Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: beam forming

10 A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array

Authors: Lei Qi, Rongxin Yan, Lichen Sun

Abstract:

With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.

Keywords: Spacecraft, Damage Assessment, acoustic sensor array, leakage location

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9 Performance Evaluation of Refinement Method for Wideband Two-Beams Formation

Authors: C. Bunsanit

Abstract:

This paper presents the refinement method for two beams formation of wideband smart antenna. The refinement method for weighting coefficients is based on Fully Spatial Signal Processing by taking Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), and its simulation results are presented using MATLAB. The radiation pattern is created by multiplying the incoming signal with real weights and then summing them together. These real weighting coefficients are computed by IDFT method; however, the range of weight values is relatively wide. Therefore, for reducing this range, the refinement method is used. The radiation pattern concerns with five input parameters to control. These parameters are maximum weighting coefficient, wideband signal, direction of mainbeam, beamwidth, and maximum of minor lobe level. Comparison of the obtained simulation results between using refinement method and taking only IDFT shows that the refinement method works well for wideband two beams formation.

Keywords: smart antenna, Beam Forming, wideband, fully spatial signal processing, refinement method, weighting coefficient

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8 Coordinated Multi-Point Scheme Based On Channel State Information in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Su-Hyun Jung, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Recently, increasing the quality of experience (QoE) is an important issue. Since performance degradation at cell edge extremely reduces the QoE, several techniques are defined at LTE/LTE-A standard to remove inter-cell interference (ICI). However, the conventional techniques have disadvantage because there is a trade-off between resource allocation and reliable communication. The proposed scheme reduces the ICI more efficiently by using channel state information (CSI) smartly. It is shown that the proposed scheme can reduce the ICI with fewer resources.

Keywords: LTE-A, CoMP, Adaptive beam forming, ICI reduction

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7 Analog Front End Low Noise Amplifier in 0.18-µm CMOS for Ultrasound Imaging Applications

Authors: Haridas Kuruveettil, Dongning Zhao, Cheong Jia Hao, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

We present the design of Analog front end (AFE) low noise pre-amplifier implemented in a high voltage 0.18-µm CMOS technology for  a three dimensional ultrasound  bio microscope (3D UBM) application. The fabricated chip has 4X16 pre-amplifiers implemented to interface   a 2-D array of    high frequency capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducers (CMUT). Core AFE cell consists of a high-voltage pulser in the transmit path, and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier in the receive path. Proposed system offers a high image resolution by the use of high frequency CMUTs with associated high performance imaging electronics integrated together.  Performance requirements and the design methods of the high bandwidth transimpedance amplifier are described in the paper. A single cell of transimpedance (TIA) amplifier and the bias circuit occupies a silicon area of 250X380 µm2 and the full chip occupies a total silicon area of 10x6.8 mm².

Keywords: Medical Imaging, Ultrasound, Beam Forming, Analog front end, biomicroscope, transimpedance gain

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6 Laser Forming of Titanium and Its Alloys – An Overview

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Laser beam forming is a novel technique developed for the joining of metallic components. In this study, an overview of the laser beam forming process, areas of application, the basic mechanisms of the laser beam forming process, some recent research studies and the need to focus more research effort on improving the laser-material interaction of laser beam forming of titanium and its alloys are presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Mechanisms, deformation, Titanium, titanium alloy, laser forming

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5 Laser Beam Forming of 3 mm Steel Plate and the Evolving Properties

Authors: Stephen Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Esther Akinlabi, Marwala Tshilidzi

Abstract:

This paper reports the evolving properties of a 3 mm low carbon steel plate after Laser Beam Forming achieve this objective, the chemical analyse material and the formed components were carried thereafter both were characterized through microhardness profiling microstructural evaluation and tensile testing. showed an increase in the elemental concentration of the component when compared to the as received attributed to the enhancement property of the LBF process Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and the Vickers the formed component shows an increase when compared to the as received material, this was attributed to strain hardening and grain refinement brought about by the LBF process. The microstructure of the as received steel consists of equiaxed ferrit that of the formed component exhibits elongated orming process (LBF). To es of the as received out and compared; profiling, The chemical analyses formed material; this can be process. The microhardness of ferrite and pearlite while grains.

Keywords: deformation, Laser beam forming, elongated grains

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4 Optimal Convolutive Filters for Real-Time Detection and Arrival Time Estimation of Transient Signals

Authors: Michal Natora, Felix Franke, Klaus Obermayer

Abstract:

Linear convolutive filters are fast in calculation and in application, and thus, often used for real-time processing of continuous data streams. In the case of transient signals, a filter has not only to detect the presence of a specific waveform, but to estimate its arrival time as well. In this study, a measure is presented which indicates the performance of detectors in achieving both of these tasks simultaneously. Furthermore, a new sub-class of linear filters within the class of filters which minimize the quadratic response is proposed. The proposed filters are more flexible than the existing ones, like the adaptive matched filter or the minimum power distortionless response beamformer, and prove to be superior with respect to that measure in certain settings. Simulations of a real-time scenario confirm the advantage of these filters as well as the usefulness of the performance measure.

Keywords: Beam Forming, Adaptive matched filter, minimum variance distortionless response, Capon beam former, linear filters, performance measure

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3 Parallel Distributed Computational Microcontroller System for Adaptive Antenna Downlink Transmitter Power Optimization

Authors: K. Prajindra Sankar, S.K. Tiong, S.P. Johnny Koh

Abstract:

This paper presents a tested research concept that implements a complex evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm (GA), in a multi-microcontroller environment. Parallel Distributed Genetic Algorithm (PDGA) is employed in adaptive beam forming technique to reduce power usage of adaptive antenna at WCDMA base station. Adaptive antenna has dynamic beam that requires more advanced beam forming algorithm such as genetic algorithm which requires heavy computation and memory space. Microcontrollers are low resource platforms that are normally not associated with GAs, which are typically resource intensive. The aim of this project was to design a cooperative multiprocessor system by expanding the role of small scale PIC microcontrollers to optimize WCDMA base station transmitter power. Implementation results have shown that PDGA multi-microcontroller system returned optimal transmitted power compared to conventional GA.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Power Optimization, microcontroller, Adaptiveantenna

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2 On-line Speech Enhancement by Time-Frequency Masking under Prior Knowledge of Source Location

Authors: Min Ah Kang, Sangbae Jeong, Minsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper presents the source extraction system which can extract only target signals with constraints on source localization in on-line systems. The proposed system is a kind of methods for enhancing a target signal and suppressing other interference signals. But, the performance of proposed system is superior to any other methods and the extraction of target source is comparatively complete. The method has a beamforming concept and uses an improved time-frequency (TF) mask-based BSS algorithm to separate a target signal from multiple noise sources. The target sources are assumed to be in front and test data was recorded in a reverberant room. The experimental results of the proposed method was evaluated by the PESQ score of real-recording sentences and showed a noticeable speech enhancement.

Keywords: Beam Forming, Source Separation, Non-stationary noise reduction, TF mask

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1 Automotive 3-Microphone Noise Canceller in a Frequently Moving Noise Source Environment

Authors: Z. Qi, T. J. Moir

Abstract:

A combined three-microphone voice activity detector (VAD) and noise-canceling system is studied to enhance speech recognition in an automobile environment. A previous experiment clearly shows the ability of the composite system to cancel a single noise source outside of a defined zone. This paper investigates the performance of the composite system when there are frequently moving noise sources (noise sources are coming from different locations but are not always presented at the same time) e.g. there is other passenger speech or speech from a radio when a desired speech is presented. To work in a frequently moving noise sources environment, whilst a three-microphone voice activity detector (VAD) detects voice from a “VAD valid zone", the 3-microphone noise canceller uses a “noise canceller valid zone" defined in freespace around the users head. Therefore, a desired voice should be in the intersection of the noise canceller valid zone and VAD valid zone. Thus all noise is suppressed outside this intersection of area. Experiments are shown for a real environment e.g. all results were recorded in a car by omni-directional electret condenser microphones.

Keywords: Signal Processing, voice activity detection, noise canceller, microphone array beam forming

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