Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1310

Search results for: reinforced concrete beam

1310 Thermal Cracking Respone of Reinforced Concrete Beam to Gradient Temperature

Authors: L. Dahmani, M.Kouane

Abstract:

In this paper are illustrated the principal aspects connected with the numerical evaluation of thermal stress induced by high gradient temperature in the concrete beam. The reinforced concrete beam has many advantages over steel beam, such as high resistance to high temperature, high resistance to thermal shock, Better resistance to fatigue and buckling, strong resistance against, fire, explosion, etc. The main drawback of the reinforced concrete beam is its poor resistance to tensile stresses. In order to investigate the thermal induced tensile stresses, a numerical model of a transient thermal analysis is presented for the evaluation of thermo-mechanical response of concrete beam to the high temperature, taking into account the temperature dependence of the thermo physical properties of the concrete like thermal conductivity and specific heat.

Keywords: Cracking, Gradient Temperature, Reinforced Concrete beam, Thermo-mechanical analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3439
1309 Study on Distortion of Bi-Steel Concrete Beam

Authors: G. W. Ni, Y. M. Zhang, D. L. Jiang, J. N. Chen, X. G. Wang

Abstract:

As an economic and safe structure, Bi-steel is widely used in reinforced concrete with less consumption of steel. In this paper, III Bi-steel concrete beam has been analyzed. Through careful observation and theoretical analysis, the new calculating formulae for structural rigidity and crack have been formulated for this Bi-steel concrete beam. And structural rigidity and the crack features have also been theoretically analyzed.

Keywords: Bi-steel, concrete beam, crack, rigidity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 993
1308 Flexural Strength of Alkali Resistant Glass Textile Reinforced Concrete Beam with Prestressing

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jungbhin You, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Due to the aging of bridges, increasing of maintenance costs and decreasing of structural safety is occurred. The steel corrosion of reinforced concrete bridge is the most common problem and this phenomenon is accelerating due to abnormal weather and increasing CO2 concentration due to climate change. To solve these problems, composite members using textile have been studied. A textile reinforced concrete can reduce carbon emissions by reduced concrete and without steel bars, so a lot of structural behavior studies are needed. Therefore, in this study, textile reinforced concrete beam was made and flexural test was performed. Also, the change of flexural strength according to the prestressing was conducted. As a result, flexural strength of TRC with prestressing was increased compared and flexural behavior was shown as reinforced concrete.

Keywords: AR-glass, flexural strength, prestressing, textile reinforced concrete.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 761
1307 The Effect of Confinement Shapes on Over-Reinforced HSC Beams

Authors: Ross Jeffry, Muhammad N. S. Hadi

Abstract:

High strength concrete (HSC) provides high strength but lower ductility than normal strength concrete. This low ductility limits the benefit of using HSC in building safe structures. On the other hand, when designing reinforced concrete beams, designers have to limit the amount of tensile reinforcement to prevent the brittle failure of concrete. Therefore the full potential of the use of steel reinforcement can not be achieved. This paper presents the idea of confining concrete in the compression zone so that the HSC will be in a state of triaxial compression, which leads to improvements in strength and ductility. Five beams made of HSC were cast and tested. The cross section of the beams was 200×300 mm, with a length of 4 m and a clear span of 3.6 m subjected to four-point loading, with emphasis placed on the midspan deflection. The first beam served as a reference beam. The remaining beams had different tensile reinforcement and the confinement shapes were changed to gauge their effectiveness in improving the strength and ductility of the beams. The compressive strength of the concrete was 85 MPa and the tensile strength of the steel was 500 MPa and for the stirrups and helixes was 250 MPa. Results of testing the five beams proved that placing helixes with different diameters as a variable parameter in the compression zone of reinforced concrete beams improve their strength and ductility.

Keywords: Confinement, ductility, high strength concrete, reinforced concrete beam.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1962
1306 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil

Abstract:

An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: Composite column, reinforced concrete beam, Steel Column, Transfer Part.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4997
1305 Reinforced Concrete, Problems and Solutions: A Literature Review

Authors: Omar Alhamad, Waleed Eid

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete is a concrete lined with steel so that the materials work together in the resistance forces. Reinforcement rods or mesh are used for tensile, shear, and sometimes intense pressure in a concrete structure. Reinforced concrete is subject to many natural problems or industrial errors. The result of these problems is that it reduces the efficiency of the reinforced concrete or its usefulness. Some of these problems are cracks, earthquakes, high temperatures or fires, as well as corrosion of reinforced iron inside reinforced concrete. There are also factors of ancient buildings or monuments that require some techniques to preserve them. This research presents some general information about reinforced concrete, the pros and cons of reinforced concrete, and then presents a series of literary studies of some of the late published researches on the subject of reinforced concrete and how to preserve it, propose solutions or treatments for the treatment of reinforced concrete problems, raise efficiency and quality for a longer period. These studies have provided advanced and modern methods and techniques in the field of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: Reinforced concrete, treatment, concrete, corrosion, seismic, cracks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1162
1304 Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq

Abstract:

This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.

Keywords: Deep Beams, Finite Element, Opening, Reinforced Concrete.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3757
1303 Tension Stiffening Parameter in Composite Concrete Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel: Laboratory and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: S. Alih, A. Khelil

Abstract:

In the present work, behavior of inoxydable steel as reinforcement bar in composite concrete is being investigated. The bar-concrete adherence in reinforced concrete (RC) beam is studied and focus is made on the tension stiffening parameter. This study highlighted an approach to observe this interaction behavior in bending test instead of direct tension as per reported in many references. The approach resembles actual loading condition of the structural RC beam. The tension stiffening properties are then applied to numerical finite element analysis (FEA) to verify their correlation with laboratory results. Comparison with laboratory shows a good correlation between the two. The experimental settings is able to determine tension stiffening parameters in RC beam and the modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent the actual condition. Tension stiffening model used can represent the interaction properties between inoxydable steel and concrete.

Keywords: Inoxydable steel, Finite element modeling, Reinforced concrete beam, Tension-stiffening.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4096
1302 Shear Strengthening of RC T Beam using CFRP Laminate: A Review

Authors: M.B.S. Alferjani, A.A. Abdul Samad, N. Mohamad, M. Hilton, N. Ali

Abstract:

This paper presents the Literature Review of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips to reinforced concrete (RC) as a strengthening solution for T-beams. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on Rectangular beams strengthened with Fibre-Reinforced Polymer composites (FRP), Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly studied for their application in the flexural or shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. A detailed discussion of the shearstrengthening repair with FRP is undertaken. This paper will be limited to research of CFRP material externally bonded to the tensile face of concrete beams. In particular, research studying the effect of externally applied CFRP materials on the shear performance of reinforced concrete beams will be reported.

Keywords: CFRP, Concrete, Flexural, FRP, Shear, Strengthening.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2599
1301 Experimental Analysis of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek

Abstract:

The paper deals with current issues in research of advanced methods to increase reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre - reinforced polymer. The paper describes experimental testing of composite timber-concrete beam with FRP reinforcement and compares results with FEM analysis.

Keywords: Timber-concrete composite, strengthening, fibre-reinforced polymer, experimental analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1921
1300 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan

Abstract:

The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: Cracking moment, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, polymer reinforcement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 427
1299 The Effect of Intermediate Stiffeners on Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams Behaviors

Authors: Teguh Sudibyo, Cheng-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Eight steel reinforced concrete beams (SRC), were fabricated and tested under earthquake type cyclic loading. The effectiveness of intermediate stiffeners, such as mid-span stiffener and plastic hinge zone stiffeners, in enhancing composite action and ductility of SRC beams was investigated. The effectiveness of strengthened beam-to-column (SBC) and weakened beam-to-column (WBC) connections in enhancing beam ductility was also studied. It was found that: (1) All the specimens possessed fairly high flexural ductility and were found adequate for structures in high seismic zones. (2) WBC connections induced stress concentration which caused extra damage to concrete near the flange tapering zone. This extra damage inhibited the flexural strength development and the ductility of the specimens with WBC connections to some extent. (3) Specimens with SBC connections demonstrated higher flexural strength and ductility compared to specimens with WBC connections. (4) The intermediate stiffeners, especially combination of plastic hinge zone stiffener and mid span stiffeners, have an obvious effect in enhancing the ductility of the beams with SBC connection.

Keywords: Composite beam, concrete encased steel beam, steel reinforced concrete, stiffeners.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3619
1298 Structural Characteristics of HPDSP Concrete on Beam Column Joints

Authors: Sushil Kumar Swar, Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Hari Krishan Sharma, Sushil Kumar

Abstract:

The seriously damaged structures during earthquakes show the need and importance of design of reinforced concrete structures with high ductility. Reinforced concrete beam-column joints have an important function in all structures. Under seismic excitation, the beam column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitude is many times higher than the adjacent beam and column. Strength and ductility of structures depends mainly on proper detailing of the reinforcement in beamcolumn joints and the old structures were found ductility deficient. DSP materials are obtained by using high quantities of super plasticizers and high volumes of micro silica. In the case of High Performance Densified Small Particle Concrete (HPDSPC), since concrete is dense even at the micro-structure level, tensile strain would be much higher than that of the conventional SFRC, SIFCON & SIMCON. This in turn will improve cracking behaviour, ductility and energy absorption capacity of composites in addition to durability. The fine fibers used in our mix are 0.3mm diameter and 10 mm which can be easily placed with high percentage. These fibers easily transfer stresses and act as a composite concrete unit to take up extremely high loads with high compressive strength. HPDSPC placed in the beam column joints helps in safety of human life due to prolonged failure.

Keywords: High Performance Densified Small Particle Concrete (HPDSPC), Steel Fıber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), Slurry Infiltrated Concrete (SIFCON), Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1668
1297 Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced Concrete - A Comparative Experimental Study

Authors: Amir M. Alani, Morteza Aboutalebi

Abstract:

This paper in essence presents comparative experimental data on the mechanical performance of steel and synthetic fibre-reinforced concrete under compression, tensile split and flexure. URW1050 steel fibre and HPP45 synthetic fibre, both with the same concrete design mix, have been used to make cube specimens for a compression test, cylinders for a tensile split test and beam specimens for a flexural test. The experimental data demonstrated steel fibre reinforced concrete to be stronger in flexure at early stages, whilst both fibre reinforced concrete types displayed comparatively the same performance in compression, tensile splitting and 28-day flexural strength. In terms of post-crack controlHPP45 was preferable.

Keywords: Steel Fibre, Synthetic Fibre, Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Failure, Ductility, Experimental Study.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7092
1296 Effect of the Truss System to the Flexural Behavior of the External Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Yasser Bachtiar, Rita Irmawati, Abd. Madjid Akkas, Rusdi Usman Latief

Abstract:

The aesthetic qualities and the versatility of reinforced concrete have made it a popular choice for many architects and structural engineers. Therefore, the exploration of natural materials such as gravels and sands as well as lime-stone for cement production is increasing to produce a concrete material. The exploration must affect to the environment. Therefore, the using of the concrete materials should be as efficient as possible. According to its natural behavior of the concrete material, it is strong in compression and weak in tension. Therefore the contribution of the tensile stresses of the concrete to the flexural capacity of the beams is neglected. However, removing of concrete on tension zone affects to the decreasing of flexural capacity. Introduce the strut action of truss structures may an alternative to solve the decreasing of flexural capacity. A series of specimens were prepared to clarify the effect of the truss structures in the concrete beams without concrete on the tension zone. Results indicated that the truss system is necessary for the external reinforced concrete beams. The truss system of concrete beam without concrete on tension zone (BR) could develop almost same capacity to the normal beam (BN). It can be observed also that specimens BR has lower number of cracks than specimen BN. This may be caused by the fact that there was no bonding effect on the tensile reinforcement on specimen BR to distribute the cracks.

Keywords: External Reinforcement, Truss, Concrete Beams.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1970
1295 Experimental Study on Flexural Strength of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete Beams

Authors: Khoa Tan Nguyen, Tuan Anh Le, Kihak Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents the flexural response of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete (RGPC) beams. A commercial finite element (FE) software ABAQUS has been used to perform a structural behavior of RGPC beams. Using parameters such: stress, strain, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio obtained from experimental results, a beam model has been simulated in ABAQUS. The results from experimental tests and ABAQUS simulation were compared. Due to friction forces at the supports and loading rollers; slip occurring, the actual deflection of RGPC beam from experimental test results were slightly different from the results of ABAQUS. And there is good agreement between the crack patterns of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete generated by FE analysis using ABAQUS, and those in experimental data.

Keywords: Geopolymer concrete beam, finite element method, stress strain relation, modulus elasticity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1923
1294 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: Deep beam, cyclic load, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 828
1293 FEM Study of Different Methods of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer Strengthening of a High Strength Concrete Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Talebi Aliasghar, Ebrahimpour Komeleh Hooman, Maghsoudi Ali Akbar

Abstract:

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, beam-column connection region has a considerable effect on the behavior of structures. Using fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) for the strengthening of connections in RC structures can be one of the solutions to retrofitting this zone which result in the enhanced behavior of structure. In this paper, these changes in behavior by using FRP for high strength concrete beam-column connection have been studied by finite element modeling. The concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model has been used to analyze the RC. The results illustrated a considerable development in load-bearing capacity but also a noticeable reduction in ductility. The study also assesses these qualities for several modes of strengthening and suggests the most effective mode of strengthening. Using FRP in flexural zone and FRP with 45-degree oriented fibers in shear zone of joint showed the most significant change in behavior.

Keywords: High strength concrete, beam-column connection, FRP, FEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 527
1292 Investigation of Crack Formation in Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Beams and in Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Sheet: Theory and Experiment

Authors: Anton A. Bykov, Irina O. Glot, Igor N. Shardakov, Alexey P. Shestakov

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanisms of crack formation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to quasi-static bending. The boundary-value problem has been formulated in the framework of brittle fracture mechanics and has been solved by using the finite-element method. Numerical simulation of the vibrations of an uncracked beam and a beam with cracks of different size serves to determine the pattern of changes in the spectrum of eigenfrequencies observed during crack evolution. Experiments were performed on the sequential quasistatic four-point bending of the beam leading to the formation of cracks in concrete. At each loading stage, the beam was subjected to an impulse load to induce vibrations. Two stages of cracking were detected. At the first stage the conservative process of deformation is realized. The second stage is an active cracking, which is marked by a sharp change in eingenfrequencies. The boundary of a transition from one stage to another is well registered. The vibration behavior was examined for the beams strengthened by carbon-fiber sheet before loading and at the intermediate stage of loading after the grouting of initial cracks. The obtained results show that the vibrodiagnostic approach is an effective tool for monitoring of cracking and for assessing the quality of measures aimed at strengthening concrete structures.

Keywords: Crack formation. experiment. mathematical modeling. reinforced concrete. vibrodiagnostics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1033
1291 Numerical Investigation of the Jacketing Method of Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: S. Boukais, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, A. Kezmane

Abstract:

The first intent of this study is to develop a finite element model that can predict correctly the behavior of the reinforced concrete column. Second aim is to use the finite element model to investigate and evaluate the effect of the strengthening method by jacketing of the reinforced concrete column, by considering different interface contact between the old and the new concrete. Four models were evaluated, one by considering perfect contact, the other three models by using friction coefficient of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. The simulation was carried out by using Abaqus software. The obtained results show that the jacketing reinforcement led to significant increase of the global performance of the behavior of the simulated reinforced concrete column.

Keywords: Strengthening, jacketing, reinforced concrete column, 3D simulation, Abaqus.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 556
1290 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: Y. Heyrani Birak, R. Hizaji, J. Shahkarami

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: Deep beam, capacity, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 533
1289 FRP Bars Spacing Effect on Numerical Thermal Deformations in Concrete Beams under High Temperatures

Authors: A. Zaidi, F. Khelifi, R. Masmoudi, M. Bouhicha

Abstract:

5

In order to eradicate the degradation of reinforced concrete structures due to the steel corrosion, professionals in constructions suggest using fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for their excellent properties. Nevertheless, high temperatures may affect the bond between FRP bar and concrete, and consequently the serviceability of FRP-reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a nonlinear numerical investigation using ADINA software to investigate the effect of the spacing between glass FRP (GFRP) bars embedded in concrete on circumferential thermal deformations and the distribution of radial thermal cracks in reinforced concrete beams submitted to high temperature variations up to 60 °C for asymmetrical problems. The thermal deformations predicted from nonlinear finite elements model, at the FRP bar/concrete interface and at the external surface of concrete cover, were established as a function of the ratio of concrete cover thickness to FRP bar diameter (c/db) and the ratio of spacing between FRP bars in concrete to FRP bar diameter (e/db). Numerical results show that the circumferential thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover are linear until cracking thermal load varied from 32 to 55 °C corresponding to the ratio of e/db varied from 1.3 to 2.3, respectively. However, for ratios e/db >2.3 and c/db >1.6, the thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover exhibit linear behavior without any cracks observed on the specified surface. The numerical results are compared to those obtained from analytical models validated by experimental tests.

Keywords: Concrete beam, FRP bars, spacing effect, thermal deformation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 413
1288 Overview Studies of High Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Raya Harkouss, Bilal Hamad

Abstract:

Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) is considered as a relatively new technology created as an effective solution to problems associated with low quality consolidation. A SCC mix is defined as successful if it flows freely and cohesively without the intervention of mechanical compaction. The construction industry is showing high tendency to use SCC in many contemporary projects to benefit from the various advantages offered by this technology.

At this point, a main question is raised regarding the effect of enhanced fluidity of SCC on the structural behavior of high strength self-consolidating reinforced concrete.

A three phase research program was conducted at the American University of Beirut (AUB) to address this concern. The first two phases consisted of comparative studies conducted on concrete and mortar mixes prepared with second generation Sulphonated Naphtalene-based superplasticizer (SNF) or third generation Polycarboxylate Ethers-based superplasticizer (PCE). The third phase of the research program investigates and compares the structural performance of high strength reinforced concrete beam specimens prepared with two different generations of superplasticizers that formed the unique variable between the concrete mixes. The beams were designed to test and exhibit flexure, shear, or bond splitting failure.

The outcomes of the experimental work revealed comparable resistance of beam specimens cast using self-compacting concrete and conventional vibrated concrete. The dissimilarities in the experimental values between the SCC and the control VC beams were minimal, leading to a conclusion, that the high consistency of SCC has little effect on the flexural, shear and bond strengths of concrete members.

Keywords: Self-consolidating concrete (SCC), high-strength concrete, concrete admixtures, mechanical properties of hardened SCC, structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2732
1287 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati

Abstract:

In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 887
1286 Modelling of Composite Steel and Concrete Beam with the Lightweight Concrete Slab

Authors: V. Přivřelová

Abstract:

Well-designed composite steel and concrete structures highlight the good material properties and lower the deficiencies of steel and concrete, in particular they make use of high tensile strength of steel and high stiffness of concrete. The most common composite steel and concrete structure is a simply supported beam, which concrete slab transferring the slab load to a beam is connected to the steel cross-section. The aim of this paper is to find the most adequate numerical model of a simply supported composite beam with the cross-sectional and material parameters based on the results of a processed parametric study and numerical analysis. The paper also evaluates the suitability of using compact concrete with the lightweight aggregates for composite steel and concrete beams. The most adequate numerical model will be used in the resent future to compare the results of laboratory tests.

Keywords: Composite beams, high-performance concrete, highstrength steel, lightweight concrete slab, modeling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2271
1285 Mechanical-Physical Characteristics Affecting the Durability of Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

The article presents findings from the study and analysis of the results of an experimental programme focused on the production of concrete and fibre reinforced concrete in which natural aggregate has been substituted with brick or concrete recyclate. The research results are analyzed to monitor the effect of mechanicalphysical characteristics on the durability properties of tested cementitious composites. The key parts of the fibre reinforced concrete mix are the basic components: aggregates – recyclate, cement, fly ash, water and fibres. Their specific ratios and the properties of individual components principally affect the resulting behaviour of fresh fibre reinforced concrete and the characteristics of the final product. The article builds on the sources dealing with the use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste in the production of fibre reinforced concrete. The implemented procedure of testing the composite contributes to the building sustainability in environmental engineering.

Keywords: Recycled aggregate, Polypropylene fibres, Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Fly ash.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1653
1284 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar

Abstract:

An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: Basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 412
1283 Replacing Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Bitumen Asphalt in Airports

Authors: Y. Mohammadi, H. M. Ghasemzadeh, T. B. Talari, M. A. Ghorbani

Abstract:

Concrete pavement has superior durability and longer structural life than asphalt pavement. Concrete pavement requires less maintenance compared to asphalt pavement which requires maintenance and major rehabilitation. Use of the concrete pavement has been grown over the past decade in developing countries. Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has been successfully used in design of concrete pavement in past decade. In this research, the effect of fibre volume fraction in modulus of rupture, load-deflection, equivalent flexural strength (fe,3) and the equivalent flexural strength ratio (Re,3) has been used in different fibre volume fraction. Crimped-type flat steel fibre of size 50 x 2.0 x 0.6 mm was used with 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% volume fraction. Beam specimens of size 500 x 100 x 100 mm were used for flexural as well as with JCI method for analysis flexural toughness, equivalent flexural strength. It was obtained as the 2% fibre volume fractions; reduce 45% of the concrete pavement thickness.

Keywords: Concrete pavement, Equivalent flexural strength, Fibre, Load-deflection curves.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2198
1282 Behavior of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek

Abstract:

The paper deals with current issues in research of advanced methods to increase reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fiber - reinforced polymer. The study evaluates deflection of a selected group of timber beams with concrete slab and additional CFRP reinforcement using different calculating methods and observes differences in results from different calculating methods. An elastic (EN 1995) calculation method and evaluation with FEM analysis software were used.

Keywords: Timber-concrete composite, strengthening, fibre-reinforced polymer, theoretical analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1587
1281 A Study on Bond Strength of Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: Geo polymer, Concrete, Bond Strength, Behaviour.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2212