Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 321

Search results for: Amplitude

321 Effect of Electric Field Amplitude on Electrical Fatigue Behavior of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramic

Authors: S. Kampoosiri, S. Pojprapai, R. Yimnirunand, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

Fatigue behaviors of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics under different amplitude of bipolar electrical loads have been investigated. Fatigue behavior is represented by the change of hysteresis loops and remnant polarization. Three levels of electrical load amplitudes (1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kV /mm) were applied in this experimental. It was found that the remnant polarization decreased significantly with the number of loading cycles. The degree of fatigue degradation depends on the amplitude of electric field. The higher amplitude exhibits the greater fatigue degradation.

Keywords: Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), hysteresis loop, Sawyer-Tower circuit, fatigue, polarization.

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320 Amplitude and Phase Analysis of EEG Signal by Complex Demodulation

Authors: Sun K. Yoo, Hee Cheol Kang

Abstract:

Analysis of amplitude and phase characteristics for delta, theta, and alpha bands at localized time instant from EEG signals is important for the characterizing information processing in the brain. In this paper, complex demodulation method was used to analyze EEG (Electroencephalographic) signal, particularly for auditory evoked potential response signal, with sufficient time resolution and designated frequency bandwidth resolution required. The complex demodulation decomposes raw EEG signal into 3 designated delta, theta, and alpha bands with complex EEG signal representation at sampled time instant, which can enable the extraction of amplitude envelope and phase information. Throughout simulated test data, and real EEG signal acquired during auditory attention task, it can extract the phase offset, phase and frequency changing instant and decomposed amplitude envelope for delta, theta, and alpha bands. The complex demodulation technique can be efficiently used in brain signal analysis in case of phase, and amplitude information required.

Keywords: EEG, Complex Demodulation, Amplitude, Phase.

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319 Application of He-s Amplitude Frequency Formulation for a Nonlinear Oscillator with Fractional Potential

Authors: Meng Hu, Lili Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, He-s amplitude frequency formulation is used to obtain a periodic solution for a nonlinear oscillator with fractional potential. By calculation and computer simulations, compared with the exact solution shows that the result obtained is of high accuracy.

Keywords: He's amplitude frequency formulation, Periodic solution, Nonlinear oscillator, Fractional potential.

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318 Frequency and Amplitude Measurement of a Vibrating Object in Water Using Ultrasonic Speckle Technique

Authors: Hongmao Zhu, Jun Chu, Lei Shen, Zhihua Luo

Abstract:

The principle of frequency and amplitude measurement of a vibrating object in water using ultrasonic speckle technique is presented in this paper. Compared with other traditional techniques, the ultrasonic speckle technique can be applied to vibration measurement of a nonmetal object with rough surface in water in a noncontact way. The relationship between speckle movement and object movement was analyzed. Based on this study, an ultrasonic speckle measurement system was set up. With this system the frequency and amplitude of an underwater vibrating cantilever beam was detected. The result shows that the experimental data is in good agreement with the calibrating data.

Keywords: Frequency, Amplitude, Vibration measurement, Ultrasonic speckle

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317 Optimization of Propulsion in Flapping Micro Air Vehicles Using Genetic Algorithm Method

Authors: Mahdi Abolfazli, Ebrahim Barati, Hamid Reza Karbasian

Abstract:

In this paper the kinematic parameters of a regular Flapping Micro Air Vehicle (FMAV) is investigated. The optimization is done using multi-objective Genetic algorithm method. It is shown that the maximum propulsive efficiency is occurred on the Strouhal number of 0.2-0.3 and foil-pitch amplitude of 15°-30°. Furthermore, increasing pitch amplitude with respect to power optimization increases the thrust slightly until pitch amplitude around 30°, and then the trust is increased notably with increasing of pitch amplitude. Additionally, the maximum mean thrust coefficient is computed of 2.67 and propulsive efficiency for this value is 42%. Based on the thrust optimization, the maximum propulsive efficiency is acquired 54% while the mean thrust coefficient is 2.18 at the same propulsive efficiency. Consequently, the maximum propulsive efficiency is obtained 77% and the appropriate Strouhal number, pitch amplitude and phase difference between heaving and pitching are calculated of 0.27, 31° and 77°, respectively.

Keywords: Flapping foil propulsion, Genetic algorithm, Micro Air Vehicle (MAV), Optimization.

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316 Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable

Authors: O. Punjarat, S. Chucheepsakul, T. Phanyasahachart

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.

Keywords: Axial deformation, free vibration, Galerkin Finite Element Method, large amplitude, variational method.

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315 Evaluation of Multilevel Modulation Formats for 100Gbps Transmission with Direct Detection

Authors: Majed Omar Al-Dwairi

Abstract:

This paper evaluate the multilevel modulation for different techniques such as amplitude shift keying (M-ASK), MASK, differential phase shift keying (M-ASK-Bipolar), Quaternary Amplitude Shift Keying (QASK) and Quaternary Polarization-ASK (QPol-ASK) at a total bit rate of 107 Gbps. The aim is to find a costeffective very high speed transport solution. Numerical investigation was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. The obtained results indicate that some modulation formats can be operated at 100Gbps in optical communication systems with low implementation effort and high spectral efficiency.

Keywords: Optical communication, multilevel amplitude shift keying (M-ASK), Differential phase shift keying (DPSK), Quaternary Amplitude Shift Keying (QASK), Quaternary Polarization-ASK (QPol-ASK).

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314 Effect of Amplitude and Mean Angle of Attack on Wake of an Oscillating Airfoil

Authors: Sadeghi H., Mani M., Ardakani M. A.

Abstract:

The unsteady wake of an EPPLER 361 airfoil in pitching motion has been investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel by hot-wire anemometry. The airfoil was given the pitching motion about the one-quarter chord axis at reduced frequency of 0182. Streamwise mean velocity profiles (wake profiles) were investigated at several vertically aligned points behind the airfoil at one-quarter chord downstream distance from trailing edge. Oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack were varied to determine the effects on wake profiles. When the maximum dynamic angle of attack was below the static stall angle of attack, weak effects on wake were found by increasing oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack. But, for higher angles of attack strong unsteady effects were appeared on the wake.

Keywords: Unsteady wake, amplitude, mean angle, EPPLER 361 airfoil.

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313 Increase of Error Detection Effectiveness in the Data Transmission Channels with Pulse-Amplitude Modulation

Authors: Akram A. Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper an approaches for increasing the effectiveness of error detection in computer network channels with Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM) has been proposed. Proposed approaches are based on consideration of special feature of errors, which are appearances in line with PAM. The first approach consists of CRC modification specifically for line with PAM. The second approach is base of weighted checksums using. The way for checksum components coding has been developed. It has been shown that proposed checksum modification ensure superior digital data control transformation reliability for channels with PAM in compare to CRC.

Keywords: Pulse-Amplitude Modulation, checksum, transmission, discrete.

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312 Nonlinear Evolution of Electron Density Under High-Energy-Density Conditions

Authors: Shi Chen, Zi Y. Chen, Jian K. Dan, Jian F. Li

Abstract:

Evolution of one-dimensional electron system under high-energy-density (HED) conditions is investigated, using the principle of least-action and variational method. In a single-mode modulation model, the amplitude and spatial wavelength of the modulation are chosen to be general coordinates. Equations of motion are derived by considering energy conservation and force balance. Numerical results show that under HED conditions, electron density modulation could exist. Time dependences of amplitude and wavelength are both positively related to the rate of energy input. Besides, initial loading speed has a significant effect on modulation amplitude, while wavelength relies more on loading duration.

Keywords: Electron density modulation, HED, nonlinearevolution, plasmas.

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311 Amplitude and Latency of P300 Component from Auditory Stimulus in Different Types of Personality: An Event Related Potential Study

Authors: Nasir Yusoff, Ahmad Adamu Adamu, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza

Abstract:

The P300 from Event related potential (ERP) explains the psycho-physiological phenomenon in human body. The present study aims to identify the differences of amplitude and latency of P300 component from auditory stimuli, between ambiversion and extraversion types of personality. Ambivert (N=20) and extravert (N=20) undergoing ERP recording at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) laboratory. Electroencephalogram data was recorded with oddball paradigm, counting auditory standard and target tones, from nine electrode sites (Fz, Cz, Pz, T3, T4, T5, T6, P3 and P4) by using the 128 HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net. The P300 latency of the target tones at all electrodes were insignificant. Similarly, the P300 latency of the standard tones were also insignificant except at Fz and T3 electrode. Likewise, the P300 amplitude of the target and standard tone in all electrode sites were insignificant. Extravert and ambivert indicate similar characteristic in cognition processing from auditory task.

Keywords: Amplitude, Event Related Potential, P300 Component, Latency.

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310 Effect of Gravity Modulation on Weakly Non-Linear Stability of Stationary Convection in a Dielectric Liquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, B. R. Revathi

Abstract:

The effect of time-periodic oscillations of the Rayleigh- Benard system on the heat transport in dielectric liquids is investigated by weakly nonlinear analysis. We focus on stationary convection using the slow time scale and arrive at the real Ginzburg- Landau equation. Classical fourth order Runge-kutta method is used to solve the Ginzburg-Landau equation which gives the amplitude of convection and this helps in quantifying the heat transfer in dielectric liquids in terms of the Nusselt number. The effect of electrical Rayleigh number and the amplitude of modulation on heat transport is studied.

Keywords: Dielectric liquid, Nusselt number, amplitude equation.

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309 Estimating Frequency, Amplitude and Phase of Two Sinusoids with Very Close Frequencies

Authors: Jayme G. A. Barbedo, Amauri Lopes

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm to estimate the parameters of two closely spaced sinusoids, providing a frequency resolution that is more than 800 times greater than that obtained by using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The strategy uses a highly optimized grid search approach to accurately estimate frequency, amplitude and phase of both sinusoids, keeping at the same time the computational effort at reasonable levels. The proposed method has three main characteristics: 1) a high frequency resolution; 2) frequency, amplitude and phase are all estimated at once using one single package; 3) it does not rely on any statistical assumption or constraint. Potential applications to this strategy include the difficult task of resolving coincident partials of instruments in musical signals.

Keywords: Closely spaced sinusoids, high-resolution parameter estimation, optimized grid search.

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308 High-Frequency Spectrum Analysis of VFTO Generated inside Gas Insulated Substations

Authors: M. A. Abd-Allah, A. Said, Ebrahim A. Badran

Abstract:

Worldwide many electrical equipment insulation failures have been reported caused by switching operations, while those equipments had previously passed all the standard tests and complied with all quality requirements. The problem is mostly associated with high-frequency overvoltages generated during opening or closing of a switching device. The transients generated during switching operations in a Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) are associated with high frequency components in the order of few tens of MHz. The frequency spectrum of the VFTO generated in the 220/66 kV Wadi-Hoff GIS is analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform technique. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of disconnector (DS5) is 5 to 10 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 9 MHz. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of circuit breaker (CB5) is 1 to 25 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 2 MHz. Mitigating techniques damped the oscillating frequencies effectively. The using of cable terminal reduced the frequency oscillation effectively than that of OHTL terminal. The using of a shunt capacitance results in vanishing the high frequency components. Ferrite rings reduces the high frequency components effectively especially in the range 2 to 7 MHz. The using of RC and RL filters results in vanishing the high frequency components.

Keywords: GIS, VFTO, Mitigation Techniques, Frequency spectrum, FFT, EMTP/ATP.

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307 Analysis of Injection-Lock in Oscillators versus Phase Variation of Injected Signal

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, behavior of an oscillator under injection of another signal has been investigated. Also, variation of output signal amplitude versus injected signal phase variation, the effect of varying the amplitude of injected signal and quality factor of the oscillator has been investigated. The results show that the locking time depends on phase and the best locking time happens at 180-degrees phase. Also, the effect of injected lock has been discussed. Simulations show that the locking time decreases with signal injection to bulk. Locking time has been investigated versus various phase differences. The effect of phase and amplitude changes on locking time of a typical LC oscillator in 180 nm technology has been investigated.

Keywords: Injection-lock oscillator, oscillator, analysis, phase modulation.

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306 The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear Damping Term

Authors: Jaipong Kasemsuwan

Abstract:

A numerical solution of the initial boundary value problem of the suspended string vibrating equation with the particular nonlinear damping term based on the finite difference scheme is presented in this paper. The investigation of how the second and third power terms of the nonlinear term affect the vibration characteristic. We compare the vibration amplitude as a result of the third power nonlinear damping with the second power obtained from previous report provided that the same initial shape and initial velocities are assumed. The comparison results show that the vibration amplitude is inversely proportional to the coefficient of the damping term for the third power nonlinear damping case, while the vibration amplitude is proportional to the coefficient of the damping term in the second power nonlinear damping case.

Keywords: Finite-difference method, the nonlinear damped equation, the numerical simulation, the suspended string equation

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305 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son, Rozita Borhan

Abstract:

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: Amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, Frequency Divider, Pulse Generator.

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304 Quick Spatial Assessment of Drought Information Derived from MODIS Imagery Using Amplitude Analysis

Authors: Meng-Lung Lin, Qiubing Wang, Fujun Sun, Tzu-How Chu, Yi-Shiang Shiu

Abstract:

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) derived from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been widely used to identify spatial information of drought condition. The relationship between NDVI and NDMI has been analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and showed strong positive relationship. The drought indices have detected drought conditions and identified spatial extents of drought. A comparison between normal year and drought year demonstrates that the amplitude analysis considered both vegetation and moisture condition is an effective method to identify drought condition. We proposed the amplitude analysis is useful for quick spatial assessment of drought information at a regional scale.

Keywords: NDVI, NDMI, Drought, remote sensing, spatialassessment.

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303 Validation of an EEG Classification Procedure Aimed at Physiological Interpretation

Authors: M. Guillard, M. Philippe, F. Laurent, J. Martinerie, J. P. Lachaux, G. Florence

Abstract:

One approach to assess neural networks underlying the cognitive processes is to study Electroencephalography (EEG). It is relevant to detect various mental states and characterize the physiological changes that help to discriminate two situations. That is why an EEG (amplitude, synchrony) classification procedure is described, validated. The two situations are "eyes closed" and "eyes opened" in order to study the "alpha blocking response" phenomenon in the occipital area. The good classification rate between the two situations is 92.1 % (SD = 3.5%) The spatial distribution of a part of amplitude features that helps to discriminate the two situations are located in the occipital regions that permit to validate the localization method. Moreover amplitude features in frontal areas, "short distant" synchrony in frontal areas and "long distant" synchrony between frontal and occipital area also help to discriminate between the two situations. This procedure will be used for mental fatigue detection.

Keywords: Classification, EEG Synchrony, alpha, resting situation.

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302 Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Diagnostics of Vascular Lesions in Lower Extremities

Authors: Petr V. Vasilev, Eduard V. Volkov, Alexej N. Godok, Alexej A, Grischschuk, Vitalij A. Rybalchenko

Abstract:

Laser Doppler flowmetry is a modern method of noninvasive microcirculation investigation. The aim of our study was to use this method in the examination of patients with secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities and obliterating atherosclerosis of lower extremities. In the analysis of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of secondary lymphedema patients we have identified remarkable changes. To describe the changes we used a special amplitude rate. In both of patients groups this rate was significally (p<0.05) different with the control group. So the marker phenomena of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the LDF signal were identified. It is suggested that there is a limfodynamics contribution to the formation of the output signal of laser Doppler flowmetry. These data have fundamental meaning and are interesting for practical medicine, as they give an opportunity to further developments for the use of laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics and monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment.

Keywords: laser Doppler flowmetry, secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities, obliterating atherosclerosis, non-invasive diagnostics.

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301 Perturbation in the Fractional Fourier Span due to Erroneous Transform Order and Window Function

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform. The Fractional Fourier span in general depends on the amplitude and phase functions of the signal and varies with the transform order. However, with the development of the Fractional Fourier filter banks, it is advantageous in some cases to have different transform orders for different filter banks to achieve better decorrelation of the windowed and overlapped time signal. We present an expression that is useful for finding the perturbation in the Fractional Fourier span due to the erroneous transform order and the possible variation in the window shape and length. The expression is based on the dependency of the time-Fractional Fourier span Uncertainty on the amplitude and phase function of the signal. We also show with the help of the developed expression that the perturbation of span has a varying degree of sensitivity for varying degree of transform order and the window coefficients.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Perturbation, Fractional Fourier span, amplitude, phase, transform order, filterbanks.

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300 Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation

Authors: S. Nazhan, Hassan K. Al-Musawi, Khalid A. Humood

Abstract:

This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL’s power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.

Keywords: VCSELs, optical power generation, power consumption, square wave modulation.

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299 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati

Abstract:

In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.

Keywords: Bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients.

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298 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf

Abstract:

Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: Ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength.

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297 Numerical Example of Aperiodic Diffraction Grating

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

Diffraction grating is periodic module used in many engineering fields, its geometrical conception gives interesting properties of diffraction and interferences, a uniform and periodic diffraction grating consists of a number of identical apertures that are equally spaced, in this case, the amplitude of intensity distribution in the far field region is generally modulated by diffraction pattern of single aperture. In this paper, we study the case of aperiodic diffraction grating with identical rectangular apertures where theirs coordinates are modeled by square root function, we elaborate a computer simulation comparatively to the periodic array with same length and we discuss the numerical results.

Keywords: Diffraction grating, interferences, amplitude modulation, laser.

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296 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: Vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance.

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295 Rotary Machine Sealing Oscillation Frequencies and Phase Shift Analysis

Authors: Liliia N. Butymova, Vladimir Ya Modorskii

Abstract:

To ensure the gas transmittal GCU's efficient operation, leakages through the labyrinth packings (LP) should be minimized. Leakages can be minimized by decreasing the LP gap, which in turn depends on thermal processes and possible rotor vibrations and is designed to ensure absence of mechanical contact. Vibration mitigation allows to minimize the LP gap. It is advantageous to research influence of processes in the dynamic gas-structure system on LP vibrations. This paper considers influence of rotor vibrations on LP gas dynamics and influence of the latter on the rotor structure within the FSI unidirectional dynamical coupled problem. Dependences of nonstationary parameters of gas-dynamic process in LP on rotor vibrations under various gas speeds and pressures, shaft rotation speeds and vibration amplitudes, and working medium features were studied. The programmed multi-processor ANSYS CFX was chosen as a numerical computation tool. The problem was solved using PNRPU high-capacity computer complex. Deformed shaft vibrations are replaced with an unyielding profile that moves in the fixed annulus "up-and-down" according to set harmonic rule. This solves a nonstationary gas-dynamic problem and determines time dependence of total gas-dynamic force value influencing the shaft. Pressure increase from 0.1 to 10 MPa causes growth of gas-dynamic force oscillation amplitude and frequency. The phase shift angle between gas-dynamic force oscillations and those of shaft displacement decreases from 3π/4 to π/2. Damping constant has maximum value under 1 MPa pressure in the gap. Increase of shaft oscillation frequency from 50 to 150 Hz under P=10 MPa causes growth of gas-dynamic force oscillation amplitude. Damping constant has maximum value at 50 Hz equaling 1.012. Increase of shaft vibration amplitude from 20 to 80 µm under P=10 MPa causes the rise of gas-dynamic force amplitude up to 20 times. Damping constant increases from 0.092 to 0.251. Calculations for various working substances (methane, perfect gas, air at 25 ˚С) prove the minimum gas-dynamic force persistent oscillating amplitude under P=0.1 MPa being observed in methane, and maximum in the air. Frequency remains almost unchanged and the phase shift in the air changes from 3π/4 to π/2. Calculations for various working substances (methane, perfect gas, air at 25 ˚С) prove the maximum gas-dynamic force oscillating amplitude under P=10 MPa being observed in methane, and minimum in the air. Air demonstrates surging. Increase of leakage speed from 0 to 20 m/s through LP under P=0.1 MPa causes the gas-dynamic force oscillating amplitude to decrease by 3 orders and oscillation frequency and the phase shift to increase 2 times and stabilize. Increase of leakage speed from 0 to 20 m/s in LP under P=1 MPa causes gas-dynamic force oscillating amplitude to decrease by almost 4 orders. The phase shift angle increases from π/72 to π/2. Oscillations become persistent. Flow rate proved to influence greatly on pressure oscillations amplitude and a phase shift angle. Work medium influence depends on operation conditions. At pressure growth, vibrations are mostly affected in methane (of working substances list considered), and at pressure decrease, in the air at 25 ˚С.

Keywords: Aeroelasticity, labyrinth packings, oscillation phase shift, vibration.

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294 Experimental Investigations of a Modified Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: A. Esmael, A. El Shrif

Abstract:

In this study the instability problem of a modified Taylor-Couette flow between two vertical coaxial cylinders of radius R1, R2 is considered. The modification is based on the wavy shape of the inner cylinder surface, where inner cylinders with different surface amplitude and wavelength are used. The study aims to discover the effect of the inner surface geometry on the instability phenomenon that undergoes Taylor-Couette flow. The study reveals that the transition processes depends strongly on the amplitude and wavelength of the inner cylinder surface and resulting in flow instabilities that are strongly different from that encountered in the case of the classical Taylor-Couette flow.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic Instability, Modified Taylor-Couette Flow, Turbulence, Taylor vortices.

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293 Numerical Investigation of Instabilities in Free Shear Layer Produced by NS-DBD Actuator

Authors: Ilya Popov, Steven Hulshoff

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of the effects of nanosecond barrier discharge on the stability of a two-dimensional free shear layer is performed. The computations are carried out using a compressible Navier-Stokes algorithm coupled with a thermodynamic model of the discharge. The results show that significant increases in the shear layer-s momentum thickness and Reynolds stresses occur due to actuation. Dependence on both frequency and amplitude of actuation are considered, and a comparison is made of the computed growth rates with those predicted by linear stability theory. Amplitude and frequency ranges for the efficient promotion of shear-layer instabilities are identified.

Keywords: NS-DBD, plasma, actuator, flow control, instability, shear layer

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292 Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall

Authors: Sanjib Kr Pal, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically. A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The governing equations in the computational domain are solved through a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection.

Keywords: Entropy generation, mixed convection, conjugate heat transfer, numerical, nanofluid, wall waviness.

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