Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: terpenoids

49 Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Nusrat Masood, Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman

Abstract:

Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.

Keywords: Caspase 3, terpenoids, flavonoids, activation constant, binding energy

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48 The Order Russulales of Basidiomycota: Systematics, Ecology and Chemotaxonomy

Authors: Marco Clericuzio, Alfredo Vizzini

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The secondary metabolites of Russulales (one of the main orders of phylum Basidiomycota), have been studied. They are mainly terpenoids, with sesquiterpenes being the most common ones, but also triterpenoids and prenylated phenols have been isolated. We found that classes of specific compounds seem to be often allied to systematic groupings, so that they may have chemotaxonomic significance. Moreover, the ecological implications of such metabolites, as well as their biological activities, are discussed. Lately, we have focused our attention on the anti-arthropod activity of Russula metabolites, in particular on the toxicity against mites and other crop pests.

Keywords: chemotaxonomy, fungi, insecticidal activity, russulales, terpenoids

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47 Combining Transcriptomics, Bioinformatics, Biosynthesis Networks and Chromatographic Analyses for Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Defense Volatiles Study

Authors: Ronald Villamar-Torres, Michael Staudt, Christopher Viot

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Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. is one of the most important industrial crops, producing the world leading natural textile fiber, but is very prone to arthropod attacks that reduce crop yield and quality. Cotton cultivation, therefore, makes an outstanding use of chemical pesticides. In reaction to herbivorous arthropods, cotton plants nevertheless show natural defense reactions, in particular through volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. These natural defense mechanisms are nowadays underutilized but have a very high potential for cotton cultivation, and elucidating their genetic bases will help to improve their use. Simulating herbivory attacks by mechanical wounding of cotton plants in greenhouse, we studied by qPCR the changes in gene expression for genes of the terpenoids biosynthesis pathway. Differentially expressed genes corresponded to higher levels of the terpenoids biosynthesis pathway and not to enzymes synthesizing particular terpenoids. The genes were mapped on the G. hirsutum L. reference genome; their global relationships inside the general metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were visualized with iPath2. The chromatographic profiles of VOCs emissions indicated first monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emissions, dominantly four molecules known to be involved in plant reactions to arthropod attacks. As a result, the study permitted to identify potential key genes for the emission of volatile terpenoids by cotton plants in reaction to an arthropod attack, opening possibilities for molecular-assisted cotton breeding in benefit of smallholder cotton growers.

Keywords: biosynthesis pathways, cotton, mechanisms of plant defense, terpenoids, volatile organic compounds

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46 New Bioactive Compounds from Two Chrysanthemum Saharian Species (Asteraceae) Growing in Algeria

Authors: Zahia Kabouche, Ouissem Gherboudj, Naima Boutaghane, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko

Abstract:

Chrysanthemum herbs (Asteraceae) are extensively used as food additives and in folk medicine. Anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiproliferative activities as well as antioxidant effects have been reported for Chrysanthemum species. We report the isolation and identification of flavonoids and new and known terpenoids from the endemic species, C. macrocarpum and C. deserticolum “guertoufa”, used in Algerian Sahara as tea drinks and in “couscous” and soups “Chorba”. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1-D and 2-D homo and hetero-nuclear NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), mass spectrometry, UV and comparison with literature data. C. deserticolum extracts were tested by four methods to identify the antioxidant activity namely, ABTS•+, DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating activity methods. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of C. macrocarpum extracts and isolated compounds are also reported here.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum macrocarpum, C. deserticolum, flavonoids, terpenoids, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative

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45 Differential Proteomic Profile and Terpenoid Production in Somatic Embryos of Jatropha curcas

Authors: Anamarel Medina-Hernandez, Teresa Ponce-Noyola, Ileana Vera-Reyes, Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia

Abstract:

Somatic embryos reproduce original seed characteristics and could be implemented in biotechnological studies. Jatropha curcas L. is an important plant for biodiesel production, but also is used in traditional medicine. Seeds from J. curcas are toxic because contain diterpenoids called phorbol esters, but in Mexico exist a non-toxic variety. Therefore, somatic embryos suspension cultures from non-toxic J. curcas variety were induced. In order to investigate the characteristics of somatic embryos, a differential proteomic analysis was made between pre-globular and globular stages by 2-D gel electrophoresis. 108 spots were differentially expressed (p<0.02), and 20 spots from globular somatic embryos were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. A comparative analysis of terpenoids production between the two stages was made by RP-18 TLC plates. The sequenced proteins were related to energy production (68%), protein destination and storage (9%), secondary metabolism (9%), signal transduction (5%), cell structure (5%) and aminoacid metabolism (4%). Regarding terpenoid production, in pre-globular and globular somatic embryos were identified sterols and triterpenes of pharmacological interest (alpha-amyrin and betulinic acid) but also it was found compounds that were unique to each stage. The results of this work are the basis to characterize at different levels the J. curcas somatic embryos so that this system can be used efficiently in biotechnological processes.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, proteomics, somatic embryo, terpenoids

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44 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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43 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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42 In vitro And in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum Basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt

Authors: Mariane G. Tadros, Shahira M. Ezzat, Maha M. Salama, Mohamed A. Farag

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In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was investigated and both samples showed significant activity. As a result, the major constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column chromatography. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activity of the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Ocimum baselicum, Ocimum africanum, GC/MS analysis, anticholinesterase

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41 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao

Abstract:

Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents, pharmacognosy, secondary metabolites

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40 Phytochemistry and Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Rauvolfia vomitoria (Afzel) Leaves and Picralima nitida (Stapf) Seeds

Authors: Oseyemi Omowunmi Olubomehin, Olufemi Michael Denton

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Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is related to the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and how this affects the blood glucose levels. Various synthetic drugs employed in the management of the disease work through different mechanisms. Keeping postprandial blood glucose levels within acceptable range is a major factor in the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Thus, the inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase is an important strategy in lowering postprandial blood glucose levels, but synthetic inhibitors have undesirable side effects like flatulence, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders to mention a few. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and explore the α-amylase inhibitors from plants due to their availability, safety, and low costs. In the present study, extracts from the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and seeds of Picralima nitida which are used in the Nigeria traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes were tested for their α-amylase inhibitory effect. The powdered plant samples were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The leaves and seeds macerated successively using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol resulted in the crude extracts which at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) alongside the standard drug acarbose, were subjected to α-amylase inhibitory assay using the Benfield and Miller methods, with slight modification. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, SPSS version 2.0. The phytochemical screening results of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the seeds of Picralima nitida showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides while in addition Rauvolfia vomitoria had phenols and Picralima nitida had terpenoids. The α-amylase assay results revealed that at 1 mg/mL the methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria gave (15.74, 23.13 and 26.36 %) α-amylase inhibitions respectively, the seeds of Picralima nitida gave (15.50, 30.68, 36.72 %) inhibitions which were not significantly different from the control at p < 0.05, while acarbose gave a significant 56 % inhibition at p < 0.05. The presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids in these plants are responsible for the observed anti-diabetic activity. However, the low percentages of α-amylase inhibition by these plant samples shows that α-amylase inhibition is not the major way by which both plants exhibit their anti-diabetic effect.

Keywords: alpha-amylase, Picralima nitida, postprandial hyperglycemia, Rauvolfia vomitoria

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39 Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation of the Endemic Medicinal Plant Tekchebilium arvensis Linn

Authors: K. Bengango, H. Mesahsah, F. Haseb-Reho, J. M. Tafrate

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This present work was conducted to explore the micro-morphology and phytochemical characterization of the endemic medicinal plant Tekchebilium arvensis Linn (Asteraceae). Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis and WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of abaxial epidermis with paracytic stomata. Petiole showed epidermis, vascular strands, ground tissue and secretary cavities. Physico-chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, volatile oil, terpenoids, saponin and alkaloids.

Keywords: Tekchebilium arvensis Linn, Asteraceae, microscopical evaluation, phytochemical, powder microscopy, standardization

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38 Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Microalgal Strain, Cymbella

Authors: S. Beekrum, B. Odhav, R. Lalloo, E. O. Amonsou

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Marine microalgae are rich sources of the novel and biologically active metabolites; therefore, they may be used in the food industry as natural food ingredients and functional foods. They have several biological applications related with health benefits, among others. In the past decades, food scientists have been searching for natural alternatives to replace synthetic antioxidants. The use of synthetic antioxidants has decreased due to their suspected activity as promoters of carcinogenesis, as well as consumer rejection of synthetic food additives. The aim of the study focused on screening of phytochemicals from Cymbella biomass extracts, and to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Cymbella biomass was obtained from CSIR (South Africa), and four different solvents namely methanol, acetone, n-hexane and water were used for extraction. To take into account different antioxidant mechanisms, seven different antioxidant assays were carried out. These include free radical scavenging (DPPH assay), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay), radical cation (ABTS assay), superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as gallic acid equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. The in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts were tested against some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans), using the disc diffusion assay. Qualitative analyses of phytochemicals were conducted by chemical tests to screen for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, steroids, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids. The present investigation revealed that all extracts showed relatively strong antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacteria. The methanolic extract of the biomass contained a significantly high phenolic content of 111.46 mg GAE/g, and the hexane extract contained 65.279 mg GAE/g. Results of the DPPH assay showed that the biomass contained strong antioxidant capacity, 79% in the methanolic extract and 85% in the hexane extract. Extracts have displayed effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Results of this study have highlighted potential antioxidant activity in the methanol and hexane extracts. The obtained results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. The use of Cymbella as a natural antioxidant source and a potential source of antibacterial compounds and phytochemicals in the food industry appears promising and should be investigated further.

Keywords: antioxidants, antimicrobial, Cymbella, microalgae, phytochemicals

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37 Bioactive Rare Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa

Authors: Mohamed A. Ghandourah, Walied M. Alarif, Nahed O. Bawakid

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Halogenated cyclic enynes and terpenoids are commonly identified among secondary metabolites of the genus Laurencia. Laurencian acetogenins are entirly C15 non-terpenoid haloethers with different carbocyclic nuclei; a specimen of the Red Sea red alga L. obtusa was investigated for its acetogenin content. The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried red algal material was fractionated on aluminum oxide column preparative thin-layer chromatography. Three new rare C12 acetogenin derivatives (1-3) were isolated from the organic extract obtained from Laurencia obtusa, collected from the territorial Red Sea water of Saudi Arabia. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by means of spectroscopical data analyses. Examining the isolated compounds in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed potent Anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by inhibition of NFκB and release of other inflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

Keywords: Red Sea, red algae, fatty acids, spectroscopy, anti-inflammatory

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36 Exploitation of Terpenes as Guardians in Plant Biotechnology

Authors: Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Farnaz Alaeimoghadam

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Plants are always being threatened by biotic and abiotic elements in their abode. Although they have inherited mechanisms to defend themselves, sometimes due to overpowering of their enemies or weakening of themselves, they just suffer from those elements. Human, as to help plants defend themselves, have developed several methods among which application of terpenes via plant biotechnology is promising. Terpenes are the most frequent and diverse secondary metabolites in plants. In these plants, terpenes are involved in different protective aspects. In this field, by utilizing biotechnological approaches on them, a delicate, precise, and an economic intervention will be achieved. In this review, first, the importance of terpenes as guardians in plants, which include their allelopathy effect, a call for alliances, and a mitigation impact on abiotic stresses will be pointed out. Second, problems concerning terpenes application in plant biotechnology comprising: damage to cell, undesirable terpene production and undesirable concentration and proportion of terpenes will be discussed. At the end, the approaches in plant biotechnology of terpenes including tampering with terpene gene sequences, compartmentalization, and localization and utilization of membrane transporters will be expressed. It is concluded with some useful notions concerning the topic.

Keywords: plant biotechnology, plant protection, terpenes, terpenoids

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35 Comparison of Classical and Ultrasound-Assisted Extractions of Hyphaene thebaica Fruit and Evaluation of Its Extract as Antibacterial Activity in Reducing Severity of Erwinia carotovora

Authors: Hanan Moawad, Naglaa M. Abd EL-Rahman

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Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora is the main cause of soft rot in potatoes. Hyphaene thebaica was studied for biocontrol of E. carotovora which inhibited growth of E. carotovora on solid medium, a comparative study of classical and ultrasound-assisted extractions of Hyphaene thebaica fruit. The use of ultrasound decreased significant the total time of treatment and increase the total amount of crude extract. The crude extract was subjected to determine the in vitro, by a bioassay technique revealed that the treatment of paper disks with ultrasound extraction of Hyphaene thebaica reduced the growth of pathogen and produced inhibition zones up to 38mm in diameter. The antioxidant activity of ultrasound-ethanolic extract of Doum fruits (Hyphaene thebaica) was determined. Data obtained showed that the extract contains the secondary metabolites such as Tannins, Saponin, Flavonoids, Phenols, Steroids, Terpenoids, Glycosides and Alkaloids.

Keywords: ultrasound, classical extract, biological control, Erwinia carotovora, Hyphaene thebaica

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34 Comparative Production of Secondary Metabolites by Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman Provenances in Cameroon and Some Associated Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Gloria M. Ntuba-Jua, Afui M. Mih, Eneke E. T. Bechem

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Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, commonly known as Pygeum or African cherry belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is a medium to large, evergreen tree with a spreading crown of 10 to 20 m. It is used by the traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of over 45ailments in Cameroon and sub-Sahara Africa. In modern medicine, it is used in the treatment of benign prostrate hyperplasia (BPH), prostate gland hypertrophy (enlarged prostate glands). This is possible because of its ability to produce some secondary metabolites which are believed to have bioactivity against these ailments. The ready international market for the sale of Prunus bark, uncontrolled exploitation, illegal harvesting using inappropriate techniques and poor timing of harvesting have contributed enormously to making the plant endangered. It is known to harbor a large number of endophytic fungi with the potential to produce similar secondary metabolites as the parent plant. Alternative sourcing of medicinal principles through endophytic fungi requires succinct knowledge of the endophytic fungi. This will serve as a conservation measure for Prunus africana by reducing dependence on Prunus bark for such metabolites. This work thus sought to compare the production of some major secondary metabolites produced by P. africana and some of its associated endophytic fungi. The leaves and stem bark of the plant from different provenances were soaked in methanol for 72 hrs to yield the methanolic crude extract. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude extracts using different standard procedures revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics and steroids. Pure cultures of some predominantly isolated endophyte species from the difference Prunus provenances such as Curvularia sp, and Morphospecies P001 were also grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) for 21 days and later extracted with Methylene dichloride (MDC) solvent after 24hrs to produce crude culture extracts. Qualitative assessment of crude culture extracts showed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, phenolics and steroids particularly β-Sitosterol, (a major bioactive metabolite) as did the plant tissues. Qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was done to confirm and compare the production of β-Sitosterol (as marker compounds) in the crude extracts of the plant and endophyte. Samples were loaded on TLC silica gel aluminium barked plate (Kieselgel 60 F254, 0.2 mm, Merck) using acetone/hexane, (3.0:7.0) solvent system. They were visualized under an ultra violet lamp (UV254 and UV360). TLC revealed that leaves had a higher concentration of β-sitosterol in terms of band intensity than stem barks from the different provenances. The intensity of β-sitosterol bands in the culture extracts of endophytes was comparable to the plant extracts except for Curvularia sp (very minute) whose band was very faint. The ability of these fungi to make β-sitosterol was confirmed by TLC analysis with the compound having chromatographic properties (retention factor) similar to those of β-sitosterol standard. The ability of these major endophytes to produce secondary metabolites similar to the host has therefore been demonstrated. There is, therefore, the potential of developing the in vitro production system of Prunus secondary metabolites thereby enhancing its conservation.

Keywords: Caneroon, endophytic fungi, Prunus africana, secondary metabolite

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33 Chemopreventive Properties of Cannabis sativa L. var. USO31 in Relation to Its Phenolic and Terpenoid Content

Authors: Antonella Di Sotto, Cinzia Ingallina, Caterina Fraschetti, Simone Circi, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Gabriela Mazzanti, Luisa Mannina, Silvia Di Giacomo

Abstract:

Cannabis sativa L. is one of the oldest cultivated plant species known not only for its voluptuous use but also for the wide application in food, textile, and therapeutic industries. Recently, the progress of biotechnologies applied to medicinal plants has allowed to produce different hemp varieties with low content of psychotropic phytoconstituents (tetrahydrocannabinol < 0.2% w/v), thus leading to a renewed industrial and therapeutic interest for this plant. In this context, in order to discover new potential remedies of pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical interest, the chemopreventive properties of different organic and hydroalcoholic extracts, obtained from the inflorescences of C. sativa L. var. USO31, collected in June and September harvesting, were assessed. Particularly, the antimutagenic activity towards the oxidative DNA-damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) was evaluated, and the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging power of the samples were assessed as possible mechanisms of antimutagenicity. Furthermore, the ability of the extracts to inhibit the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), whose overexpression has been found to play a critical role in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression, has been studied as a possible chemopreventive strategy. A careful phytochemical characterization of the extracts for phenolic and terpenoid composition has been obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Under our experimental condition, all the extracts were found able to interfere with the tBOOH-induced mutagenicity in WP2uvrAR strain, although with different potency and effectiveness. The organic extracts from both the harvesting periods were found to be the main effective antimutagenic samples, reaching about a 55% inhibition of the tBOOH-mutagenicity at the highest concentration tested (250 μg/ml). All the extracts exhibited radical scavenger activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals, with a higher potency of the hydroalcoholic samples. The organic extracts were also able to inhibit the G6PD enzyme, being the samples from September harvesting the highly potent (about 50% inhibition respect to the vehicle). At the phytochemical analysis, all the extracts resulted to contain both polar and apolar phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of catechin and rutin as the major constituents of the hydroalcoholic extracts, with lower levels of quercetin and ferulic acid. The monoterpene carvacrol was found to be an ubiquitarian constituent. At GC-MS analysis, different terpenoids, among which caryophyllene sesquiterpenes, were identified. This evidence suggests a possible role of both polyphenols and terpenoids in the chemopreventive properties of the extracts from the inflorescences of C. sativa var. USO31. According to the literature, carvacrol and caryophyllene sesquiterpenes can contribute to the strong antimutagenicity although the role of all the hemp phytocomplex cannot be excluded. In conclusion, present results highlight a possible interest for the inflorescences of C. sativa var. USO31 as source of bioactive molecules and stimulate further studies in order to characterize its possible application for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: antimutagenicity, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hemp inflorescences, nutraceuticals, sesquiterpenes

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32 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Comparison of Different Extracts of Capparidaceae Family

Authors: Noshaba Dilbar, Maria Jabbar

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Medicinal plants are considered to be the richest source of drug discovery. The main cause of medicinal properties of plants is the presence of bioactive compounds in them. Phytochemical screening is the valuable process that detects bioactive compounds(secondary metabolites) in plants. The present study was carried out to determine phytochemical profile and ethnobotanical importance of Capparidaceae species. ( Capparis spinosa and Dipterygium glaucum). The selection of plants was made on basis of traditional knowledge of their usage in ayurvedic medicines. Different type of solvents(ethanol, methanol, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether) were used to make extracts of dry and fresh plants. Phytochemical screening was made by using various standard techniques. Results reveal the presence of large range of bioactive compounds i.e alakloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, phenols and steroids. Methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed high extractability of bioactive compounds. The results obtained ensure these plants a reliable source of pharmacological industry and can be used in making of various biological friendly drugs.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, Capparidaceae, phytochemical screening, secondary metabolites

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31 Discovering Traditional Plants Used by Indigenous People in the Tropical Rainforest of Malaysia for the Treatment of Malaria

Authors: Izdihar Ismail, Alona C. Linatoc, Maryati Mohamed

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The tropical rainforest of Malaysia is known for its rich biological diversity and high endemicity. The potential for these forests to hold the cure for many diseases and illnesses is high and much is yet to be discovered. This study explores the richness of the tropical rainforest of Endau-Rompin National Park in Johor, Malaysia in search of plants traditionally used by the indigenous people in the treatment of malaria and malaria-like symptoms. Seven species of plants were evaluated and tested for antiplasmodial activities. Different plant parts were subjected to methanolic and aqueous extractions. A total of 24 extracts were evaluated by histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) assay against K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant. Ten extracts showed significant inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum. Phytochemical screening of the same extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. This study affirms that tropical rainforests may still hold undiscovered cures for many diseases and illnesses that have inflicted millions of people worldwide. The species studied herein have not known to have been studied elsewhere before.

Keywords: Endau-Rompin, malaria, Malaysia, tropical rainforest, traditional knowledge

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30 Identification of Active Phytocomponents in the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla Retz. DC by Using GC-MS

Authors: M. Sivakumar, D. Chamundeeswari

Abstract:

Glycosmis pentaphylla is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family Rutaceae, commonly known as “Anam or Panal” in Tamil. Traditionally, leaves are useful in fever, hepatopathy, eczema, skin disease, helminthiasis, wounds, and erysipelas. The fruits are sweet and are useful in vitiated conditions of vata, kapha, cough, and bronchitis. The roots are good for facial inflammations, rheumatism, jaundice, and anemia. The preliminary phytochemical investigations indicated the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, sugar, glycoside, and phenolic compounds. In the present study, the root part of Glycosmis pentaphylla was used, and the root was collected from Western Ghats of South India. The root was sun/shade dried and pulverized to powder in a mechanical grinder. The powder was successively extracted with various solvents, and the ethyl acetate extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla has been subjected to the GC-MS analysis. Amongst the 46 chemical constituents identified from this plant, three major phytoconstituents were reported for the first time. Marmesin, a furanocumarin compound with the chemical structure 7H-Furo (3,2-G) (1)Benzopyran-7-one,2,3–dihydro–2 - (1-Hydroxy-1methylethyl)-(s) is one of the three compounds identified for the first time at the concentration of 11-60% in ethyl acetate extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Others include, Beta.-Fagarine (4.71%) and Paverine (13.08%).

Keywords: ethyl acetate extract, Glycosmis pentaphylla, GC-MS analysis, Phytochemicals

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29 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Potential, and Mineral Composition of Dried Abelmoschus esculentus L. Fruits Consume in Gada Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is very common especially in northern part of Nigeria, but people are ignorant of its medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant potential and mineral composition of the dried form of this fruit were determined. The Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. Antioxidant potential screening was carried out using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) method, while, the mineral compositions were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer by wet digest method. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits contain saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids, while, anthraquinone, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, and phlobatannins were not detected. The quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits contain saponnins (380 ± 0.020 mg/g), flavonoids (240±0.01 mg/g), and tannins (21.71 ± 0.66 mg/ml). The antioxidant potential was determined to be 54.1 ± 0.19%. The mineral composition revealed that 100 g of the fruits contains 97.52 ± 1.04 mg of magnesium (Mg), 94.53 ± 3.21 mg of calcium (Ca), 77.10 ± 0.79 mg of iron (Fe), 47.14 ± 0.41 mg of zinc (Zn), 43.96 ± 1.49 mg of potassium (K), 42.02 ± 1.09 mg of sodium (Na), 0.47 ± 0.08 mg of copper (Cu) and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg of lead (Pb). These results showed that the Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is a good source of antioxidants, and contains an appreciable amount of phytochemicals, therefore, it has some pharmacological attributes. On the other side, the fruit can serve as a nutritional supplement for Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, K, and Na, but a poor source of Cu, and contains no significant amount of Pb.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Fruits, antioxidant potential, mineral composition, phytochemical screening

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28 Evaluation of Antioxidants in Medicinal plant Limoniastrum guyonianum

Authors: Assia Belfar, Mohamed Hadjadj, Messaouda Dakmouche, Zineb Ghiaba

Abstract:

Introduction: This study aims to phytochemical screening; Extracting the active compounds and estimate the effectiveness of antioxidant in Medicinal plants desert Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) from South Algeria. Methods: Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of the plant part reveals the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. While alkaloids and Terpenoids were absent. The acetonic extract of L. guyonianum was extracted successively with ethyl acetate and butanol. Extraction of yield varied widely in the L. guyonianum ranging from (0.9425 %to 11.131%). The total phenolic content ranged from 53.33 mg GAE/g DW to 672.79 mg GAE/g DW. The total flavonoid concentrations varied from 5.45 to 21.71 mg/100g. IC50 values ranged from 0.02 ± 0.0004 to 0.13 ± 0.002 mg/ml. All extracts showed very good activity of ferric reducing power, the higher power was in butanol fraction (23.91 mM) more effective than BHA, BHT and VC. Conclusions: Demonstrated this study that the acetonic extract of L. guyonianum contain a considerable quantity of phenolic compounds and possess a good antioxidant activity. Can be used as an easily accessible source of Natural Antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and in the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: limoniastrum guyonianum, phenolics compounds, flavonoid compound, antioxidant activity

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27 Chemical Composition and Biological Investigation of Halpophyllum tuberculatum A. Juss (Rutaceae) Essential Oils Growing in Libya

Authors: O. M. M. Sabry, Abeer M. El Sayed

Abstract:

The essential oils from the aerial parts and flowers of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forsskal) Adr. Juss (Rutaceae) growing in Libya were obtained separately by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oils yield were (0.4, 1.5w/w%) respectively based on the dry weight of the plant. The oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty four constituents, amounting to 96.6%, were identified in the oil of the aerial parts. The predominant compounds were among the non oxygenated terpenoids (82.4%) as monoterpene hydrocarbons, represented by sabinen (26.4 %), δ-terpinen (26 %), β-phellandrene (10.4%) and 3-carene (3.86%). Zingiberine (0.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (0.12%) were the major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes were represented by eucalyptol (5.5%) and piperitone (5.55%). Twenty six constituents, equivalent to 99.5%, were identified in the oil of the flowers. The dominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons in the flowers oil can be attributed to the high percentage of γ-terpinen (38.44%), β-phellandrene (10.0%), α- phellandrene (2.33%), 3,4-dimethyl-1,5-cyclooctadiene (6.67%), β-myrecene (6.04%), 3-carene (5.43%) and α-pinene (1.3%).While the oxygenated monoterpenes can be contributed to the trans-piperitol (4.67%) and piperitone (2.07%). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were not identified in the oil of the flower of H. tuberculatum. Variation in constitution between oils of Libyan H. tuberculatum and that obtained from other countries can be due to both environmental and genetic factors. The essential oils have demonstrated variable antimicrobial activities against certain micro-organisms. Also have revealed marked in vitro cytotoxicity against lung (H1299), liver (HEPG2) carcinoma cell line and variably effective as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Keywords: Halpophyllum tuberculatum, rutaceae, essential oil, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, Libya

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26 Effect of Biostimulants on Downstream Processing of Endophytic Fungi Hosted in Aromatic Plant, Ocimum basicilium

Authors: Kanika Chowdhary, Satyawati Sharma

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Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. Exploring agriculturally beneficial endophytes is quite a prospective field of research. In the present work fungal endophytes associated with aromatic plant Ocimum basicilium L. were investigated for biocontrol potential. The anti-plant pathogenic activity of fungal endophytes was tested against causal agent of stem rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 75 endophytic fungi were recovered through culture-dependent approach. Fungal identification was performed both microscopically and by rDNA ITS sequencing. Curvuaria lunata (Sb-6) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sb-8) inhibited 86% and 72% mycelia growth of S. sclerotinia on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium at 7.4 pH. Small-scale fermentation was carried out on sterilised oatmeal grain medium. In another set of experiment, fungi were grown in oatmeal grain medium amended with certain biostimulants such as aqueous seaweed extract (10% v/w); methanolic seaweed extract (5% v/w); cow urine (20% v/w); biochar (10% w/w) in triplicate along with control of each to ascertain the degree of metabolic difference and anti-plant pathogenic activity induced. Phytochemically extracts of both the fungal isolates showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethylacetate extract of C. lunata and C. lindemuthianum suppressed S. sclerotinia conidial germination at IC50 values of 0.514± 0.02 and 0.913± 0.04 mg/ml. Therefore, fungal endophytes of O. basicilium are highly promising bio-resource agent, which can be developed further for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, ocimum basicilium, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, biostimulants

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25 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Thymus vulgaris L.

Authors: Tsige Reda

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Essential oil of Thymus vulgaris was extracted by means of hydro-distillation. This study was done to investigate the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Using disc diffusion assay the antibacterial activity was assessed on one Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria. The percentage oil yield of the essential oil was found to be 0.97 ± 0.08% (w/w) with yellow color. The physicochemical constants of the oil were also noted. The phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenol, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. A total of 18 chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis representing 100% of the total essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, with thymol (31.977%), o-cymene (29.992%), and carvacrol (14.541%). Previous studies have revealed that the thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol components of Thymus vulgaris are responsible for their biological activities. Thymus vulgaris have been used traditionally to treat a wide variety of infections. Based on the extensive use and lack of scientific evidence, a study was embarked upon to determine its bioactivity. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris leaves exhibited higher activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aurous) than the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and also has good antioxidant activity, and can be used medicinal and therapeutic applications. This activity may be due to the high amount of thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, Thymus vulgaris, essential oil composition, phytochemical screening, physicochemical constants, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity

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24 In vitro Control of Mycosphaerella arachidis Deighton the Early Leaf Spot Disease Pathogen of Groundnut by the Extracts from Six Medicinal Plants

Authors: Matthew Omoniyi Adebola, Jude E Amadi

Abstract:

Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most popular commercial crops in Nigeria. Its suc-cessful production has been drastically affected by early leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphae-rella arachidis Deighton. In vitro control of the pathogen by six medicinal plants (Entada afri-cana, Vitex doniana, Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Acalypha hispida and Nuaclea lati-folia) was assessed in this study. The extracts of the plants were prepared using cold and hot wa-ter and alcohol. The pathogen was isolated from ground nut infected with early leaf spot disease. The results revealed a great significant difference (P<0.05) in yield of extracts between cold water, hot water, and alcohol extracts. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in percentage concentrations of the various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. Flavonoids per-centage concentration was the highest (0.68 - 1.95%) followed by saponnin(0.09-1.53%) in N. latifolia extracts. Steroiods had the least percentage concentrations (0.00- 0.09%)followed by terpenoids(0.02–0.71%) and proanthocyannin (0.05 – 0.86%). N. latifolia extracts produced the highest percentage concentrations (0.07–1.95%) of all the phytochemicals followed by A. indi-ca(0.05–1.64%)and least concentrations were obtained in A. hispidia(0.09 – 0.87%)and V. do-niana (0.00–0.88%). The extracts inhibited spore germination and growth of M. arachidis. The inhibition by alcohol extracts was high and significantly different (P>0.05) from cold and hot water extracts. Alcohol extract of L. inermis gave 100% spore germination inhibition followed by N. latifolia and A.indica with 97.75% and 85.60% inhibition respectively. Therefore, field trials of these six medicinal plants on the control of early leaf spot disease of ground nut are rec-ommended.

Keywords: groundnut, phytochemicals, medicinal plants, extracts, inhibition

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23 Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Leaves

Authors: Amit Keshav, Alok Sharma, Bidyut Mazumdar

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Colocasia esculenta leaves and roots are widely used in Asian countries, such as, India, Srilanka and Pakistan, as food and feed material. The root is high in carbohydrates and rich in zinc. The leaves and stalks are often traditionally preserved to be eaten in dry season. Leaf juice is stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia. Looking at the medicinal uses of the plant leaves; phytochemicals were extracted from the plant leaves and were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to find the functional groups. Phytochemical analysis of Colocasia esculenta (L.) leaf was studied using three solvents (methanol, chloroform, and ethanol) with soxhlet apparatus. Powder of the leaves was employed to obtain the extracts, which was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for phytochemical content using standard methods. Phytochemical constituents were abundant in the leave extract. Leaf was found to have various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, oxalates and phenols etc., which could have lot of medicinal benefits such as reducing headache, treatment of congestive heart failure, prevent oxidative cell damage etc. These phytochemicals were identified using UV spectrophotometer and results were presented. In order to find the antioxidant activity of the extract, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method was employed using ascorbic acid as standard. DPPH scavenging activity of ascorbic acid was found to be 84%, whereas for ethanol it was observed to be 78.92%, for methanol: 76.46% and for chloroform: 72.46%. Looking at the high antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta may be recommended for medicinal applications. The characterizations of functional groups were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta, leaves, characterization, FTIR

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22 Ointment of Rosella Flower Petals Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa): Pharmaceutical Preparations Formulation Development of Herbs for Antibacterial S. aureus

Authors: Muslihatus Syarifah

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Introduction: Rosella flower petals can be used as an antibacterial because it contains alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and terpenoids) for the . Bacteria activity is S. aureus can cause skin infections and pengobatanya most appropriate use of topical preparations. Ointment is a topical preparation comprising the active substance and ointment base. Not all the base matches the active substances or any type of disease. In this study using flavonoid active substances contained in rosella flower petals (Hibiscus sabdariffa) to be made ointment by testing a variety of different bases in order to obtain a suitable basis for the formulation of ointment extract rosella flower petals. Methods: Experimental research with research methods Post test control group design using the ointment is hydrocarbon sample, absorption, leached water and dissolved water. Then tested for bacteria S. aureus with different concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16, 32%. Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc test. Results: Ointment with a hydrocarbon base, absorption, leached water and dissolved water having no change in physical properties during storage. Base affect the physical properties of an ointment that adhesion, dispersive power and pH. The physical properties of the ointment with different concentrations produce different physical properties including adhesion, dispersive power and pH. The higher the concentration the higher dispersive power, but the smaller the adhesion and pH. Conclusion: Differences bases, storage time, the concentration of the extract can affect the physical properties of the ointment. Concentration of extract in the ointment extract rosella flower petals is 32%.

Keywords: rosella, physical properties, ointments, antibacterial

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21 Phytochemicals, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Screening of Marine Microalgal Strain, Amphora Sp.

Authors: S. Beekrum, B. Odhav, R. Lalloo, E. A. Amonsou

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Marine microalgae are rich sources of novel and biologically active metabolites; therefore they may be used in the food industry as natural food ingredients and functional foods. They have several biological applications related to health benefits, among others. The aim of the study focused on the screening of phytochemicals from Amphora sp. biomass extracts, and to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Amphora sp. biomass was obtained from CSIR (South Africa) and methanol, hexane and water extracts were prepared. The in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts were tested against some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans), using the disc diffusion assay. Qualitative analyses of phytochemicals were conducted by chemical tests. The present investigation revealed that all extracts showed relatively strong antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacteria. The highest phenolic content was found in the methanolic extract. Results of the DPPH assay showed that the biomass contained strong antioxidant capacity, 79% in the methanolic extract and 85% in the hexane extract. Extracts have displayed effectively reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. Results of this study have highlighted potential antioxidant activity in the methanol and hexane extracts. The results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids and sterols with potential applications as food flavorants and functional foods, respectively. The use of Amphora sp. as a natural antioxidant source and a potential source of antibacterial compounds and phytochemicals in the food industry appears promising and should be investigated further.

Keywords: antioxidants, antimicrobial, microalgae, phytochemicals, cymbella

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20 Extracting the Antioxidant Compounds of Medicinal Plant Limoniastrum guyonianum

Authors: Assia Belfar, Mohamed Hadjadj, Messaouda Dakmouche, Zineb Ghiaba, Mahdi Belguidoum

Abstract:

Introduction: This study aims to phytochemical screening; Extracting the active compounds and estimate the effectiveness of antioxidant in Medicinal plants desert Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) from South Algeria. Methods: Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of the plant part reveals the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. While alkaloids and Terpenoids were absent. The Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum was extracted successively with ethyl acetate and butanol. Extraction of yield varied widely in the L. guyonianum ranging from (1.315 % to 4.218%). butanol fraction had the highest yield. The higher content of phenols was recorded in butanol fraction (311.81 ± 0.02mg GAE/g DW), the higher content of flavonoids was found in butanol fraction (9.58 ± 0.33mg QE/g DW). IC50 of inhibition of radical DPPH in ethyl acetate fraction was (0.05 ± 0.01µg/ml) Equal effectiveness with BHT, All extracts showed good activity of ferric reducing power, the higher power was in butanol fraction (16.16 ± 0.05mM). Conclusions: Demonstrated this study that the Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum contain a considerable quantity of phenolic compounds and possess a good antioxidant activity. It can be used as an easily accessible source of Natural Antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: flavonoid compound, l. guyonianum, medicinal plants, phenolic compounds, phytochemical screening

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