Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 625

Search results for: Rajesh Kumar

625 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, Low contrast image.

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624 Investigation of Split TCSC on Kanpur-Ballabhgarh Transmission System

Authors: S. Meikandasivam, D. Vijayakumar, Rajesh Kumar Nema, Shailendra Kumar Jain

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of the single TCSC and proposed split TCSC on transmission system where India’s first TCSC project is installed in Kanpur - Ballabhgarh (KB) line to ensure the fine tuning of line reactance by proposed split TCSC in place of existing KB TCSC. A three phase KB transmission system is developed in MATLAB/Simulink (SimPowerSystems) for

  1. without any compensation,
  2. with fixed capacitor (FC),
  3. with FC + existing KB TCSC and
  4. with FC + proposed split TCSC

The KB system is analyzed for a step variation of load and performance of the system is investigated with a closed loop reactance control method.

Keywords: Single TCSC, Split TCSC, TCSC Reactance characteristic curve, Power flow analysis, Sensitivity analysis.

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623 Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction in Buildings

Authors: Shreya Thusoo, Karan Modi, Ankit Kumar Jha, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

Since the evolution of computational tools and simulation software, there has been considerable increase in research on Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) to decrease the computational time and increase accuracy in the results. To aid the designer with a proper understanding of the response of structure in different soil types, the presented paper compares the deformation, shear stress, acceleration and other parameters of multi-storey building for a specific input ground motion using Response-spectrum Analysis (RSA) method. The response of all the models of different heights have been compared in different soil types. Finite Element Simulation software, ANSYS, has been used for all the computational purposes. Overall, higher response is observed with SSI, while it increases with decreasing stiffness of soil.

Keywords: Soil-structure interaction, response-spectrum analysis, finite element method, multi-storey buildings.

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622 Behavioral Study of TCSC Device – A MATLAB/Simulink Implementation

Authors: S. Meikandasivam, Rajesh Kumar Nema, Shailendra Kumar Jain

Abstract:

A basic conceptual study of TCSC device on Simulink is a teaching aid and helps in understanding the rudiments of the topic. This paper thus stems out from basics of TCSC device and analyzes the impedance characteristics and associated single & multi resonance conditions. The Impedance characteristics curve is drawn for different values of inductance in MATLAB using M-files. The study is also helpful in estimating the appropriate inductance and capacitance values which have influence on multi resonance point in TCSC device. The capacitor voltage, line current, thyristor current and capacitor current waveforms are discussed briefly as simulation results. Simulink model of TCSC device is given and corresponding waveforms are analyzed. The subsidiary topics e.g. power oscillation damping, SSR mitigation and transient stability is also brought out.

Keywords: TCSC device, Impedance characteristics, Resonance point, Simulink model

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621 Perspectives of Renewable Energy in 21st Century in India: Statistics and Estimation

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

With the favourable geographical conditions at Indian-subcontinent, it is suitable for flourishing renewable energy. Increasing amount of dependence on coal and other conventional sources is driving the world into pollution and depletion of resources. This paper presents the statistics of energy consumption and energy generation in Indian Sub-continent, which notifies us with the increasing energy demands surpassing energy generation. With the aggrandizement in demand for energy, usage of coal has increased, since the major portion of energy production in India is from thermal power plants. The increase in usage of thermal power plants causes pollution and depletion of reserves; hence, a paradigm shift to renewable sources is inevitable. In this work, the capacity and potential of renewable sources in India are analyzed. Based on the analysis of this work, future potential of these sources is estimated.

Keywords: Energy consumption and generation, depletion of reserves, pollution, estimation, renewable sources.

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620 Intelligent Temperature Controller for Water-Bath System

Authors: Om Prakash Verma, Rajesh Singla, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

Conventional controller’s usually required a prior knowledge of mathematical modelling of the process. The inaccuracy of mathematical modelling degrades the performance of the process, especially for non-linear and complex control problem. The process used is Water-Bath system, which is most widely used and nonlinear to some extent. For Water-Bath system, it is necessary to attain desired temperature within a specified period of time to avoid the overshoot and absolute error, with better temperature tracking capability, else the process is disturbed.

To overcome above difficulties intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), are proposed in this paper. The Fuzzy controller is designed to work with knowledge in the form of linguistic control rules. But the translation of these linguistic rules into the framework of fuzzy set theory depends on the choice of certain parameters, for which no formal method is known. To design ANFIS, Fuzzy-Inference-System is combined with learning capability of Neural-Network.

It is analyzed that ANFIS is best suitable for adaptive temperature control of above system. As compared to PID and FLC, ANFIS produces a stable control signal. It has much better temperature tracking capability with almost zero overshoot and minimum absolute error.

Keywords: PID Controller, FLC, ANFIS, Non-Linear Control System, Water-Bath System, MATLAB-7.

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619 Analysis of Plates with Varying Rigidities Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Jyoti Katiyar, Shreya Thusoo

Abstract:

This paper presents Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the internal responses generated in thin rectangular plates with various edge conditions and rigidity conditions. Comparison has been made between the FEM (ANSYS software) results for displacement, stresses and moments generated with and without the consideration of hole in plate and different aspect ratios. In the end comparison for responses in plain and composite square plates has been studied.

Keywords: ANSYS, Finite Element Method, Plates, Static Analysis.

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618 Thermochemical Conversion: Jatropha curcus in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

Thermochemical conversion of non-edible biomass offers an efficient and economically process to provide valuable fuels and prepare chemicals derived from biomass in the context of developing countries. Pyrolysis has advantages over other thermochemical conversion techniques because it can convert biomass directly into solid, liquid and gaseous products by thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The present paper aims to focus on the slow thermochemical conversion processes for non-edible Jatropha curcus seed cake. The present discussion focuses on the effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on products composition (wt %). In addition, comparative analysis has been performed for different mesh size for product composition. Result shows that, slow pyrolysis experiments of Jatropha curcus seed cake in fixed bed reactor yield the bio-oil 18.42 wt % at a pyrolysis temperature of 500°C, particle size of -6+8 mesh number and nitrogen gas flow rate of 150 ml/min.

Keywords: Jatropha curcus, Thermo-chemical, Pyrolysis, Product composition, Yield.

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617 Bearing Fault Feature Extraction by Recurrence Quantification Analysis

Authors: V. G. Rajesh, M. V. Rajesh

Abstract:

In rotating machinery one of the critical components that is prone to premature failure is the rolling bearing. Consequently, early warning of an imminent bearing failure is much critical to the safety and reliability of any high speed rotating machines. This study is concerned with the application of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) in fault detection of rolling element bearings in rotating machinery. Based on the results from this study it is reported that the RQA variable, percent determinism, is sensitive to the type of fault investigated and therefore can provide useful information on bearing damage in rolling element bearings.

Keywords: Bearing fault detection, machine vibrations, nonlinear time series analysis, recurrence quantification analysis.

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616 Effect of Copper Particle on the PD Characteristics in a Coaxial Duct with Mixture of SF6 (10%) and N2 (90%) Gases

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian

Abstract:

Insulation performance of a gas insulated system is severely affected by particle contaminants. These metallic particles adversely affect the characteristics of insulating system. These particles can produce surface charges due to partial discharge activities. These particles which are free to move enhance the local electric fields. This paper deals with the influence of conducting particle placed in a co-axial duct on the discharge characteristics of gas mixtures. Co-axial duct placed in a high pressure chamber is used for the purpose. A gas pressure of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa have been considered with a 10:90 SF6 and N2 gas mixtures. The 2D and 3D histograms of clean duct and duct with copper particle are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian

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615 Stature Prediction Model Based On Hand Anthropometry

Authors: Arunesh Chandra, Pankaj Chandna, Surinder Deswal, Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Rajender Kumar

Abstract:

The arm length, hand length, hand breadth and middle finger length of 1540 right-handed industrial workers of Haryana state was used to assess the relationship between the upper limb dimensions and stature. Initially, the data were analyzed using basic univariate analysis and independent t-tests; then simple and multiple linear regression models were used to estimate stature using SPSS (version 17). There was a positive correlation between upper limb measurements (hand length, hand breadth, arm length and middle finger length) and stature (p < 0.01), which was highest for hand length. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ± 54.897 mm to ± 58.307 mm. The use of multiple regression equations gave better results than simple regression equations. This study provides new forensic standards for stature estimation from the upper limb measurements of male industrial workers of Haryana (India). The results of this research indicate that stature can be determined using hand dimensions with accuracy, when only upper limb is available due to any reasons likewise explosions, train/plane crashes, mutilated bodies, etc. The regression formula derived in this study will be useful for anatomists, archaeologists, anthropologists, design engineers and forensic scientists for fairly prediction of stature using regression equations.

Keywords: Anthropometric dimensions, Forensic identification, Industrial workers, Stature prediction.

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614 Innovative Techniques for Characterization of Nonwoven Insulation Materials Embedded with Aerogel

Authors: Mohanapriya Venkataraman, Rajesh Mishra, Jakub Weiner, Adnan Mazari, Jiri Militky, Veera Kumar Arumugam

Abstract:

The major objective of this study is to understand the potential of a newly fabricated equipment to study the thermal properties of nonwoven textile fabrics treated with aerogel at subzero temperatures. Thermal conductivity was calculated by using the empirical relation Fourier’s law, The relationship between the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples were studied at various environmental temperatures (which was set in the clima temperature system between +25oC to -25oC). The newly fabricated equipment was found to be a suitable for measuring at subzero temperatures. This field of measurements is being developed and will be the subject of further research which will be more suitable for measurement of the various thermal characteristics.

Keywords: Thermal Measurements, Aerogel, Nonwoven, Hot plate Heading.

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613 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma

Abstract:

Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: Jatropha Curcus, computational analysis, emissions, biofuels.

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612 Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.

Keywords: Pedagogy techniques, speed control, virtual environment, DC motor, field control, voltage control.

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611 Response of Buildings with Soil-Structure Interaction with Varying Soil Types

Authors: Shreya Thusoo, Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Hitesh Madahar

Abstract:

Over the years, it has been extensively established that the practice of assuming a structure being fixed at base, leads to gross errors in evaluation of its overall response due to dynamic loadings and overestimations in design. The extent of these errors depends on a number of variables; soil type being one of the major factor. This paper studies the effect of Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) on multistorey buildings with varying under-laying soil types after proper validation of the effect of SSI. Analysis for soft, stiff and very stiff base soils has been carried out, using a powerful Finite Element Method (FEM) software package ANSYS v14.5. Results lead to some very important conclusions regarding time period, deflection and acceleration responses.

Keywords: Dynamic response, multi-storey building, Soil-Structure Interaction.

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610 Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System

Authors: Kanhu Charan Bhuyan, Subhransu Padhee, Rajesh Kumar Patjoshi, Kamalakanta Mahapatra

Abstract:

Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.

Keywords: Fuel cell, power conditioning unit, hysteresis control.

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609 A Critical Survey of Reusability Aspects for Component-Based Systems

Authors: Arun Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, P. S. Grover

Abstract:

The last decade has shown that object-oriented concept by itself is not that powerful to cope with the rapidly changing requirements of ongoing applications. Component-based systems achieve flexibility by clearly separating the stable parts of systems (i.e. the components) from the specification of their composition. In order to realize the reuse of components effectively in CBSD, it is required to measure the reusability of components. However, due to the black-box nature of components where the source code of these components are not available, it is difficult to use conventional metrics in Component-based Development as these metrics require analysis of source codes. In this paper, we survey few existing component-based reusability metrics. These metrics give a border view of component-s understandability, adaptability, and portability. It also describes the analysis, in terms of quality factors related to reusability, contained in an approach that aids significantly in assessing existing components for reusability.

Keywords: Components, Customizability, Reusability, and Observability.

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608 Wavelet Feature Selection Approach for Heart Murmur Classification

Authors: G. Venkata Hari Prasad, P. Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

Phonocardiography is important in appraisal of congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension as it reflects the duration of right ventricular systoles. The systolic murmur in patients with intra-cardiac shunt decreases as pulmonary hypertension develops and may eventually disappear completely as the pulmonary pressure reaches systemic level. Phonocardiography and auscultation are non-invasive, low-cost, and accurate methods to assess heart disease. In this work an objective signal processing tool to extract information from phonocardiography signal using Wavelet is proposed to classify the murmur as normal or abnormal. Since the feature vector is large, a Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with mutation for feature selection is proposed. The extracted features improve the classification accuracy and were tested across various classifiers including Naïve Bayes, kNN, C4.5, and SVM.

Keywords: Phonocardiography, Coiflet, Feature selection, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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607 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.

Keywords: Reactor coolant system, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Von Mises stress.

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606 Rotor Side Speed Control Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink for Wound Induction Motor

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In recent advancements in electric machine and drives, wound rotor motor is extensively used. The merit of using wound rotor induction motor is to control speed/torque characteristics by inserting external resistance. Wound rotor induction motor can be used in the cases such as (a) low inrush current, (b) load requiring high starting torque, (c) lower starting current is required, (d) loads having high inertia, and (e) gradual built up of torque. Examples include conveyers, cranes, pumps, elevators, and compressors. This paper includes speed control of wound induction motor using MATLAB/Simulink for rotor resistance and slip power recovery method. The characteristics of these speed control methods are hence analyzed.

Keywords: Wound rotor induction motor, MATLAB/Simulink, rotor resistance method, slip power recovery method.

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605 Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.

Keywords: Computer aided teaching, transformer, open circuit test, short circuit test, Simulink.

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604 Decolorization and COD Reduction Efficiency of Magnesium over Iron based Salt for the Treatment of Textile Wastewater Containing Diazo and Anthraquinone Dyes

Authors: Akshaya Kumar Verma, Puspendu Bhunia*, Rajesh Roshan Dash

Abstract:

Magnesium chloride, though cost wise roughly same as of ferrous sulphate, is less commonly used coagulant in comparison to the ferrous sulphate for the treatment of wastewater. The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative effectiveness of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as iron based salt and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) as magnesium based salt in terms of decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency of textile wastewater. The coagulants were evaluated for synthetic textile wastewater containing two diazo dyes namely Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Congo Red (CR) and one anthraquinone dye as Disperse Blue 3 (DB3), in seven possible equi-ratio combinations. Other chemical constituents that are normally released from different textile processing units were also added to replicate a practical scenario. From this study, MgCl2/Lime was found to be a superior coagulant system as compared to FeSO4.7H2O/Lime, FeSO4.7H2O/NaOH and MgCl2/NaOH.

Keywords: Coagulation, Color removal, Magnesium chloride, Textile wastewater

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603 Integration of Virtual Learning of Induction Machines for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In context of understanding problems faced by undergraduate students while carrying out laboratory experiments dealing with high voltages, it was found that most of the students are hesitant to work directly on machine. The reason is that error in the circuitry might lead to deterioration of machine and laboratory instruments. So, it has become inevitable to include modern pedagogic techniques for undergraduate students, which would help them to first carry out experiment in virtual system and then to work on live circuit. Further advantages include that students can try out their intuitive ideas and perform in virtual environment, hence leading to new research and innovations. In this paper, virtual environment used is of MATLAB/Simulink for three-phase induction machines. The performance analysis of three-phase induction machine is carried out using virtual environment which includes Direct Current (DC) Test, No-Load Test, and Block Rotor Test along with speed torque characteristics for different rotor resistances and input voltage, respectively. Further, this paper carries out computer aided teaching of basic Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) drive circuitry. Hence, this paper gave undergraduates a clearer view of experiments performed on virtual machine (No-Load test, Block Rotor test and DC test, respectively). After successful implementation of basic tests, VSI circuitry is implemented, and related harmonic distortion (THD) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of current and voltage waveform are studied.

Keywords: Block rotor test, DC test, no-load test, virtual environment, VSI.

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602 Implementation of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Approach in Maximizing Net Present Value

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

Abstract:

The applicability of Net Present Value (NPV) in an investment project is becoming more and more popular in the field of engineering economics. The classical NPV methodology involves only the precise and accurate data of the investment project. In the present communication, we give a new mathematical model for NPV which uses the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. The proposed model is based on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, which may be known as Intuitionistic Fuzzy Net Present Value (IFNPV). The model has been applied to an example and the results are presented.

Keywords: Net Present Value, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set, Investment Projects.

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601 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microhardness of Polymer Blends of Poly (Ethyl Methacrylate)(Pema) and Poly (Ethylene Oxide) (Peo)

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Sunil Kumar Bajpai, Surendra Kumar Pandey, Ajay Utiye

Abstract:

The effect of gamma irradiation on micro-hardness of polymer blends of poly (ethyl methacrylate)(PEMA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been investigated to detect the radiation induced crosslinking. The blend system comprises a noncrystallizable polymer, PEMA and a crystallizable polymer, PEO. On irradiation, the overall hardness of the blend specimens for different dose levels infers occurrence of a crosslinking process. The radiation-induced crosslinking was greater for blends having lower concentration of PEO. However, increase in radiation dose causes softening of blend system due to radiation induced scissioning of the chains

Keywords: Microhardness, Radiation induced crosslinking, Solution cast technique, Vicker's hardness number.

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600 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arbind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The Integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: Normal and tangential force, Microstretch, thermoelastic, The Integral transform technique.

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599 Information Entropy of Isospectral Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Anil Kumar, C. Nagaraja Kumar

Abstract:

The position and momentum space information entropies of hydrogen atom are exactly evaluated. Using isospectral Hamiltonian approach, a family of isospectral potentials is constructed having same energy eigenvalues as that of the original potential. The information entropy content is obtained in position space as well as in momentum space. It is shown that the information entropy content in each level can be re-arranged as a function of deformation parameter.

Keywords: Information Entropy, BBM inequality, Isospectral Potential.

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598 Architecture of Speech-based Registration System

Authors: Mayank Kumar, D B Mahesh Kumar, Ashwin S Kumar, N K Srinath

Abstract:

In this era of technology, fueled by the pervasive usage of the internet, security is a prime concern. The number of new attacks by the so-called “bots", which are automated programs, is increasing at an alarming rate. They are most likely to attack online registration systems. Technology, called “CAPTCHA" (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) do exist, which can differentiate between automated programs and humans and prevent replay attacks. Traditionally CAPTCHA-s have been implemented with the challenge involved in recognizing textual images and reproducing the same. We propose an approach where the visual challenge has to be read out from which randomly selected keywords are used to verify the correctness of spoken text and in turn detect the presence of human. This is supplemented with a speaker recognition system which can identify the speaker also. Thus, this framework fulfills both the objectives – it can determine whether the user is a human or not and if it is a human, it can verify its identity.

Keywords: CAPTCHA, automatic speech recognition, keyword spotting.

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597 Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR

Authors: A. Rajesh Kanna, G. Suresh Kumar, Sathyanaryana N. Gummadi

Abstract:

There are various sources of energies available worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms. Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since, bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily recovered from the porous sand packed column.

Keywords: Bio-surfactant, Bacteria, Interfacial tension, Sand column.

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596 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Points in Semigroups

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar Manasi Mandal Samit Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. Y.B. Jun and S.Z. Song introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy points. In this paper we find some relations between the intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a semigroup S and the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy points of S.

Keywords: Semigroup, Regular(intra-regular) semigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy point, Intuitionistic fuzzy subsemigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy interior ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy semiprime ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy prime ideal.

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