Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: proteomics

36 Modern Proteomics and the Application of Machine Learning Analyses in Proteomic Studies of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology

Authors: Dulanjali Ranasinghe, Isuru Supasan, Kaushalya Premachandra, Ranjan Dissanayake, Ajith Rajapaksha, Eustace Fernando

Abstract:

Proteomics studies of organisms are considered to be significantly information-rich compared to their genomic counterparts because proteomes of organisms represent the expressed state of all proteins of an organism at a given time. In modern top-down and bottom-up proteomics workflows, the primary analysis methods employed are gel–based methods such as two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based methods. Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been used increasingly in modern biological data analyses. In particular, the fields of genomics, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics have seen an incremental trend in the usage of ML and AI techniques in recent years. The use of aforesaid techniques in the field of proteomics studies is only beginning to be materialised now. Although there is a wealth of information available in the scientific literature pertaining to proteomics workflows, no comprehensive review addresses various aspects of the combined use of proteomics and machine learning. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive outlook on the application of machine learning into the known proteomics workflows in order to extract more meaningful information that could be useful in a plethora of applications such as medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology.

Keywords: proteomics, machine learning, gel-based proteomics, mass spectrometry

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35 Proteomics Application in Disease Diagnosis and Reproduction İmprovement in Cow

Authors: Abdollah Sobhani, Hossein Vaseghi-Dodaran

Abstract:

Proteomics is defined as the study of the component of a cell, tissue and biological fluid. This technique has the potential to identify protein biomarkers of a disease states. In this study which was performed on bovine ovarian follicular cysts (BOFC), eight proteins are over expressed in BOFC that these proteins could be useful biomarkers for BOFC. The difference between serum proteome pattern cows affected by postpartum endometritis with healthy cows revealed that concentrations orosomucoid was decreased in endometritis. The comparison proteome of brucella abortus between laboratory adapted strains and clinical isolates could be useful to better understand this disease and vaccine development. Proteomics experiments identified new proteins and pathways that may be important in future hypothesis-driven studies of glucocorticoid-induced immunosuppression. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of effective parameters on male fertility is essential for obtaining high reproductive efficiency by decreasing cost and time. The investigations on proteome of high fertility spermatozoa indicated that expression of some proteins such as casein kinase 2 (CKII) prime poly peptide and tyrosine kinase in high fertility spermatozoa was higher compared to low fertility spermatozoa. Also, some evidence has indicated that variation in protein types and amounts in seminal fluid regulates fertility indexes in dairy bull. In conclusion, proteomics is a useful technique for discovering drugs, vaccine development, and diagnosis disease by biomarkers and improvement of reproduction efficiency.

Keywords: proteomics, reproduction, biomarker, immunity

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34 Toxicological Interactions of Silver Nanoparticles and Non-Essential Metals in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Renata Rank Miranda, Arandi Ginane Bezerra, Ciro Alberto Oliveira Ribeiro, Marco AntôNio Ferreira Randi, Carmen Lúcia Voigt, Lilian Skytte, Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Francisco Filipak Neto, Frank Kjeldsen

Abstract:

Synergetic and antagonistic effects of drugs are well-known concerns in pharmacological assessments of dose and toxicity. Similar approach should be used in assessing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Since nanoparticles are released into the aquatic environment they may interact with existing xenobiotics. Here we used biochemical assays and quantitative proteomics to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) when human hepatoma HepG2 cells were co-exposed to 2 nm AgNP together with either Cd2+ or Hg2+ ions. Time-course experiments (2h, 4h, and 24h) were conducted to assess the first response to the exposure studies. The general trend was that a synergetic toxicological response was observed in cells exposed to both AgNP and Cd2+ or Hg2+, with AgNP and Cd2+ being more toxic. This was observed by a significant increase in the ROS and superoxide level of >35% in the case of AgNP+Cd2+ compared to the sum of responses of AgNP and Cd2+, individually. Metabolic activity and viability also dropped more for AgNP+Cd2+ (>10%) than for AgNP and Cd2+ combined. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate if AgNP facilitates larger influx of toxic metal ions into HepG2 cells. Only Hg2+ ions was found to be more efficiently engulfed as the concentration of Hg2+ was found 2.8 times larger compared to exposure experiments with only Hg2+. This effect was not observed for Cd2+. We now continue with deep proteomics studies to obtain wider details on the mechanism of the toxicity related to AgNP, Cd2+, and AgNP+Cd2+, respectively.

Keywords: nanotoxicology, silver nanoparticles, proteomics, human cell line

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33 Proteomic Analysis of Excretory Secretory Antigen (ESA) from Entamoeba histolytica HM1: IMSS

Authors: N. Othman, J. Ujang, M. N. Ismail, R. Noordin, B. H. Lim

Abstract:

Amoebiasis is caused by the Entamoeba histolytica and still endemic in many parts of the tropical region, worldwide. Currently, there is no available vaccine against amoebiasis. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine. The excretory secretory antigen (ESA) of E. histolytica is a suitable biomarker for the vaccine candidate since it can modulate the host immune response. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the proteome of the ESA towards finding suitable biomarker for the vaccine candidate. The non-gel based and gel-based proteomics analyses were performed to identify proteins. Two kinds of mass spectrometry with different ionization systems were utilized i.e. LC-MS/MS (ESI) and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Then, the functional proteins classification analysis was performed using PANTHER software. Combination of the LC -MS/MS for the non-gel based and MALDI-TOF/TOF for the gel-based approaches identified a total of 273 proteins from the ESA. Both systems identified 29 similar proteins whereby 239 and 5 more proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF, respectively. Functional classification analysis showed the majority of proteins involved in the metabolic process (24%), primary metabolic process (19%) and protein metabolic process (10%). Thus, this study has revealed the proteome the E. histolytica ESA and the identified proteins merit further investigations as a vaccine candidate.

Keywords: E. histolytica, ESA, proteomics, biomarker

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32 Combined Proteomic and Metabolomic Analysis Approaches to Investigate the Modification in the Proteome and Metabolome of in vitro Models Treated with Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs)

Authors: H. Chassaigne, S. Gioria, J. Lobo Vicente, D. Carpi, P. Barboro, G. Tomasi, A. Kinsner-Ovaskainen, F. Rossi

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Emerging approaches in the area of exposure to nanomaterials and assessment of human health effects combine the use of in vitro systems and analytical techniques to study the perturbation of the proteome and/or the metabolome. We investigated the modification in the cytoplasmic compartment of the Balb/3T3 cell line exposed to gold nanoparticles. On one hand, the proteomic approach is quite standardized even if it requires precautions when dealing with in vitro systems. On the other hand, metabolomic analysis is challenging due to the chemical diversity of cellular metabolites that complicate data elaboration and interpretation. Differentially expressed proteins were found to cover a range of functions including stress response, cell metabolism, cell growth and cytoskeleton organization. In addition, de-regulated metabolites were annotated using the HMDB database. The "omics" fields hold huge promises in the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems. The combination of proteomics and metabolomics data is possible however challenging.

Keywords: data processing, gold nanoparticles, in vitro systems, metabolomics, proteomics

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31 CMPD: Cancer Mutant Proteome Database

Authors: Po-Jung Huang, Chi-Ching Lee, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Julie Lichieh Chu, Tin-Wen Chen, Cheng-Yang Lee, Ruei-Chi Gan, Hsuan Liu, Petrus Tang

Abstract:

Whole-exome sequencing focuses on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes based on a priori knowledge is the most cost-effective method to study the association between genetic alterations and disease. Recent advances in high throughput sequencing technologies and proteomic techniques has provided an opportunity to integrate genomics and proteomics, allowing readily detectable mutated peptides corresponding to mutated genes. Since sequence database search is the most widely used method for protein identification using Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology, a mutant proteome database is required to better approximate the real protein pool to improve disease-associated mutated protein identification. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing studies were launched by National Cancer Institute (NCI), Broad Institute, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which provide not only a comprehensive report on the analysis of coding variants in diverse samples cell lines but a invaluable resource for extensive research community. No existing database is available for the collection of mutant protein sequences related to the identified variants in these studies. CMPD is designed to address this issue, serving as a bridge between genomic data and proteomic studies and focusing on protein sequence-altering variations originated from both germline and cancer-associated somatic variations.

Keywords: TCGA, cancer, mutant, proteome

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30 Differential Response of Cellular Antioxidants and Proteome Expression to Salt, Cadmium and Their Combination in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

Authors: Rita Bagheri, Javed Ahmed, Humayra Bashir, M. Irfan Qureshi

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Agriculture lands suffer from a combination of stresses such as salinity and metal contamination including cadmium at the same time. Under such condition of multiple stresses, plant may exhibit unique responses different from the stress occurring individually. Thus, it would be interesting to investigate that how plant respond to combined stress at level of antioxidants and proteome expression, and identifying the proteins which are involved in imparting stress tolerance. With an approach of comparative proteomics and antioxidant analysis, present study investigates the response of Spinacia oleracea to salt (NaCl), cadmium (Cd), and their combination (NaCl+Cd) stress. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for resolving leaf proteome, and proteins of interest were identified using PDQuest software. A number of proteins expressed differentially, those indicated towards their roles in imparting stress tolerance, were digested by trypsin and analyzed on mass spectrometer for peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Data signals were then matched with protein databases using MASCOT. Results show that NaCl, Cd and both together (NaCl+Cd) induce oxidative stress which was highest in combined stress of Cd+NaCl. Correspondingly, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants viz., SOD, APX, GR and CAT, and non-enzymatic antioxidants had highest changes under combined stress compares to single stress over their respective controls. Among the identified proteins, several interesting proteins were identified that may be have role in Spinacia oleracia tolerance in individual and combinatorial stress of salt and cadmium. The functional classification of identified proteins indicates the importance and necessity of keeping higher ratio of defence and disease responsive proteins.

Keywords: Spinacia oleracea, Cd, salinity, proteomics, antioxidants, combinatorial stress

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29 C-eXpress: A Web-Based Analysis Platform for Comparative Functional Genomics and Proteomics in Human Cancer Cell Line, NCI-60 as an Example

Authors: Chi-Ching Lee, Po-Jung Huang, Kuo-Yang Huang, Petrus Tang

Abstract:

Background: Recent advances in high-throughput research technologies such as new-generation sequencing and multi-dimensional liquid chromatography makes it possible to dissect the complete transcriptome and proteome in a single run for the first time. However, it is almost impossible for many laboratories to handle and analysis these “BIG” data without the support from a bioinformatics team. We aimed to provide a web-based analysis platform for users with only limited knowledge on bio-computing to study the functional genomics and proteomics. Method: We use NCI-60 as an example dataset to demonstrate the power of the web-based analysis platform and data delivering system: C-eXpress takes a simple text file that contain the standard NCBI gene or protein ID and expression levels (rpkm or fold) as input file to generate a distribution map of gene/protein expression levels in a heatmap diagram organized by color gradients. The diagram is hyper-linked to a dynamic html table that allows the users to filter the datasets based on various gene features. A dynamic summary chart is generated automatically after each filtering process. Results: We implemented an integrated database that contain pre-defined annotations such as gene/protein properties (ID, name, length, MW, pI); pathways based on KEGG and GO biological process; subcellular localization based on GO cellular component; functional classification based on GO molecular function, kinase, peptidase and transporter. Multiple ways of sorting of column and rows is also provided for comparative analysis and visualization of multiple samples.

Keywords: cancer, visualization, database, functional annotation

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28 Establishment of Farmed Fish Welfare Biomarkers Using an Omics Approach

Authors: Pedro M. Rodrigues, Claudia Raposo, Denise Schrama, Marco Cerqueira

Abstract:

Farmed fish welfare is a very recent concept, widely discussed among the scientific community. Consumers’ interest regarding farmed animal welfare standards has significantly increased in the last years posing a huge challenge to producers in order to maintain an equilibrium between good welfare principles and productivity, while simultaneously achieve public acceptance. The major bottleneck of standard aquaculture is to impair considerably fish welfare throughout the production cycle and with this, the quality of fish protein. Welfare assessment in farmed fish is undertaken through the evaluation of fish stress responses. Primary and secondary stress responses include release of cortisol and glucose and lactate to the blood stream, respectively, which are currently the most commonly used indicators of stress exposure. However, the reliability of these indicators is highly dubious, due to a high variability of fish responses to an acute stress and the adaptation of the animal to a repetitive chronic stress. Our objective is to use comparative proteomics to identify and validate a fingerprint of proteins that can present an more reliable alternative to the already established welfare indicators. In this way, the culture conditions will improve and there will be a higher perception of mechanisms and metabolic pathway involved in the produced organism’s welfare. Due to its high economical importance in Portuguese aquaculture Gilthead seabream will be the elected species for this study. Protein extracts from Gilthead Seabream fish muscle, liver and plasma, reared for a 3 month period under optimized culture conditions (control) and induced stress conditions (Handling, high densities, and Hipoxia) are collected and used to identify a putative fish welfare protein markers fingerprint using a proteomics approach. Three tanks per condition and 3 biological replicates per tank are used for each analisys. Briefly, proteins from target tissue/fluid are extracted using standard established protocols. Protein extracts are then separated using 2D-DIGE (Difference gel electrophoresis). Proteins differentially expressed between control and induced stress conditions will be identified by mass spectrometry (LC-Ms/Ms) using NCBInr (taxonomic level - Actinopterygii) databank and Mascot search engine. The statistical analysis is performed using the R software environment, having used a one-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test (p < 0.05) to assess which proteins were differentially expressed in a statistically significant way. Validation of these proteins will be done by comparison of the RT-qPCR (Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) expressed genes pattern with the proteomic profile. Cortisol, glucose, and lactate are also measured in order to confirm or refute the reliability of these indicators. The identified liver proteins under handling and high densities induced stress conditions are responsible and involved in several metabolic pathways like primary metabolism (i.e. glycolysis, gluconeogenesis), ammonia metabolism, cytoskeleton proteins, signalizing proteins, lipid transport. Validition of these proteins as well as identical analysis in muscle and plasma are underway. Proteomics is a promising high-throughput technique that can be successfully applied to identify putative welfare protein biomarkers in farmed fish.

Keywords: aquaculture, fish welfare, proteomics, welfare biomarkers

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27 Modulation of Fish Allergenicity towards the Production of a Low Allergen Farmed Fish

Authors: Denise Schrama, Claudia Raposo, Pedro Rodrigues

Abstract:

Background: Food allergies are conducted by a hypersensitive response of the immune system. These allergies are a global concern for the public health. Consumption of fish is increasing worldwide as it is a healthy meat with high nutritional value. Unfortunately, fish can cause adverse immune-mediate reactions, affecting part of the population with higher incidence in children. β-parvalbumin, a small, highly conserved stable, calcium or magnesium binding muscle protein is the main fish allergen. In fish-allergic patients, cross-reactivity between different fish species exist due to recognition of highly identical protein regions. Enolases, aldolases, or fish gelatin are other identified fish allergens in some fish species. With no available cure for fish allergies, clinical management is only based on an avoidance diet aiming at the total exclusion of offending food. Methods: Mediterranean fish (S. aurata and D. labrax) were fed specifically designed diets, enriched in components that target the expression or inactivation of parvalbumin (creatine and EDTA, respectively). After 90 days fish were sampled and biological tissues were excised. Proteomics was used to access fish allergens characterization and expression in muscle while IgE assays to confirm the lower allergenic potential are conducted in patients with history of fish allergies. Fish welfare and quality of flesh were established with biochemical, texture and sensorial analysis. Results: Fish welfare shows no major impact between diets. In case of creatine supplementation in D. labrax proteomic analysis show a slight decrease in parvalbumin expression. No accumulation of this compound was found in muscle. For EDTA supplementation in S. aurata IgE assay show a slight decrease in allergenicity when using sera of fish allergic patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with these two compounds seems to change slightly the allergenicity of the two mean Mediterranean species.

Keywords: fish allergies, fish nutrition, proteomics, aquaculture

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26 Potential Serological Biomarker for Early Detection of Pregnancy in Cows

Authors: Shveta Bathla, Preeti Rawat, Sudarshan Kumar, Rubina Baithalu, Jogender Singh Rana, Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Ashok Kumar Mohanty

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Pregnancy is a complex process which includes series of events such as fertilization, formation of blastocyst, implantation of embryo, placental formation and development of fetus. The success of these events depends on various interactions which are synchronized by endocrine interaction between a receptive dam and competent embryo. These interactions lead to change in expression of hormones and proteins. But till date no protein biomarker is available which can be used to detect successful completion of these events. We employed quantitative proteomics approach to develop putative serological biomarker which has diagnostic applicability for early detection of pregnancy in cows. For this study, sera were collected from control (non-pregnant, n=6) and pregnant animals on successive days of pregnancy (7, 19, 45, n=6). The sera were subjected to depletion for removal of albumin using Norgen depletion kit. The tryptic peptides were labeled with iTRAQ. The peptides were pooled and fractionated using bRPLC over 80 min gradient. Then 12 fractions were injected to nLC for identification and quantitation in DDA mode using ESI. Identification using Mascot search revealed 2056 proteins out of which 352 proteins were differentially expressed. Twenty proteins were upregulated and twelve proteins were down-regulated with fold change > 1.5 and < 0.6 respectively (p < 0.05). The gene ontology studies of DEPs using Panther software revealed that majority of proteins are actively involved in catalytic activities, binding and enzyme regulatory activities. The DEP'S such as NF2, MAPK, GRIPI, UGT1A1, PARP, CD68 were further subjected to pathway analysis using KEGG and Cytoscape plugin Cluego that showed involvement of proteins in successful implantation, maintenance of pluripotency, regulation of luteal function, differentiation of endometrial macrophages, protection from oxidative stress and developmental pathways such as Hippo. Further efforts are continuing for targeted proteomics, western blot to validate potential biomarkers and development of diagnostic kit for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

Keywords: bRPLC, Cluego, ESI, iTRAQ, KEGG, Panther

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25 Differential Proteomics Expression in Purple Rice Supplemented Type 2 Diabetic Rats’ Skeletal Muscle

Authors: Ei Ei Hlaing, Narissara Lailerd, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Pichapat Piamrojanaphat

Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases all over the world. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not the only dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells but also insulin resistance in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. High levels of circulating free fatty acids, an increased lipid content of muscle cells, impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and diminished mitochondrial functioning are pathophysiological hallmarks of diabetic skeletal muscles. Purple rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) has been shown to have antidiabetic effects. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of antidiabetic activity of purple rice is still unraveled. In this research, to explore in-depth cellular mechanism(s), proteomic profile of purple rice supplemented type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle were analyzed contract with non-supplemented rats. Diabetic rats were induced high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin injection. By using one- dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE) and LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomic method, we analyzed proteomic profiles in skeletal muscle of normal rats, normal rats with purple rice supplementation, type 2 diabetic rats, and type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Total 2676 polypeptide expressions were identified. Among them, 24 peptides were only expressed in type 2 diabetic rats, and 24 peptides were unique peptides in type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA) found as unique protein in type 2 diabetic rats which is the major enzyme in lipid synthesis and metabolism. Interestingly, DNA damage response protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K [Mus musculus] (Hnrnpk), was upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle. Meanwhile, unique proteins of type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation (bone morphogenetic 7 protein preproprotein, BMP7; and forkhead box protein NX4, Foxn4) involved with muscle cells growth through the regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling network. Moreover, BMP7 may effect on insulin signaling through the downstream signaling of protein kinase B (Akt) which acts in protein synthesis, glucose uptake, and glycogen synthesis. In conclusion, our study supports that type 2 diabetes impairs muscular lipid metabolism. In addition, purple rice might recover the muscle cells growth and insulin signaling.

Keywords: proteomics, purple rice bran, skeletal muscle, type 2 diabetic rats

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24 Effects of Epinephrine on Gene Expressions during the Metamorphosis of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

Authors: Fei Xu, Guofan Zhang, Xiao Liu

Abstract:

Many major marine invertebrate phyla are characterized by indirect development. These animals transit from planktonic larvae to benthic adults via settlement and metamorphosis, which has many advantages for organisms to adapt marine environment. Studying the biological process of metamorphosis is thus a key to understand the origin and evolution of indirect development. Although the mechanism of metamorphosis has been largely studied on their relationships with the marine environment, microorganisms, as well as the neurohormones, little is known on the gene regulation network (GRN) during metamorphosis. We treated competent oyster pediveligers with epinephrine, which was known to be able to effectively induce oyster metamorphosis, and analyzed the dynamics of gene and proteins with transcriptomics and proteomics methods. The result indicated significant upregulation of protein synthesis system, as well as some transcription factors including Homeobox, basic helix-loop-helix, and nuclear receptors. The result suggested the GRN complexity of the transition stage during oyster metamorphosis.

Keywords: indirect development, gene regulation network, protein synthesis, transcription factors

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23 Identification of Salt Responsive Proteins in Rice Leaf Sheath (Oryza sativa L.) with Nanoliquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Kanlaya Kong-Ngern, Chutima Homwonk, Sittiruk Roytrakul

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In this research, we compared the proteomic profile of two rice leaf sheaths under salt stress, Thai moderately salt tolerant rice (Leaung Anan), and high salt tolerant rice (Pokkali). Seeds were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 days before NaCl was introduced initially at the level of 12 dS m⁻¹ for 10 days. Then the leaf sheath proteomes were analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE and NanoLC-MS/MS. In this study, 873 proteins were detected. Among these proteins, 219 proteins were known proteins and the other proteins were unnamed and unknown proteins. By using Mev software, we found that only 31 proteins in treated plants of both rice cultivars significantly expressed, 21 proteins were up-regulated and 10 proteins were down-regulated. Interestingly, the intensity of the 3 proteins in the Leaung Anan more expressed than in the Pokkali. The results indicate that the up-regulated proteins were more expressed in less tolerant rice may play an important role in helping rice to survive under salt stress.

Keywords: mass spectrometry, proteomics, rice leaf sheaths, salt stress

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22 Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles and Its Analytical Applications

Authors: Eman Alzahrani

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Efficient extraction of proteins by removing interfering materials is necessary in proteomics, since most instruments cannot handle such contaminated sample matrices directly. In this study, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS-MNPs) for purification of myoglobin were successfully fabricated. First, chitosan (CS) was prepared by a deacetylation reaction during its extraction from shrimp-shell waste. Second, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised, using the coprecipitation method, from aqueous Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt solutions by the addition of a base under an inert atmosphere, followed by modification of the surface of MNPs with chitosan. The morphology of the formed nanoparticles, which were about 23 nm in average diameter, was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, nanoparticles were characterised using X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), which showed the naked magnetic nanoparticles have a spinel structure and the surface modification did not result in phase change of the Fe3O4. The coating of MNPs was also demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, energy dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The adsorption behaviour of MNPs and CS-MNPs towards myoglobin was investigated. It was found that the difference in adsorption capacity between MNPs and CS-MNPs was larger for CS-MNPs. This result makes CS-MNPs good adsorbents and attractive for using in protein extraction from biological samples.

Keywords: chitosan, magnetic nanoparticles, coprecipitation, adsorption

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21 Using OMICs Approaches to Investigate Venomic Insights into the Spider Web Silk

Authors: Franciele G. Esteves, Jose R. A. dos Santos-Pinto, Caroline L. de Souza, Mario S. Palma

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Orb-weaving spiders use a very strong, stickiness, and elastic web to catch the prey. These web properties would be enough for the entrapment of prey; however, these spiders may be hiding venomous secrets on the web, which are being revealed now. Here we provide strong proteome, peptidome, and transcriptomic evidence for the presence of toxic components on the web silk from Nephila clavipes. Our scientific outcomes revealed, both in the web silk and in the silk-producing glands, a wide diversity of toxins/neurotoxins, defensins, and proteolytic enzymes. These toxins/neurotoxins are similar to toxins isolated from animal venoms, such as Sphigomyelinase D, Latrotoxins, Zodatoxins, Ctenitoxin Pn and Pk, Agatoxins and Theraphotoxin. Moreover, the insect-toxicity results with the web silk crude extract demonstrated that these toxic components can be lethal and/or cause paralytic effects to the prey. Therefore, through OMICs approaches, the results presented until now may contribute to a better understanding of the chemical and ecological interaction of these compounds in insect-prey capture by spider web N. clavipes, demonstrating that the web is not only a simple mechanical tool but has a chemical-active involvement in prey capture. Moreover, the results can also contribute to future studies of possible development of a selective insecticide or even in possible pharmacological applications.

Keywords: web silk toxins, silk-produncing glands, de novo transcriptome assembly, LCMS-based proteomics

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20 Differential Proteomic Profile and Terpenoid Production in Somatic Embryos of Jatropha curcas

Authors: Anamarel Medina-Hernandez, Teresa Ponce-Noyola, Ileana Vera-Reyes, Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia

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Somatic embryos reproduce original seed characteristics and could be implemented in biotechnological studies. Jatropha curcas L. is an important plant for biodiesel production, but also is used in traditional medicine. Seeds from J. curcas are toxic because contain diterpenoids called phorbol esters, but in Mexico exist a non-toxic variety. Therefore, somatic embryos suspension cultures from non-toxic J. curcas variety were induced. In order to investigate the characteristics of somatic embryos, a differential proteomic analysis was made between pre-globular and globular stages by 2-D gel electrophoresis. 108 spots were differentially expressed (p<0.02), and 20 spots from globular somatic embryos were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. A comparative analysis of terpenoids production between the two stages was made by RP-18 TLC plates. The sequenced proteins were related to energy production (68%), protein destination and storage (9%), secondary metabolism (9%), signal transduction (5%), cell structure (5%) and aminoacid metabolism (4%). Regarding terpenoid production, in pre-globular and globular somatic embryos were identified sterols and triterpenes of pharmacological interest (alpha-amyrin and betulinic acid) but also it was found compounds that were unique to each stage. The results of this work are the basis to characterize at different levels the J. curcas somatic embryos so that this system can be used efficiently in biotechnological processes.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, proteomics, somatic embryo, terpenoids

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19 Impact of Glycation on Proteomics of Human Serum Albumin: Relevance to Diabetes Associated Pathologies

Authors: Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad

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Background: Serum albumin glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation correlates in diabetes and its associated complications. Extensive modified human serum albumin is used to study the biochemical, electrochemical and functional properties in hyperglycemic environment with relevance to diabetes. We evaluate Spectroscopic, side chain modifications, amino acid analysis, biochemical and functional group properties in four glucose modified samples. Methods: A series four human serum albumin samples modified with glucose was characterized in terms of amino acid analysis, spectroscopic properties and side chain modifications. The diagnostic technique employed incorporates UV Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, biochemical assays for side chain modifications, amino acid estimations, electrochemical and optical characterstic of glycated albumin. Conclusion: Glucose modified human serum albumin confers AGEs formation alters biochemical, electrochemical, optical, and functional property that depend on the reactivity of glucose and its concentration used for in-vitro glycation. A biochemical, electrochemical, optical, and functional characterization of modified albumin in-vitro produced AGE product that will be useful to interpret the complications and pathophysiological significance in diabetes.

Keywords: human serum albumin, glycated albumin, adavanced glycation end products, associated pathologies

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18 Genomic and Proteomic Variation in Glycine Max Genotypes towards Salinity

Authors: Faheema Khan

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In order to investigate the influence of genetic background on salt tolerance in Soybean (Glycine max) ten soybean genotypes released/notified in India were selected. (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712). The 10-day-old seedlings were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mM NaCl for 15 days. Plant growth, leaf osmotic adjustment, and RAPD analysis were studied. In comparison to control plants, the plant growth in all genotypes was decreased by salt stress, respectively. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all genotypes however the maximum reduction was observed in genotype Pusa-24 followed by PK-416 and Pusa-20. The difference in osmotic adjustment between all the genotypes was correlated with the concentrations of ion examined such as Na+ and the leaf proline concentration. These results suggest that the genotypic variation for salt tolerance can be partially accounted for by plant physiological measures. The genetic polymorphisms between soybean genotypes differing in response to salt stress were characterized using 25 RAPD primers. These primers generated a total of 1640 amplification products, among which 1615 were found to be polymorphic. A very high degree of polymorphism (98.30%) was observed. UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the genotypes into two major clusters. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings. Our results show that RAPD technique is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in soybean genotypes.

Keywords: glycine max, NaCl, RAPD, proteomics

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17 Biosynthesis, Characterization and Interplay of Bacteriocin-nanoparticles to Combat Infectious Drug Resistant Pathogens

Authors: Asma Ansari, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader

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In the past few years, numerous concerns have been raised against increased bacterial resistance towards effective drugs and become a debated issue all over the world. With the emergence of drug resistant pathogens, the interaction of natural antimicrobial compounds and antibacterial nanoparticles has emerged as a potential candidate for combating infectious diseases. Microbial diversity in the biome provides an opportunity to screen new species which are capable of producing large number of antimicrobial compounds. Among these antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins are highly specific and efficient antagonists. A combination of bacteriocin along with nanoparticles could prove to be more potent due to broadened antibacterial spectrum with possibly lower doses. In the current study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized through biological reduction using various isolated bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. Spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed for the confirmation of nanoparticles. Bacteriocin was characterized and purified to homogeneity through gel permeation chromatography. The estimated molecular weight of bacteriocin was 10 kDa. Amino acid analysis and N-terminal sequencing revealed the novelty of the protein. Then antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles and broad inhibitory spectrum bacteriocin was determined through agar well diffusion assay. These synthesized bacteriocin-Nanoparticles exhibit a good potential for clinical applications as compared to bacteriocin alone. This combination of bacteriocin with nanoparticles will be used as a new sort of biocide in the field of nano-proteomics. The advancement of nanoparticles-mediated drug delivery system will open a new age for rapid eradication of pathogens from biological systems.

Keywords: BAC-IB17, multidrug resistance, purification, silver nanoparticles

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16 The Colorectal Cancer in Patients of Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi

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Algeria is currently experiencing the same rate of cancer progression as that registered these last years in the western countries. Colorectal cancer, constituting increasingly a major public health problem, is the most common form of cancer after breast and Neck-womb cancer at the woman and prostate cancer at the man. Our work is based on a retrospective study to determine the cases of colorectal cancer through eastern Algeria. Our goal is to carry out an epidemiological, histological and immune- histochemical study to investigate different techniques for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and their interests and specific in detecting the disease. The study includes 110 patients (aged between 20 to 87 years) with colorectal cancer where the inclusions and exclusions criteria were established. In our study, colorectal cancer, expresses a male predominance, with a sex ratio of 1, 99 and the most affected age group is between 50 and 59 years. We noted that the colon cancer rate is higher than rectal cancer rate, whose frequencies are respectively 60,91 % and 39,09 %. In the series of colon cancer, the ADK lieberkunien is histological the most represented type, or 85,07 % of all cases. In contrast, the proportion of ADK mucinous (colloid mucous) is only 1,49% only. Well-differentiated ADKS, are very significant in our series, they represent 83,58 % of cases. Adenocarcinoma moderately and poorly differentiated, whose proportions are respectively 2,99 % and 0.05 %. For histological varieties of rectal ADK, we see in our workforce that ADK lieberkunien represent the most common histological form, or 76,74%, while the mucosal colloid is 13,95 %. Research of the mutation on the gene encoding K-ras, a major step in the targeted therapy of colorectal cancers, is underway in our study. Colorectal cancer is the subject of much promising research concern: the evaluation of new therapies (antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies), the search for predictors of sensitivity to chemotherapy and new prognostic markers using techniques of molecular biology and proteomics.

Keywords: adenocarcinoma, age, colorectal cancer, epidemiology, histological section, sex

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15 Impact of Totiviridae L-A dsRNA Virus on Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Host: Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approach

Authors: Juliana Lukša, Bazilė Ravoitytė, Elena Servienė, Saulius Serva

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Totiviridae L-A virus is a persistent Saccharomyces cerevisiae dsRNA virus. It encodes the major structural capsid protein Gag and Gag-Pol fusion protein, responsible for virus replication and encapsulation. These features also enable the copying of satellite dsRNAs (called M dsRNAs) encoding a secreted toxin and immunity to it (known as killer toxin). Viral capsid pore presumably functions in nucleotide uptake and viral mRNA release. During cell division, sporogenesis, and cell fusion, the virions remain intracellular and are transferred to daughter cells. By employing high throughput RNA sequencing data analysis, we describe the influence of solely L-A virus on the expression of genes in three different S. cerevisiae hosts. We provide a new perception into Totiviridae L-A virus-related transcriptional regulation, encompassing multiple bioinformatics analyses. Transcriptional responses to L-A infection were similar to those induced upon stress or availability of nutrients. It also delves into the connection between the cell metabolism and L-A virus-conferred demands to the host transcriptome by uncovering host proteins that may be associated with intact virions. To better understand the virus-host interaction, we applied differential proteomic analysis of virus particle-enriched fractions of yeast strains that harboreither complete killer system (L-A-lus and M-2 virus), M-2 depleted orvirus-free. Our analysis resulted in the identification of host proteins, associated with structural proteins of the virus (Gag and Gag-Pol). This research was funded by the European Social Fund under the No.09.3.3-LMT-K-712-19-0157“Development of Competences of Scientists, other Researchers, and Students through Practical Research Activities” measure.

Keywords: totiviridae, killer virus, proteomics, transcriptomics

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14 Proteomics Associated with Colonization of Human Enteric Pathogen on Solanum lycopersicum

Authors: Neha Bhadauria, Indu Gaur, Shilpi Shilpi, Susmita Goswami, Prabir K. Paul

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The aerial surface of plants colonized by Human Enteric Pathogens ()has been implicated in outbreaks of enteric diseases in humans. Practice of organic farming primarily using animal dung as manure and sewage water for irrigation are the most significant source of enteric pathogens on the surface of leaves, fruits and vegetables. The present work aims to have an insight into the molecular mechanism of interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens or their metabolites with cell wall receptors in plants. Tomato plants grown under aseptic conditions at 12 hours L/D photoperiod, 25±1°C and 75% RH were inoculated individually with S. fonticola and K. pneumonia. The leaves from treated plants were sampled after 24 and 48 hours of incubation. The cell wall and cytoplasmic proteins were extracted and isocratically separated on 1D SDS-PAGE. The sampled leaves were also subjected to formaldehyde treatment prior to isolation of cytoplasmic proteins to study protein-protein interactions induced by Human Enteric Pathogens. Protein bands extracted from the gel were subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS analysis. The foremost interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens on the plant surface was found to be cell wall bound receptors which possibly set ups a wave a critical protein-protein interaction in cytoplasm. The study revealed the expression and suppression of specific cytoplasmic and cell wall-bound proteins, some of them being important components of signaling pathways. The results also demonstrated HEP induced rearrangement of signaling pathways which possibly are crucial for adaptation of these pathogens to plant surface. At the end of the study, it can be concluded that controlling the over-expression or suppression of these specific proteins rearrange the signaling pathway thus reduces the outbreaks of food-borne illness.

Keywords: cytoplasmic protein, cell wall-bound protein, Human Enteric Pathogen (HEP), protein-protein interaction

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13 Association Analysis of Putative Loci with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Asma Naseer Cheema, Attya Bhatti, Jabar Ali, John Peter

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Background: High cholesterol levels, endothelial dysfunction, inefficient coagulation cascade and hyper inflammatory response all are the basis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several studies are carried out to see the genetic influence of these factors on disease outcome. Objective: The objective of our study was to see the association of 10 putative loci with coronary artery disease in our population. Materials & Methods: We screened our population for 10 putative loci of CAD showing significant association (p < 5x10-8) with candidate genes (regulating the cholesterol metabolism, endothelial function, coagulation cascade and inflammatory response of body). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium in cases and controls s were estimated separately. Approximately 5-10 ng of dried DNA in 384 well plate format was used to genotype each sample on the Sequenom iPLEX assay at University of Pittsburgh Genomics and Proteomics Core Laboratories. It was built on single-base primer extension with the MALDI-TOF MS detection possessing high sensitivity and specificity. The SNPs were genotyped through Taqman assay. Hardy Weinberg test was applied. The 10 SNPs were selected as genetic markers for this study (rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650). Results: Mean age of the patient was 52 ± 11 years. Blood pressure and positive family history was found a significant risk factor for CAD. None of the selected SNPs showed significant association with coronary artery disease in our population (p>0.05). Conclusion: rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650 are not significant genetic markers for CAD in our population.

Keywords: CAD, genetic markers, loci, risk factors

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12 In-vitro Metabolic Fingerprinting Using Plasmonic Chips by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Vadanasundari Vedarethinam, Kun Qian

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The metabolic analysis is more distal over proteomics and genomics engaging in clinics and needs rationally distinct techniques, designed materials, and device for clinical diagnosis. Conventional techniques such as spectroscopic techniques, biochemical analyzers, and electrochemical have been used for metabolic diagnosis. Currently, there are four major challenges including (I) long-term process in sample pretreatment; (II) difficulties in direct metabolic analysis of biosamples due to complexity (III) low molecular weight metabolite detection with accuracy and (IV) construction of diagnostic tools by materials and device-based platforms for real case application in biomedical applications. Development of chips with nanomaterial is promising to address these critical issues. Mass spectroscopy (MS) has displayed high sensitivity and accuracy, throughput, reproducibility, and resolution for molecular analysis. Particularly laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) combined with devices affords desirable speed for mass measurement in seconds and high sensitivity with low cost towards large scale uses. We developed a plasmonic chip for clinical metabolic fingerprinting as a hot carrier in LDI MS by series of chips with gold nanoshells on the surface through controlled particle synthesis, dip-coating, and gold sputtering for mass production. We integrated the optimized chip with microarrays for laboratory automation and nanoscaled experiments, which afforded direct high-performance metabolic fingerprinting by LDI MS using 500 nL of serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) and exosomes. Further, we demonstrated on-chip direct in-vitro metabolic diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer patients using serum and exosomes without any pretreatment or purifications. To our best knowledge, this work initiates a bionanotechnology based platform for advanced metabolic analysis toward large-scale diagnostic use.

Keywords: plasmonic chip, metabolic fingerprinting, LDI MS, in-vitro diagnostics

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11 The Systems Biology Verification Endeavor: Harness the Power of the Crowd to Address Computational and Biological Challenges

Authors: Stephanie Boue, Nicolas Sierro, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C. Peitsch

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Systems biology relies on large numbers of data points and sophisticated methods to extract biologically meaningful signal and mechanistic understanding. For example, analyses of transcriptomics and proteomics data enable to gain insights into the molecular differences in tissues exposed to diverse stimuli or test items. Whereas the interpretation of endpoints specifically measuring a mechanism is relatively straightforward, the interpretation of big data is more complex and would benefit from comparing results obtained with diverse analysis methods. The sbv IMPROVER project was created to implement solutions to verify systems biology data, methods, and conclusions. Computational challenges leveraging the wisdom of the crowd allow benchmarking methods for specific tasks, such as signature extraction and/or samples classification. Four challenges have already been successfully conducted and confirmed that the aggregation of predictions often leads to better results than individual predictions and that methods perform best in specific contexts. Whenever the scientific question of interest does not have a gold standard, but may greatly benefit from the scientific community to come together and discuss their approaches and results, datathons are set up. The inaugural sbv IMPROVER datathon was held in Singapore on 23-24 September 2016. It allowed bioinformaticians and data scientists to consolidate their ideas and work on the most promising methods as teams, after having initially reflected on the problem on their own. The outcome is a set of visualization and analysis methods that will be shared with the scientific community via the Garuda platform, an open connectivity platform that provides a framework to navigate through different applications, databases and services in biology and medicine. We will present the results we obtained when analyzing data with our network-based method, and introduce a datathon that will take place in Japan to encourage the analysis of the same datasets with other methods to allow for the consolidation of conclusions.

Keywords: big data interpretation, datathon, systems toxicology, verification

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10 Proteomic Analysis of the Inhibition of Prolyl Oligopeptidase Induced by Z-Pro-Prolinal in Filarial Parasites

Authors: Mohit Wadhawan, Sushma Rathaur

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Lymphatic filariasis, also called elephantiasis is a tropical disease afflicting over 120 million people in 81 countries worldwide. Existing anti filarial drugs are effective against the larval stages of filarial parasites which call for an urgent need of drugs which are macrofilaricidal. Identification of molecular targets crucial for survival of filarial parasites is a prerequisite for drug designing. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is one such crucial enzyme involved in the maturation and degradation of neuropeptides and peptide hormones. We have identified this peptidase in the bovine filarial parasite, Setaria cervi. Effect of inhibition of POP on the proteome profile of filarial parasite has been discussed in this study. Filarial parasites were exposed to Z-pro-prolinal (ZPP), a specific POP inhibitor for 8 h and the motility and viability of the parasites was observed. It significantly reduced the motility and viability of the parasites. To study the proteome profile, the cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial extracts of the adult female parasites were subjected to 2-dimensional electrophoresis. As analyzed by the PD-Quest software, the ZPP caused the alteration in the different subcellular proteins, and the significantly altered proteins were identified using MALDI-MS/MS spectrometry. The major proteins identified were found to play important role in diverse biological functions like signaling, redox regulation, energy metabolism, stress response, and cytoskeleton formation. Moreover, we found upregulation in the calcium binding proteins such as calreticulin, calponin, and calpain-6 suggesting that POP inhibition regulates calcium release. This relates to earlier reports that POP plays non-catalytic role in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) signaling inducing release of calcium from ER. Taken together, the data demonstrated that inhibition of prolyl oligopeptidase alter the overall proteome signifying its role in survival of the filarial parasites. Thus this study provides a basis for the use of POP as a chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis.

Keywords: lymphatic filariasis, setaria cervi, prolyl oligopeptidase, proteomics

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9 X-Ray Crystallographic Studies on BPSL2418 from Burkholderia pseudomallei

Authors: Mona Alharbi

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Melioidosis has emerged as a lethal disease. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms of virulence and pathogenicity of Burkholderia pseudomallei remain unknown. However, proteomics research has selected putative targets in B. pseudomallei that might play roles in the B. pseudomallei virulence. BPSL 2418 putative protein has been predicted as a free methionine sulfoxide reductase and interestingly there is a link between the level of the methionine sulfoxide in pathogen tissues and its virulence. Therefore in this work, we describe the cloning expression, purification, and crystallization of BPSL 2418 and the solution of its 3D structure using X-ray crystallography. Also, we aimed to identify the substrate binding and reduced forms of the enzyme to understand the role of BPSL 2418. The gene encoding BPSL2418 from B. pseudomallei was amplified by PCR and reclone in pETBlue-1 vector and transformed into E. coli Tuner DE3 pLacI. BPSL2418 was overexpressed using E. coli Tuner DE3 pLacI and induced by 300μM IPTG for 4h at 37°C. Then BPS2418 purified to better than 95% purity. The pure BPSL2418 was crystallized with PEG 4000 and PEG 6000 as precipitants in several conditions. Diffraction data were collected to 1.2Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2 21 21 with unit-cell parameters a = 42.24Å, b = 53.48Å, c = 60.54Å, α=γ=β= 90Å. The BPSL2418 binding MES was solved by molecular replacement with the known structure 3ksf using PHASER program. The structure is composed of six antiparallel β-strands and four α-helices and two loops. BPSL2418 shows high homology with the GAF domain fRMsrs enzymes which suggest that BPSL2418 might act as methionine sulfoxide reductase. The amino acids alignment between the fRmsrs including BPSL 2418 shows that the three cysteines that thought to catalyze the reduction are fully conserved. BPSL 2418 contains the three conserved cysteines (Cys⁷⁵, Cys⁸⁵ and Cys¹⁰⁹). The active site contains the six antiparallel β-strands and two loops where the disulfide bond formed between Cys⁷⁵ and Cys¹⁰⁹. X-ray structure of free methionine sulfoxide binding and native forms of BPSL2418 were solved to increase the understanding of the BPSL2418 catalytic mechanism.

Keywords: X-Ray Crystallography, BPSL2418, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Melioidosis

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8 Testing Serum Proteome between Elite Sprinters and Long-Distance Runners

Authors: Hung-Chieh Chen, Kuo-Hui Wang, Tsu-Lin Yeh

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Proteomics represent the performance of genomic complement proteins and the protein level on functional genomics. This study adopted proteomic strategies for comparing serum proteins among three groups: elite sprinter (sprint runner group, SR), long-distance runners (long-distance runner group, LDR), and the untrained control group (control group, CON). Purposes: This study aims to identify elite sprinters and long-distance runners’ serum protein and to provide a comparison of their serum proteome’ composition. Methods: Serum protein fractionations that separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analyzed by a quantitative nano-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic profiling. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc comparison (α= 0.05) was used to determine whether there is any significant difference in each protein level among the three groups. Results: (1) After analyzing the 307 identified proteins, there were 26 unique proteins in the SR group, and 18 unique proteins in the LDR group. (2) For the LDR group, 7 coagulation function-associated proteins’ expression levels were investigated: vitronectin, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, fibulin-1, complement C3, vitamin K-dependent protein, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 and von Willebrand factor, and the findings show the seven coagulation function-associated proteins were significantly lower than the group of SR. (3) Comparing to the group of SR, this study found that the LDR group’s expression levels of the 2 antioxidant proteins (afamin and glutathione peroxidase 3) were also significantly lower. (4) The LDR group’s expression levels of seven immune function-related proteins (Ig gamma-3 chain C region, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5, clusterin, complement C1s subcomponent, complement factor B, complement C4-A, complement C1q subcomponent subunit A) were also significantly lower than the group of SR. Conclusion: This study identified the potential serum protein markers for elite sprinters and long-distance runners. The changes in the regulation of coagulation, antioxidant, or immune function-specific proteins may also provide further clinical applications for these two different track athletes.

Keywords: biomarkers, coagulation, immune response, oxidative stress

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7 HIV-1 Nef Mediates Host Invasion by Differential Expression of Alpha-Enolase

Authors: Reshu Saxena, R. K. Tripathi

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HIV-1 transmission and spread involves significant host-virus interaction. Potential targets for prevention of HIV-1 lies at the site of mucosal barriers. Thus a better understanding of how HIV-1 infects target cells at such sites and lead their invasion is required, with prime focus on the host determinants regulating HIV-1 spread. HIV-1 Nef is important for viral infectivity and pathogenicity. It promotes HIV-1 replication, facilitating immune evasion by interacting with various host factors and altering cellular pathways via multiple protein-protein interactions. In this study nef was sequenced from HIV-1 patients, and showed specific mutations revealing sequence variability in nef. To explore the difference in Nef functionality based on sequence variability we have studied the effects of HIV-1 Nef in human SupT1 T cell line and (THP-1) monocyte-macrophage cell lines through proteomics approach. 2D-Gel Electrophoresis in control and Nef-transfected SupT1 cells demonstrated several differentially expressed proteins with significant modulation of alpha-enolase. Through further studies, effects of Nef on alpha-enolase regulation were found to be cell lineage-specific, being stimulatory in macrophages/monocytes, inhibitory in T cells and without effect in HEK-293 cells. Cell migration and invasion studies were employed to determine biological function affected by Nef mediated regulation of alpha-enolase. Cell invasion was enhanced in THP-1 cells but was inhibited in SupT1 cells by wildtype nef. In addition, the modulation of enolase and cell invasion remained unaffected by a unique nef variant. These results indicated that regulation of alpha-enolase expression and invasive property of host cells by Nef is sequence specific, suggesting involvement of a particular motif of Nef. To precisely determine this site, we designed a heptapeptide including the suggested alpha-enolase regulating sequence of nef and a nef mutant with deletion of this site. Macrophages/monocytes being the major cells affected by HIV-1 at mucosal barriers, were particularly investigated by the nef mutant and peptide. Both the nef mutant and heptapeptide led to inhibition of enhanced enolase expression and increased invasiveness in THP-1 cells. Together, these findings suggest a possible mechanism of host invasion by HIV-1 through Nef mediated regulation of alpha-enolase and identifies a potential therapeutic target for HIV-1 entry at mucosal barriers.

Keywords: HIV-1 Nef, nef variants, host-virus interaction, tissue invasion

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