk rotor and proposed rotor designs to evaluate and compare their performance. Finite element analysis was employed for both static structural and transient thermal analysis. Structural analysis was carried out to study the stress and deformation pattern of the rotors under extreme loads. Time varying temperature load was applied on the rotors and the temperature distribution was analysed considering cooling parameters (convection and radiation). This dissertation illustrates the use of Finite Element Methods to examine models, concluding with a comparative study of the proposed rotor design and the conventional vented disk rotor for structural stability and thermal efficiency.

Keywords: Disk brakes, CAD model, rotor design, structural and thermal analysis

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8836 Transonic Flutter Analysis Using Euler Equation and Reduced Order Modeling Technique

Authors: D. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, T. Kim

Abstract:

A new method identifies coupled fluid-structure system with a reduced set of state variables is presented. Assuming that the structural model is known a priori either from an analysis or a test and using linear transformations between structural and aeroelastic states, it is possible to deduce aerodynamic information from sampled time histories of the aeroelastic system. More specifically given a finite set of structural modes the method extracts generalized aerodynamic force matrix corresponding to these mode shapes. Once the aerodynamic forces are known, an aeroelastic reduced-order model can be constructed in discrete-time, state-space format by coupling the structural model and the aerodynamic system. The resulting reduced-order model is suitable for constant Mach, varying density analysis.

Keywords: ROM (Reduced-Order Model), aero elasticity, AGARD 445.6 wing.

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8835 Structural Analysis of an Active Morphing Wing for Enhancing UAV Performance

Authors: E. Kaygan, A. Gatto

Abstract:

A numerical study of a design concept for actively controlling wing twist is described in this paper. The concept consists of morphing elements which were designed to provide a rigid and seamless skin while maintaining structural rigidity. The wing structure is first modeled in CATIA V5 then imported into ANSYS for structural analysis. Athena Vortex Lattice method (AVL) is used to estimate aerodynamic response as well as aerodynamic loads of morphing wings, afterwards a structural optimization performed via ANSYS Static. Overall, the results presented in this paper show that the concept provides efficient wing twist while preserving an aerodynamically smooth and compliant surface. Sufficient structural rigidity in bending is also obtained. This concept is suggested as a possible alternative for morphing skin applications. 

Keywords: Aircraft, morphing, skin, twist.

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8834 Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Composite Structural System with Separated Gravity and Lateral Resistant Systems

Authors: Zi-Ang Li, Mu-Xuan Tao

Abstract:

During the process of the industrialization of steel structure housing, a composite structural system with separated gravity and lateral resistant systems has been applied in engineering practices, which consists of composite frame with hinged beam-column joints, steel brace and RC shear wall. As an attempt in steel structural system area, seismic performance evaluation of the separated composite structure is important for further application in steel housing. This paper focuses on the seismic performance comparison of the separated composite structural system and traditional steel frame-shear wall system under the same inter-story drift ratio (IDR) provision limit. The same architectural layout of a high-rise building is designed as two different structural systems at the same IDR level, and finite element analysis using pushover method is carried out. Static pushover analysis implies that the separated structural system exhibits different lateral deformation mode and failure mechanism with traditional steel frame-shear wall system. Different indexes are adopted and discussed in seismic performance evaluation, including IDR, safe factor (SF), shear wall damage, etc. The performance under maximum considered earthquake (MCE) demand spectrum shows that the shear wall damage of two structural systems are similar; the separated composite structural system exhibits less plastic hinges; and the SF index value of the separated composite structural system is higher than the steel frame shear wall structural system.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, seismic performance evaluation, separated composite structural system, static pushover analysis.

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8833 Analysis of the Influence of Reshoring on the Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Keith Danila Aquino Neves, Júlia Borges dos Santos

Abstract:

There is little published research about the influence of execution methods on structural behavior. Structural analysis is typically based on a constructed building, considering the actions of all forces under which it was designed. However, during construction, execution loads do not match those designed, and in some cases the loads begin to act when the concrete has not yet reached its maximum strength. Changes to structural element support conditions may occur, resulting in unforeseen alterations to the structure’s behavior. Shoring is an example of a construction process that, if executed improperly, will directly influence the structural performance, and may result in unpredicted cracks and displacements. The NBR 14931/2004 standard, which guides the execution of reinforced concrete structures, mentions that shoring must be executed in a way that avoids unpredicted loads and that it may be removed after previous analysis of the structure’s behavior by the professional responsible for the structure’s design. Differences in structural behavior are reduced for small spans. It is important to qualify and quantify how the incorrect placement of shores can compromise a structure’s safety. The results of this research allowed a more precise acknowledgment of the relationship between spans and loads, for which the influence of execution processes can be considerable, and reinforced that civil engineering practice must be performed with the presence of a qualified professional, respecting existing standards’ guidelines.

Keywords: Structural analysis, structural behavior, reshoring, static scheme, reinforced concrete.

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8832 The Analysis of Duct Model Through Structural and Dynamic Schemes

Authors: S. H. Yahaya, J. M. Ali, M. R. Arham

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis of duct design using static and dynamic approaches. The static approach is used to find out applicability between the design and material applied. The material used in this paper is Thermoplastic Olefins (TPO). For the dynamic approach, the focusing is only on the CFD simulations. The fatigue life in this design and material applied also covered.

Keywords: CFD, structural analysis, fluid analysis, duct design, fatigue life

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8831 Structural Reliability of Existing Structures: A Case Study

Authors: Z. Sakka, I. Assakkaf, T. Al-Yaqoub, J. Parol

Abstract:

reliability-based methodology for the assessment and evaluation of reinforced concrete (R/C) structural elements of concrete structures is presented herein. The results of the reliability analysis and assessment for R/C structural elements were verified by the results obtained through deterministic methods. The outcomes of the reliability-based analysis were compared against currently adopted safety limits that are incorporated in the reliability indices β’s, according to international standards and codes. The methodology is based on probabilistic analysis using reliability concepts and statistics of the main random variables that are relevant to the subject matter, and for which they are to be used in the performance-function equation(s) associated with the structural elements under study. These methodology techniques can result in reliability index β, which is commonly known as the reliability index or reliability measure value that can be utilized to assess and evaluate the safety, human risk, and functionality of the structural component. Also, these methods can result in revised partial safety factor values for certain target reliability indices that can be used for the purpose of redesigning the R/C elements of the building and in which they could assist in considering some other remedial actions to improve the safety and functionality of the member.

Keywords: Concrete Structures, FORM, Monte Carlo Simulation, Structural Reliability.

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8830 Structural Funds of Polish Agriculture

Authors: Agata Niewiadomska, Adam Niewiadomski

Abstract:

The research objective of the project and article “The impact of Structural Funds on the growth of competitiveness of Polish agriculture" is to assess competitiveness of regions in Poland from the perspective of Polish agriculture by analysing the efficiency of the use of Structural Funds, the economic procedure of their distribution and the regulatory and organisational framework under the Rural Development Programme (RDP). It must be stressed that defining the scope of research in the above manner limits the analysis only to the part of Structural Funds directed to support Polish agriculture.

Keywords: Structural Funds, Polish agriculture, Rural Development Programme.

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8829 Forecasting the Influences of Information and Communication Technology on the Structural Changes of Japanese Industrial Sectors: A Study Using Statistical Analysis

Authors: Ubaidillah Zuhdi, Shunsuke Mori, Kazuhisa Kamegai

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to forecast the influences of information and communication technology (ICT) on the structural changes of Japanese economies. In this study, input-output (IO) and statistical approaches are used as analysis instruments. More specifically, this study employs Leontief IO coefficients and constrained multivariate regression (CMR) model in order to achieve the purpose. The periods of initial and forecast in this study are 2005 and 2015, respectively. In this study, ICT is represented by ICT capital stocks. This study conducts two levels of analysis, namely macro and micro. The results of macro level analysis show that the dynamics of Japanese economies on the forecast period, relative to the initial period, are not so high. We focus on (1) commerce, (2) business services and office supplies, and (3) personal services sectors when conducting the analysis of the micro level. Further, we analyze its specific IO coefficients when doing this analysis. The results of the analysis explain that ICT gives a strong influence on the changes of these coefficients from initial to forecast periods.

Keywords: Forecast, ICT, Structural changes, Japanese economies.

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8828 Local Stability Analysis of Age Structural Model for Herpes Zoster in Thailand

Authors: P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

Herpes zoster is a disease that manifests as a dermatological condition. The characteristic of this disease is an irritating skin rash with blisters. This is often limited to one side of body. From the data of Herpes zoster cases in Thailand, we found that age structure effects to the transmission of this disease. In this study, we construct the age structural model of Herpes zoster in Thailand. The local stability analysis of this model is given. The numerical solutions are shown to confirm the analytical results.

Keywords: Age structural model, Herpes zoster, local stability, Numerical solution.

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8827 Meta Model for Optimum Design Objective Function of Steel Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

Authors: Salah R. Al Zaidee, Ali S. Mahdi

Abstract:

Except for simple problems of statically determinate structures, optimum design problems in structural engineering have implicit objective functions where structural analysis and design are essential within each searching loop. With these implicit functions, the structural engineer is usually enforced to write his/her own computer code for analysis, design, and searching for optimum design among many feasible candidates and cannot take advantage of available software for structural analysis, design, and searching for the optimum solution. The meta-model is a regression model used to transform an implicit objective function into objective one and leads in turn to decouple the structural analysis and design processes from the optimum searching process. With the meta-model, well-known software for structural analysis and design can be used in sequence with optimum searching software. In this paper, the meta-model has been used to develop an explicit objective function for plane steel frames subjected to dead, live, and seismic forces. Frame topology is assumed as predefined based on architectural and functional requirements. Columns and beams sections and different connections details are the main design variables in this study. Columns and beams are grouped to reduce the number of design variables and to make the problem similar to that adopted in engineering practice. Data for the implicit objective function have been generated based on analysis and assessment for many design proposals with CSI SAP software. These data have been used later in SPSS software to develop a pure quadratic nonlinear regression model for the explicit objective function. Good correlations with a coefficient, R2, in the range from 0.88 to 0.99 have been noted between the original implicit functions and the corresponding explicit functions generated with meta-model.

Keywords: Meta-modal, objective function, steel frames, seismic analysis, design.

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8826 Harnessing Nigeria's Forestry Potential for Structural Applications: Structural Reliability of Nigerian Grown Opepe Timber

Authors: J. I. Aguwa, S. Sadiku, M. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This study examined the structural reliability of the Nigerian grown Opepe timber as bridge beam material. The strength of a particular specie of timber depends so much on some factors such as soil and environment in which it is grown. The steps involved are collection of the Opepe timber samples, seasoning/preparation of the test specimens, determination of the strength properties/statistical analysis, development of a computer programme in FORTRAN language and finally structural reliability analysis using FORM 5 software. The result revealed that the Nigerian grown Opepe is a reliable and durable structural bridge beam material for span of 5000mm, depth of 400mm, breadth of 250mm and end bearing length of 150mm. The probabilities of failure in bending parallel to the grain, compression perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and deflection are 1.61 x 10-7, 1.43 x 10-8, 1.93 x 10-4 and 1.51 x 10-15 respectively. The paper recommends establishment of Opepe plantation in various Local Government Areas in Nigeria for structural applications such as in bridges, railway sleepers, generation of income to the nation as well as creating employment for the numerous unemployed youths.

Keywords: Bending and deflection, Bridge beam, Compression, Nigerian Opepe, Shear, Structural reliability.

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8825 Structure Based Computational Analysis and Molecular Phylogeny of C- Phycocyanin Gene from the Selected Cyanobacteria

Authors: N. Reehana, A. Parveez Ahamed, D. Mubarak Ali, A. Suresh, R. Arvind Kumar, N. Thajuddin

Abstract:

Cyanobacteria play a vital role in the production of phycobiliproteins that includes phycocyanin and phycoerythrin pigments. Phycocyanin and related phycobiliproteins have wide variety of application that is used in the food, biotechnology and cosmetic industry because of their color, fluorescent and antioxidant properties. The present study is focused to understand the pigment at molecular level in the Cyanobacteria Oscillatoria terebriformis NTRI05 and Oscillatoria foreaui NTRI06. After extraction of genomic DNA, the amplification of C-Phycocyanin gene was done with the suitable primer PCβF and PCαR and the sequencing was performed. Structural and Phylogenetic analysis was attained using the sequence to develop a molecular model.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, C-Phycocyanin gene, Phylogenetic analysis, Structural analysis.

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8824 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: Differential, spider gear, ANSYS, structural steel.

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8823 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: Incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering, pushdown analysis.

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8822 Statistical Texture Analysis

Authors: G. N. Srinivasan, G. Shobha

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the methodologies and algorithms for statistical texture analysis of 2D images. Methods for digital-image texture analysis are reviewed based on available literature and research work either carried out or supervised by the authors.

Keywords: Image Texture, Texture Analysis, Statistical Approaches, Structural approaches, spectral approaches, Morphological approaches, Fractals, Fourier Transforms, Gabor Filters, Wavelet transforms.

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8821 Comparative Study of the Static and Dynamic Analysis of Multi-Storey Irregular Building

Authors: Bahador Bagheri, Ehsan Salimi Firoozabad, Mohammadreza Yahyaei

Abstract:

As the world move to the accomplishment of Performance Based Engineering philosophies in seismic design of Civil Engineering structures, new seismic design provisions require Structural Engineers to perform both static and dynamic analysis for the design of structures. While Linear Equivalent Static Analysis is performed for regular buildings up to 90m height in zone I and II, Dynamic Analysis should be performed for regular and irregular buildings in zone IV and V. Dynamic Analysis can take the form of a dynamic Time History Analysis or a linear Response Spectrum Analysis. In present study, Multi-storey irregular buildings with 20 stories have been modeled using software packages ETABS and SAP 2000 v.15 for seismic zone V in India. This paper also deals with the effect of the variation of the building height on the structural response of the shear wall building. Dynamic responses of building under actual earthquakes, EL-CENTRO 1949 and CHI-CHI Taiwan 1999 have been investigated. This paper highlights the accuracy and exactness of Time History analysis in comparison with the most commonly adopted Response Spectrum Analysis and Equivalent Static Analysis.

Keywords: Equivalent Static Analysis, Time history method, Response spectrum method, Reinforce concrete building, displacement.

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8820 Eco-Friendly Preservative Treated Bamboo Culm: Compressive Strength Analysis

Authors: Perminder JitKaur, Santosh Satya, K. K. Pant, S. N. Naik

Abstract:

Bamboo is extensively used in construction industry. Low durability of bamboo due to fungus infestation and termites attack under storage puts certain constrains for it usage as modern structural material. Looking at many chemical formulations for bamboo treatment leading to severe harmful environment effects, research on eco-friendly preservatives for bamboo treatment has been initiated world-over. In the present studies, eco-friendly preservative for bamboo treatment has been developed. To validate its application for structural purposes, investigation of effect of treatment on compressive strength has been investigated. Neemoil (25%) integrated with copper naphthenate (0.3%) on dilution with kerosene oil impregnated into bamboo culm at 2 bar pressure, has shown weight loss of only 3.15% in soil block analysis method. The results from compressive strength analysis using HEICO Automatic Compression Testing Machine reveal that preservative treatment has not altered the structural properties of bamboo culms. Compressive strength of control (11.72 N/mm2) and above treated samples (11.71 N/mm2) was found to be comparable.

Keywords: Compressive strength, D. strictus bamboo, Ecofriendly treatment, neem oil.

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8819 Optimisation of Structural Design by Integrating Genetic Algorithms in the Building Information Modelling Environment

Authors: Tofigh Hamidavi, Sepehr Abrishami, Pasquale Ponterosso, David Begg

Abstract:

Structural design and analysis is an important and time-consuming process, particularly at the conceptual design stage. Decisions made at this stage can have an enormous effect on the entire project, as it becomes ever costlier and more difficult to alter the choices made early on in the construction process. Hence, optimisation of the early stages of structural design can provide important efficiencies in terms of cost and time. This paper suggests a structural design optimisation (SDO) framework in which Genetic Algorithms (GAs) may be used to semi-automate the production and optimisation of early structural design alternatives. This framework has the potential to leverage conceptual structural design innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects. Moreover, this framework improves the collaboration between the architectural stage and the structural stage. It will be shown that this SDO framework can make this achievable by generating the structural model based on the extracted data from the architectural model. At the moment, the proposed SDO framework is in the process of validation, involving the distribution of an online questionnaire among structural engineers in the UK.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, BIM, Genetic Algorithm, GA, architecture-engineering-construction, AEC, Optimisation, structure, design, population, generation, selection, mutation, crossover, offspring.

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8818 Modal Analysis for Study of Minor Historical Architecture

Authors: Milorad Pavlovic, Anna Manzato, Antonella Cecchi

Abstract:

Cultural heritage conservation is a challenge for contemporary society. In recent decades, significant resources have been allocated for the conservation and restoration of architectural heritage. Historical buildings were restored, protected and reinforced with the intent to limit the risks of degradation or loss, due to phenomena of structural damage and to external factors such as differential settlements, earthquake effects, etc. The wide diffusion of historic masonry constructions in Italy, Europe and the Mediterranean area requires reliable tools for the evaluation of their structural safety. In this paper is presented a free modal analysis performed on a minor historical architecture located in the village of Bagno Grande, near the city of L’Aquila in Italy. The location is characterized by a complex urban context, seriously damaged by the earthquake of 2009. The aim of this work is to check the structural behavior of a masonry building characterized by several boundary conditions imposed by adjacent buildings and infrastructural facilities.

Keywords: FEM, masonry, minor historical architecture, modal analysis.

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8817 Evaluation of Expected Annual Loss Probabilities of RC Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Saemee Jun, Dong-Hyeon Shin, Tae-Sang Ahn, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Building loss estimation methodologies which have been advanced considerably in recent decades are usually used to estimate socio and economic impacts resulting from seismic structural damage. In accordance with these methods, this paper presents the evaluation of an annual loss probability of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed according to Korean Building Code. The annual loss probability is defined by (1) a fragility curve obtained from a capacity spectrum method which is similar to a method adopted from HAZUS, and (2) a seismic hazard curve derived from annual frequencies of exceedance per peak ground acceleration. Seismic fragilities are computed to calculate the annual loss probability of a certain structure using functions depending on structural capacity, seismic demand, structural response and the probability of exceeding damage state thresholds. This study carried out a nonlinear static analysis to obtain the capacity of a RC moment resisting frame selected as a prototype building. The analysis results show that the probability of being extensive structural damage in the prototype building is expected to 0.01% in a year.

Keywords: Expected annual loss, Loss estimation, RC structure, Fragility analysis.

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8816 Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Expansion Joints for Piping Systems in Aircraft Engine External Configurations and Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Dong Wook Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to analyze the stiffness of the expansion joint with structural support using a hybrid method combining computational and analytical methods. Many expansion joints found in tubes and ducts of mechanical structures are designed to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between their structural members and deal with misalignments introduced from the assembly/manufacturing processes. One of the important design perspectives is the system’s vibrational characteristics. We calculate the stiffness as a characterization parameter for structural joint systems using a combined Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and an analytical method. We apply the methods to two sample applications: external configurations of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures.

Keywords: Expansion joint, expansion joint stiffness, Finite Element Analysis, FEA, nuclear power plants, aircraft engine external configurations.

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8815 Influence of Non-Structural Elements on Dynamic Response of Multi-Storey Rc Building to Mining Shock

Authors: Joanna M. Dulińska, Maria Fabijańska

Abstract:

In the paper the results of calculations of the dynamic response of a multi-storey reinforced concrete building to a strong mining shock originated from the main region of mining activity in Poland (i.e. the Legnica-Glogow Copper District) are presented. The representative time histories of accelerations registered in three directions were used as ground motion data in calculations of the dynamic response of the structure. Two variants of a numerical model were applied: the model including only structural elements of the building and the model including both structural and non-structural elements (i.e. partition walls and ventilation ducts made of brick). It turned out that non-structural elements of multi-storey RC buildings have a small impact of about 10 % on natural frequencies of these structures. It was also proved that the dynamic response of building to mining shock obtained in case of inclusion of all non-structural elements in the numerical model is about 20 % smaller than in case of consideration of structural elements only. The principal stresses obtained in calculations of dynamic response of multi-storey building to strong mining shock are situated on the level of about 30% of values obtained from static analysis (dead load).

Keywords: Dynamic characteristics of buildings, mining shocks, dynamic response of buildings, non-structural elements

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8814 The Strengths and Limitations of the Statistical Modeling of Complex Social Phenomenon: Focusing on SEM, Path Analysis, or Multiple Regression Models

Authors: Jihye Jeon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the conceptual framework of three statistical methods, multiple regression, path analysis, and structural equation models. When establishing research model of the statistical modeling of complex social phenomenon, it is important to know the strengths and limitations of three statistical models. This study explored the character, strength, and limitation of each modeling and suggested some strategies for accurate explaining or predicting the causal relationships among variables. Especially, on the studying of depression or mental health, the common mistakes of research modeling were discussed.

Keywords: Multiple regression, path analysis, structural equation models, statistical modeling, social and psychological phenomenon.

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8813 Seismic Assessment of Old Existing RC Buildings on Madinah with Masonry Infilled Using Ambient Vibration Measurements

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail

Abstract:

Early pre-code reinforced concrete structures present undetermined resistance to earthquakes. This situation is particularly unacceptable in the case of essential structures, such as healthcare structures and pilgrims' houses. Amongst these, an existing old RC building in Madinah city (KSA) is seismically evaluated with and without infill wall and their dynamic characteristics are compared with measured values in the field using ambient vibration measurements (AVM). After updating the mathematical models for this building with the experimental results, three dimensional pushover analysis (Nonlinear static analysis) was carried out using commercial structural analysis software incorporating inelastic material properties for concrete, infill and steel. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by estimating, strength and deformation demands in design, and comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance levels of interest. The results summarized and discussed.

Keywords: Seismic Assessment, Pushover Analysis, Ambient vibration, Modal update.

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8812 Numerical Investigation on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of an RC Building with Brick Infills under Column Loss

Authors: Meng-Hao Tsai, Tsuei-Chiang Huang

Abstract:

Interior brick-infill partitions are usually considered as non-structural components and only their weight is accounted for in practical structural design. In this study, their effect on the progressive collapse resistance of an RC building subjected to sudden column loss is investigated. Three notional column loss conditions with four different brick-infill locations are considered. Column-loss response analyses of the RC building with and without brick infills are carried out. Analysis results indicate that the collapse resistance is only slightly influenced by the brick infills due to their brittle failure characteristic. Even so, they may help to reduce the inelastic displacement response under column loss. For practical engineering, it is reasonably conservative to only consider the weight of brick-infill partitions in the structural analysis.

Keywords: Progressive collapse, column loss, brick-infill partition, compression strut.

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8811 Sensitivity and Reliability Analysis of Masonry Infilled Frames

Authors: Avadhoot Bhosale, Robin Davis P., Pradip Sarkar

Abstract:

The seismic performance of buildings with irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and strength along the height may be significantly different from that of regular buildings with masonry infill. Masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames are very common structural forms used for multi-storey building construction. These structures are found to perform better in past earthquakes owing to additional strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the infill walls. The seismic performance of a building depends on the variation of material, structural and geometrical properties. The sensitivity of these properties affects the seismic response of the building. The main objective of the sensitivity analysis is to found out the most sensitive parameter that affects the response of the building. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis by considering 5% and 95% probability value of random variable in the infills characteristics, trying to obtain a reasonable range of results representing a wide number of possible situations that can be met in practice by using pushover analysis. The results show that the strength-related variation values of concrete and masonry, with the exception of tensile strength of the concrete, have shown a significant effect on the structural performance and that this effect increases with the progress of damage condition for the concrete. The seismic risk assessments of the selected frames are expressed in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: Fragility curve, sensitivity analysis, reliability index, RC frames.

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8810 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song

Abstract:

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural robustness, structural reliability, redundancy component, redundancy matrix.

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