Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: corrosion resistance

46 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas

Abstract:

Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: Chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete.

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45 Corrosion Analysis and Interfacial Characterization of Al – Steel Metal Inert Gas Weld - Braze Dissimilar Joints by Micro Area X-Ray Diffraction Technique

Authors: S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

Automotive light weighting is of major prominence in the current times due to its contribution in improved fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution. Various arc welding technologies are being employed in the production of automobile components with reduced weight. The present study is of practical importance since it involves preferential substitution of Zinc coated mild steel with a light weight alloy such as 6061 Aluminium by means of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Brazing technique at different processing parameters. However, the fabricated joints have shown the generation of Al – Fe layer at the interfacial regions which was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. These Al-Fe compounds not only affect the mechanical strength, but also predominantly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the joints. Hence, it is essential to understand the phases formed in this layer and their crystal structure. Micro area X - ray diffraction technique has been exclusively used for this study. Moreover, the crevice corrosion analysis at the joint interfaces was done by exposing the joints to 5 wt.% FeCl3 solution at regular time intervals as per ASTM G 48-03. The joints have shown a decreased crevice corrosion resistance with increased heat intensity. Inner surfaces of welds have shown severe oxide cracking and a remarkable weight loss when exposed to concentrated FeCl3. The weight loss was enhanced with decreased filler wire feed rate and increased heat intensity. 

Keywords: Automobiles, welding, corrosion, lap joints, Micro XRD.

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44 Cost Efficient Receiver Tube Technology for Eco-Friendly Concentrated Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: M. Shiva Prasad, S. R. Atchuta, T. Vijayaraghavan, S. Sakthivel

Abstract:

The world is in need of efficient energy conversion technologies which are affordable, accessible, and sustainable with eco-friendly nature. Solar energy is one of the cornerstones for the world’s economic growth because of its abundancy with zero carbon pollution. Among the various solar energy conversion technologies, solar thermal technology has attracted a substantial renewed interest due to its diversity and compatibility in various applications. Solar thermal systems employ concentrators, tracking systems and heat engines for electricity generation which lead to high cost and complexity in comparison with photovoltaics; however, it is compatible with distinct thermal energy storage capability and dispatchable electricity which creates a tremendous attraction. Apart from that, employing cost-effective solar selective receiver tube in a concentrating solar thermal (CST) system improves the energy conversion efficiency and directly reduces the cost of technology. In addition, the development of solar receiver tubes by low cost methods which can offer high optical properties and corrosion resistance in an open-air atmosphere would be beneficial for low and medium temperature applications. In this regard, our work opens up an approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective energy conversion. We have developed a highly selective tandem absorber coating through a facile wet chemical route by a combination of chemical oxidation, sol-gel, and nanoparticle coating methods. The developed tandem absorber coating has gradient refractive index nature on stainless steel (SS 304) and exhibited high optical properties (α ≤ 0.95 & ε ≤ 0.14). The first absorber layer (Cr-Mn-Fe oxides) developed by controlled oxidation of SS 304 in a chemical bath reactor. A second composite layer of ZrO2-SiO2 has been applied on the chemically oxidized substrate by So-gel dip coating method to serve as optical enhancing and corrosion resistant layer. Finally, an antireflective layer (MgF2) has been deposited on the second layer, to achieve > 95% of absorption. The developed tandem layer exhibited good thermal stability up to 250 °C in open air atmospheric condition and superior corrosion resistance (withstands for > 200h in salt spray test (ASTM B117)). After the successful development of a coating with targeted properties at a laboratory scale, a prototype of the 1 m tube has been demonstrated with excellent uniformity and reproducibility. Moreover, it has been validated under standard laboratory test condition as well as in field condition with a comparison of the commercial receiver tube. The presented strategy can be widely adapted to develop highly selective coatings for a variety of CST applications ranging from hot water, solar desalination, and industrial process heat and power generation. The high-performance, cost-effective medium temperature receiver tube technology has attracted many industries, and recently the technology has been transferred to Indian industry.

Keywords: Concentrated solar thermal system, solar selective coating, tandem absorber, ultralow refractive index.

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43 Studies on the Characterization and Machinability of Duplex Stainless Steel 2205 during Dry Turning

Authors: Gaurav D. Sonawane, Vikas G. Sargade

Abstract:

The present investigation is a study of the effect of advanced Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) coatings on cutting temperature residual stresses and surface roughness during Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) 2205 turning. Austenite stabilizers like nickel, manganese, and molybdenum reduced the cost of DSS. Surface Integrity (SI) plays an important role in determining corrosion resistance and fatigue life. Resistance to various types of corrosion makes DSS suitable for applications with critical environments like Heat exchangers, Desalination plants, Seawater pipes and Marine components. However, lower thermal conductivity, poor chip control and non-uniform tool wear make DSS very difficult to machine. Cemented carbide tools (M grade) were used to turn DSS in a dry environment. AlTiN and AlTiCrN coatings were deposited using advanced PVD High Pulse Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) technique. Experiments were conducted with cutting speed of 100 m/min, 140 m/min and 180 m/min. A constant feed and depth of cut of 0.18 mm/rev and 0.8 mm were used, respectively. AlTiCrN coated tools followed by AlTiN coated tools outperformed uncoated tools due to properties like lower thermal conductivity, higher adhesion strength and hardness. Residual stresses were found to be compressive for all the tools used for dry turning, increasing the fatigue life of the machined component. Higher cutting temperatures were observed for coated tools due to its lower thermal conductivity, which results in very less tool wear than uncoated tools. Surface roughness with uncoated tools was found to be three times higher than coated tools due to lower coefficient of friction of coating used.

Keywords: Cutting temperatures, DSS2205, dry turning, HiPIMS, surface integrity.

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42 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: Aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification, Tafel polarisation, corrosion resistance.

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41 Optimization of Surface Roughness in Turning Process Utilizing Live Tooling via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Weinian Wang, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to optimize the process of cutting cylindrical workpieces utilizing live tooling on a HAAS ST-20 lathe. Surface roughness (Ra) has been investigated as the indicator of quality characteristics for machining process. Aluminum alloy was used to conduct experiments due to its wide range usages in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. In this study, Taguchi methodology is utilized to determine the effects that each of the parameters has on surface roughness (Ra). A total of 18 experiments of each process were designed according to Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array (OA) with four control factors at three levels of each and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were computed with Smaller the better equation for minimizing the system. The optimal parameters identified for the surface roughness of the turning operation utilizing live tooling were a feed rate of 3 inches/min(A3); a spindle speed of 1300 rpm(B3); a 2-flute titanium nitrite coated 3/8” endmill (C1); and a depth of cut of 0.025 inches (D2). The mean surface roughness of the confirmation runs in turning operation was 8.22 micro inches. The final results demonstrate that Taguchi methodology is a sufficient way of process improvement in turning process on surface roughness.

Keywords: Live tooling, surface roughness, Taguchi Parameter Design, CNC turning operation.

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40 Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy

Authors: M. J. Shivaram, Shashi Bhushan Arya, Jagannath Nayak, Bharat Bhooshan Panigrahi

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method.  In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.

Keywords: Ball Milling, compressive strengths, microstructure, porous Titanium alloy.

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39 Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay

Authors: Lydia Chan, Islam Shyha, Dale Dreyer, John Hamilton, Phil Hackney

Abstract:

Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.

Keywords: Cylindrical turning, nickel superalloy, turning of overlay, weld overlay.

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38 High Temperature Oxidation of Cr-Steel Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Saeed Ghali, Azza Ahmed, Taha Mattar

Abstract:

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising solution for the energy resources leakage. Ferritic stainless steel becomes a suitable candidate for the SOFCs interconnects due to the recent advancements. Different steel alloys were designed to satisfy the needed characteristics in SOFCs interconnect as conductivity, thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Refractory elements were used as alloying elements to satisfy the needed properties. The oxidation behaviour of the developed alloys was studied where the samples were heated for long time period at the maximum operating temperature to simulate the real working conditions. The formed scale and oxidized surface were investigated by SEM. Microstructure examination was carried out for some selected steel grades. The effect of alloying elements on the behaviour of the proposed interconnects material and the performance during the working conditions of the cells are explored and discussed. Refractory metals alloying of chromium steel seems to satisfy the needed characteristics in metallic interconnects.

Keywords: SOFCs, Cr-steel, interconnects, oxidation.

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37 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: Ni–P coating, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, heat treatment, cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic polarization.

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36 Properties Modification of Fiber Metal Laminates by Nanofillers

Authors: R. Eslami-Farsani, S. M. S. Mousavi Bafrouyi

Abstract:

During past decades, increasing demand of modified Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) has stimulated a strong trend towards the development of these structures. FMLs contain several thin layers of metal bonded with composite materials. Characteristics of FMLs such as low specific mass, high bearing strength, impact resistance, corrosion resistance and high fatigue life are attractive. Nowadays, increasing development can be observed to promote the properties of polymer-based composites by nanofillers. By dispersing strong, nanofillers in polymer matrix, modified composites can be developed and tailored to individual applications. On the other hand, the synergic effects of nanoparticles such as graphene and carbon nanotube can significantly improve the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. In present paper, the modifying of FMLs by nanofillers and the dispersing of nanoparticles in the polymers matrix are discussed. The evaluations have revealed that this approach is acceptable. Finally, a prospect is presented. This paper will lead to further work on these modified FML species.

Keywords: Fiber metal laminate, nanofiller, polymer matrix, property modification.

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35 UV-Cured Coatings Based on Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Epoxy Carboxylate

Authors: Alaaddin Cerit, Suheyla Kocaman, Ulku Soydal

Abstract:

During the past two decades, photoinitiated polymerization has been attracting a great interest in terms of scientific and industrial activity. The wide recognition of UV treatment in the polymer industry results not only from its many practical applications but also from its advantage for low-cost processes. Unlike most thermal curing systems, radiation-curable systems can polymerize at room temperature without additional heat, and the curing is completed in a very short time. The advantage of cationic UV technology is that post-cure can continue in the ‘dark’ after radiation. In this study, bio-based acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was cured with UV radiation using radicalic photoinitiator Irgacure 184. Triarylsulphonium hexafluoroantimonate was used as cationic photoinitiator for curing of 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate. The effect of curing time and the amount of initiators on the curing degree and thermal properties were investigated. The thermal properties of the coating were analyzed after crosslinking UV irradiation. The level of crosslinking in the coating was evaluated by FTIR analysis. Cationic UV-cured coatings demonstrated excellent adhesion and corrosion resistance properties. Therefore, our study holds a great potential with its simple and low-cost applications.

Keywords: Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil, epoxy carboxylate, thermal properties, UV-curing.

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34 Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate

Authors: R. Joseph Raviselvan, K. Ramanathan, P. Perumal, M. R. Thansekhar

Abstract:

Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. The coating properties are influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was developed and the optimum response was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

Keywords: Hardness, RSM, sputtering, TiN XRD.

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33 Simulation of the Effect of Sea Water Using Ground Tank to the Flexural Capacity of GFRP Sheet Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Arbain Tata, Rita Irmawaty

Abstract:

The study conducted a simulation of the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the concrete beams using a simulation tank. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been developed and applied in many fields civil engineering structures on the new structures and also for strengthening of the deteriorated structures. The FRP has advantages such as its corrosion resistance as well as high tensile strength to weight ratio. Compared to the other FRP materials, Glass composed FRP (GFRP) is relatively cheaper. GFRP sheet is applied externally by bonding it on the concrete surface. The studies regarding the application of GFRP sheet have been conducted such as strengthening system, bonding behavior of GFRP sheet including the application as reinforcement in new structures. For application to the structures with direct contact to sea environment, a study regarding the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet is important to be clarified. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of concrete beams strengthened with GFRP sheet on extreme tension surface were prepared. The beams then were stored on the sea water tank for six months. Results indicated the bonding capacity decreased after six month exposed to the sea water.

Keywords: GFRP sheet, sea water, concrete beams, bonding.

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32 Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coatings

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao

Abstract:

Zn alloy and composite coatings are widely used in buildings and structures, automobile and fasteners industries to protect steel component from corrosion. In this paper, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel using a novel sol enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni- Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings. The effect of alumina sol on the electrodeposition process, and coating properties was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, XRD, ESEM and Tafel test. Results from XRD tests showed that the structure of all coatings was single γ- Ni5Zn21 phase. Cyclic voltammetry results showed that the electrodeposition overpotential was lower in the presence of alumina sol in the bath, and caused the reduction potential of Zn-Ni to shift to more positive values. Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings produced more uniform and compact deposits, with fine grained microstructure when compared to Zn-Ni coatings. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the coatings.

Keywords: Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings, steel, sol-enhanced electroplating, corrosion resistance.

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31 The Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of DC-Electrodeposited Ni-Mn Alloy Coating with Low Internal Stress

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kuan-Hui Cheng, Mei-Wen Wu

Abstract:

The nickel-manganese (Ni-Mn) alloy coating prepared from DC electrodeposition process in sulphamate bath was studied. The effects of process parameters, such as current density and electrolyte composition, on the cathodic current efficiency, microstructure, internal stress and mechanical properties were investigated. Because of its crucial effect on the application to the electroforming of microelectronic components, the development of low internal stress coating with high leveling power was emphasized. It was found that both the coating’s manganese content and the cathodic current efficiency increased with the raise in current density. In addition, the internal stress of the deposited coating showed compressive nature at low current densities while changed to tensile one at higher current densities. Moreover, the metallographic observation, X-ray diffraction measurement, and polarization curve measurement were conducted. It was found that the Ni-Mn coating consisted of nano-sized columnar grains and the maximum hardness of the coating was associated with (111) preferred orientation in the microstructure. The grain size was refined along with the increase in the manganese content of the coating, which accordingly, raised its hardness and resistance to annealing softening. In summary, the Ni-Mn coating prepared at lower current density of 1-2 A/dm2 had low internal stress, high leveling power, and better corrosion resistance.

Keywords: DC plating, internal stress, leveling power, Ni-Mn coating.

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30 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition

Authors: Ferhat Bülbül

Abstract:

The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited a harder and rougher structure than the substrate.

Keywords: Amorphous, electroless Ni–B, magnesium, X-ray diffraction.

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29 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: Dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness.

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28 Design and Development of Constant Stress Composite Cantilever Beam

Authors: Vinod B. Suryawanshi, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

Composite materials, due to their unique properties such as high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance have huge potential as structural materials in automotive, construction and transportation applications. However, these properties often come at higher cost owing to complex design methods, difficult manufacturing processes and raw material cost. Traditionally, tapered laminated composite structures are manufactured using autoclave manufacturing process by ply drop off technique. Autoclave manufacturing though very powerful suffers from high capital investment and higher energy consumption. As per the current trends in composite manufacturing, Out of Autoclave (OoA) processes are looked as emerging technologies for manufacturing the structural composite components for aerospace and defense applications. However, there is a need for improvement among these processes to make them reliable and consistent. In this paper, feasibility of using out of autoclave process to manufacture the variable thickness cantilever beam is discussed. The minimum weight design for the composite beam is obtained using constant stress beam concept by tailoring the thickness of the beam. Ply drop off techniques was used to fabricate the variable thickness beam from glass/epoxy prepregs. Experiments were conducted to measure bending stresses along the span of the cantilever beam at different intervals by applying the concentrated load at the free end. Experimental results showed that the stresses in the bean at different intervals were constant. This proves the ability of OoA process to manufacture the constant stress beam. Finite element model for the constant stress beam was developed using commercial finite element simulation software. It was observed that the simulation results agreed very well with the experimental results and thus validated design and manufacturing approach used.

Keywords: Beams, Composites, Constant Stress, Structures.

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27 Tool Wear of Metal Matrix Composite 10wt% AlN Reinforcement Using TiB2 Cutting Tool

Authors: M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, Che Hassan C. H., N. N. Wan, M. A. Selamat, R. Othman

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) attract considerable attention as a result from its ability in providing a high strength, high modulus, high toughness, high impact properties, improving wear resistance and providing good corrosion resistance compared to unreinforced alloy. Aluminium Silicon (Al/Si) alloy MMC has been widely used in various industrial sectors such as in transportation, domestic equipment, aerospace, military, construction, etc. Aluminium silicon alloy is an MMC that had been reinforced with aluminium nitrate (AlN) particle and become a new generation material use in automotive and aerospace sector. The AlN is one of the advance material that have a bright prospect in future since it has features such as lightweight, high strength, high hardness and stiffness quality. However, the high degree of ceramic particle reinforcement and the irregular nature of the particles along the matrix material that contribute to its low density is the main problem which leads to difficulties in machining process. This paper examined the tool wear when milling AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite using a TiB2 (Titanium diboride) coated carbide cutting tool. The volume of the AlN reinforced particle was 10% and milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition. The TiB2 coated carbide insert parameters used were at the cutting speed of (230, 300 and 370m/min, feed rate of 0.8, Depth of Cut (DoC) at 0.4m). The Sometech SV-35 video microscope system used to quantify of the tool wear. The result shown that tool life span increasing with the cutting speeds at (370m/min, feed rate of 0.8mm/tooth and DoC at 0.4mm) which constituted an optimum condition for longer tool life lasted until 123.2 mins. Meanwhile, at medium cutting speed which at 300m/m, feed rate of 0.8mm/tooth and depth of cut at 0.4mm we found that tool life span lasted until 119.86 mins while at low cutting speed it lasted in 119.66 mins. High cutting speed will give the best parameter in cutting AlSi/AlN MMCs material. The result will help manufacturers in machining process of AlSi/AlN MMCs materials.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite milling process, tool wear, TiB2 coated cemented carbide tool.

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26 Investigation of VN/TiN Multilayer Coatings on AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: M. Ertas, A. C. Onel, G. Ekinci, B. Toydemir, S. Durdu, M. Usta, L. Colakerol Arslan

Abstract:

To develop AZ91D magnesium alloys with improved properties, we have applied TiN and VN/TiN multilayer coatings using DC magnetron sputter technique. Coating structure, surface morphology, chemical bonding and corrosion resistance of coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tafel extrapolation method, respectively. XPS analysis reveal that VN overlayer reacts with oxygen at the VN/TiN interface and forms more stable TiN layer. Morphological investigations and the corrosion results show that VN/TiN multilayer thin film coatings are quite effective to optimize the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloys, High corrosion resistance, Transition metal nitride coatings, Magnetron sputter.

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25 Influence of Different Thicknesses on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of α-C:H Films

Authors: S. Tunmee, P. Wongpanya, I. Toda, X. L. Zhou, Y. Nakaya, N. Konkhunthot, S. Arakawa, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (α-C:H) were deposited on p-type Si (100) substrates at different thicknesses by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (rf-PECVD). Raman spectra display asymmetric diamond-like carbon (DLC) peaks, representative of the α-C:H films. The decrease of intensity ID/IG ratios revealed the sp3 content arise at different thicknesses of the α-C:H films. In terms of mechanical properties, the high hardness and elastic modulus values showed the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors related to sp3 content in amorphous carbon films. Electrochemical properties showed that the α-C:H films exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in air-saturated 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution for pH 2 at room temperature. Thickness increasing affected the small sp2 clusters in matrix, restricting the velocity transfer and exchange of electrons. The deposited α-C:H films exhibited excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Thickness, Mechanical properties, Electrochemical corrosion properties, α-C:H film.

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24 Laser Beam Welding of Ti/Al Dissimilar Thin Sheets - A Literature Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N.M. Nagarajan, N. Mathiazhagan

Abstract:

Dissimilar joining of Titanium and Aluminum thin sheets has potential applications in aerospace and automobile industry which can reduce weight and cost and improve strength, corrosion resistance and high temperature properties. However successful welding of Titanium/Aluminium sheets is of challenge due to differences in physical, chemical and metallurgical properties between the two. This paper describes research results of Laser Beam Welding (LBW) of Ti/Al thin sheets in which many researchers have recently performed and critically reviewed from different perspectives. Also some of notable works in the field of laser welding with changes in mechanical properties, crack propagation, diffusion behavior, chemical potential, interfacial reaction and the microstructure are reported.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Mechanical properties, Titanium and Aluminium thin sheets.

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23 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

Abstract:

Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: Beta Alloys, Biomedical Applications, Titanium Alloys, Young's Modulus.

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22 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: Supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride.

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21 The Effects of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Corrosion Behavior of Heat Treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy

Authors: A. Hossain, M. A. Gafur, F. Gulshan, A. S. W. Kurny

Abstract:

Al-Si-Mg-Ni(-Cu) alloys are widely used in the automotive industry. They have the advantage of low weight associated with low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent mechanical properties – mainly at high temperatures. The corrosion resistance of these alloys in coastal area, particularly sea water, however is not yet known. In this investigation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization have been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys in simulated sea water environments. The potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that 2 wt% Cu content alloy (Alloy-2) is more prone to corrosion than the Cu free alloy (Alloy-1). But the EIS test results showed that corrosion resistance or charge transfer resistance (Rct) increases with the addition of Cu. Due to addition of Cu and thermal treatment, the magnitude of open circuit potential (OCP), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and pitting corrosion potential (Epit) of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy in NaCl solution were shifted to the more noble direction.

Keywords: Al-Si alloy, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, SEM.

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20 A Systematic Approach for Identifying Turning Center Capabilities with Vertical Machining Center in Milling Operation

Authors: J. Chen, N. Hundal

Abstract:

Conventional machining is a form of subtractive manufacturing, in which a collection of material-working processes utilizing power-driven machine tools are used to remove undesired material to achieve a desired geometry. This paper presents an approach for comparison between turning center and vertical machining center by optimization of cutting parameters at cylindrical workpieces leading to minimum surface roughness by using taguchi methodology. Aluminum alloy was taken to conduct experiments due to its unique high strength-weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their exceptional corrosion resistance. During testing, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness were investigated. Additionally, by using taguchi methodology for each of the cutting parameters (spindle speed, depth of cut, insert diameter, and feed rate) minimum surface roughness for the process of turn-milling was determined according to the cutting parameters. A confirmation experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of taguchi method.

Keywords: Surface roughness, taguchi parameter design, turning center, turn-milling operations, vertical machining center.

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19 Titanium-Aluminum Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie

Abstract:

In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminum oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviors of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behavior of the coating material.

Keywords: Corrosion, plasma electrolytic oxidation, thermal property, titanium-aluminum oxide.

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18 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Hard Material Machining

Authors: Rajaram Kr. Gupta, Bhupendra Kumar, T. V. K. Gupta, D. S. Ramteke

Abstract:

Machining of hard materials is a recent technology for direct production of work-pieces. The primary challenge in machining these materials is selection of cutting tool inserts which facilitates an extended tool life and high-precision machining of the component. These materials are widely for making precision parts for the aerospace industry. Nickel-based alloys are typically used in extreme environment applications where a combination of strength, corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance material characteristics are required. The present paper reports the theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to understand the influence of machining parameters on the response parameters. Considering the basic machining parameters (speed, feed and depth of cut) a study has been conducted to observe their influence on material removal rate, surface roughness, cutting forces and corresponding tool wear. Experiments are designed and conducted with the help of Central Composite Rotatable Design technique. The results reveals that for a given range of process parameters, material removal rate is favorable for higher depths of cut and low feed rate for cutting forces. Low feed rates and high values of rotational speeds are suitable for better finish and higher tool life.

Keywords: Speed, feed, depth of cut, roughness, cutting force, flank wear.

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17 Torsion Behavior of Steel Fibered High Strength Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRB Bars

Authors: Khaled S. Ragab, Ahmed S. Eisa

Abstract:

This paper investigates experimentally and analytically the torsion behavior of steel fibered high strength self compacting concrete beams reinforced by GFRP bars. Steel fibered high strength self compacting concrete (SFHSSCC) and GFRP bars became in the recent decades a very important materials in the structural engineering field. The use of GFRP bars to replace steel bars has emerged as one of the many techniques put forward to enhance the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures. High strength concrete and GFRP bars attract designers and architects as it allows improving the durability as well as the esthetics of a construction. One of the trends in SFHSSCC structures is to provide their ductile behavior and additional goal is to limit development and propagation of macro-cracks in the body of SFHSSCC elements. SFHSSCC and GFRP bars are tough, improve the workability, enhance the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures, and demonstrate high residual strengths after appearance of the first crack. Experimental studies were carried out to select effective fiber contents. Three types of volume fraction from hooked shape steel fibers are used in this study, the hooked steel fibers were evaluated in volume fractions ranging between 0.0%, 0.75% and 1.5%. The beams shape is chosen to create the required forces (i.e. torsion and bending moments simultaneously) on the test zone. A total of seven beams were tested, classified into three groups. All beams, have 200cm length, cross section of 10×20cm, longitudinal bottom reinforcement of 3

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, torsion behavior, steel fiber, steel fiber reinforced high strength self compacting concrete (SFRHSCC), GFRP bars.

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