Search results for: Tunnelling
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Tunnelling

6 Finite Element Modelling of Ground Vibrations Due to Tunnelling Activities

Authors: Muhammad E. Rahman, Trevor Orr

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of three-dimensional finite elements coupled with infinite elements to investigate the ground vibrations at the surface in terms of the peak particle velocity (PPV) due to construction of the first bore of the Dublin Port Tunnel. This situation is analysed using a commercially available general-purpose finite element package ABAQUS. A series of parametric studies is carried out to examine the sensitivity of the predicted vibrations to variations in the various input parameters required by finite element method, including the stiffness and the damping of ground. The results of this study show that stiffness has a more significant effect on the PPV rather than the damping of the ground.

Keywords: Finite Elements, PPV, Tunnelling, Vibration

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5 Intrinsic Electromagnetic Fields and Atom-Field Coupling in Living Cells

Authors: Masroor H. S. Bukhari, Z. H. Shah

Abstract:

The possibility of intrinsic electromagnetic fields within living cells and their resonant self-interaction and interaction with ambient electromagnetic fields is suggested on the basis of a theoretical and experimental study. It is reported that intrinsic electromagnetic fields are produced in the form of radio-frequency and infra-red photons within atoms (which may be coupled or uncoupled) in cellular structures, such as the cell cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. A model is presented for the interaction of these photons among themselves or with atoms under a dipole-dipole coupling, induced by single-photon or two-photon processes. This resonance is manifested by conspicuous field amplification and it is argued that it is possible for these resonant photons to undergo tunnelling in the form of evanescent waves to a short range (of a few nanometers to micrometres). This effect, suggested as a resonant photon tunnelling mechanism in this report, may enable these fields to act as intracellular signal communication devices and as bridges between macromolecules or cellular structures in the cell cytoskeleton, organelles or membrane. A brief overview of an experimental technique and a review of some preliminary results are presented, in the detection of these fields produced in living cell membranes under physiological conditions.

Keywords: bioelectromagnetism, cell membrane, evanescentwaves, photon tunnelling, resonance

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4 Seamless Multicast Handover in Fmipv6-Based Networks

Authors: Moneeb Gohar, Seok Joo Koh, Tae-Won Um, Hyun-Woo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes a fast tree join scheme to provide seamless multicast handover in the mobile networks based on the Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6). In the existing FMIPv6-based multicast handover scheme, the bi-directional tunnelling or the remote subscription is employed with the packet forwarding from the previous access router (AR) to the new AR. In general, the remote subscription approach is preferred to the bi-directional tunnelling one, since in the remote subscription scheme we can exploit an optimized multicast path from a multicast source to many mobile receivers. However, in the remote subscription scheme, if the tree joining operation takes a long time, the amount of data packets to be forwarded and buffered for multicast handover will increase, and thus the corresponding buffer may overflow, which results in severe packet losses. In order to reduce these costs associated with packet forwarding and buffering, this paper proposes the fast join to multicast tree, in which the new AR will join the multicast tree as fast as possible, so that the new multicast data packets can also arrive at the new AR, by which the packet forwarding and buffering costs can be reduced. From numerical analysis, it is shown that the proposed scheme can give better performance than the existing FMIPv6-based multicast handover schemes in terms of the multicast packet delivery costs.

Keywords: Mobile Multicast, FMIPv6, Seamless Handover, Fast Tree Join.

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3 Practices in Planning, Design and Construction of Head Race Tunnel of a Hydroelectric Project

Authors: M. S. Thakur, Mohit Shukla

Abstract:

A channel/tunnel, which carries the water to the penstock/pressure shaft is called headrace tunnel (HRT). It is necessary to know the general topography, geology of the area, state of stress and other mechanical properties of the strata. For this certain topographical and geological investigations, in-situ and laboratory tests, and observations are required to be done. These investigations play an important role in a tunnel design as these help in deciding the optimum layout, shape and size and support requirements of the tunnel. The paper includes inputs from Nathpa Jhakri Hydeoelectric project which is India’s highest capacity (1500 MW) operating hydroelectric project. The paper would help the design engineers with various new concepts and preparedness against geological surprises.

Keywords: Tunnelling, geology, head race tunnel, rockmass.

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2 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear

Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek

Abstract:

Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.

Keywords: Distributed optical strain sensing, geotechnical monitoring, rock bolt stain measurement, bedding shear displacement.

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1 Comparing Field Displacement History with Numerical Results to Estimate Geotechnical Parameters: Case Study of Arash-Esfandiar-Niayesh under Passing Tunnel, 2.5 Traffic Lane Tunnel, Tehran, Iran

Authors: A. Golshani, M. Gharizade Varnusefaderani, S. Majidian

Abstract:

Underground structures are of those structures that have uncertainty in design procedures. That is due to the complexity of soil condition around. Under passing tunnels are also such affected structures. Despite geotechnical site investigations, lots of uncertainties exist in soil properties due to unknown events. As results, it possibly causes conflicting settlements in numerical analysis with recorded values in the project. This paper aims to report a case study on a specific under passing tunnel constructed by New Austrian Tunnelling Method in Iran. The intended tunnel has an overburden of about 11.3m, the height of 12.2m and, the width of 14.4m with 2.5 traffic lane. The numerical modeling was developed by a 2D finite element program (PLAXIS Version 8). Comparing displacement histories at the ground surface during the entire installation of initial lining, the estimated surface settlement was about four times the field recorded one, which indicates that some local unknown events affect that value. Also, the displacement ratios were in a big difference between the numerical and field data. Consequently, running several numerical back analyses using laboratory and field tests data, the geotechnical parameters were accurately revised to match with the obtained monitoring data. Finally, it was found that usually the values of soil parameters are conservatively low-estimated up to 40 percent by typical engineering judgment. Additionally, it could be attributed to inappropriate constitutive models applied for the specific soil condition.

Keywords: NATM, surface displacement history, soil tests, monitoring data, numerical back-analysis, geotechnical parameters.

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