Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6887

Search results for: binding energy

6887 Study of Exciton Binding Energy in Photovoltaic Polymers and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

Authors: Ho-Wa Li, Sai-Wing Tsang


The excitonic effect in organic semiconductors plays a key role in determining the electronic devices performance. Strong exciton binding energy has been regarded as the detrimental factor limiting the further improvement in organic photovoltaic cells. To the best of our knowledge, only limited reported can be found in measuring the exciton binding energy in organic photovoltaic materials. Conventional sophisticated approach using photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and IPES) would limit the wide access of the investigation. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to study the electrical and optical quantum efficiencies of a series of conjugated photovoltaic polymer, fullerene and non-fullerene materials. Quantitative values of the exciton binding energy in those prototypical materials were obtained with concise photovoltaic device structure. And the extracted binding energies have excellent agreement with those determined by the conventional photoemission technique. More importantly, our findings can provide valuable information on the excitonic dissociation in the first excited state. Particularly, we find that the high binding energy of some non-fullerene acceptors limits the combination of polymer acceptors for efficiency exciton dissociation. The results bring insight into the engineering of excitonic effect for the development of efficient organic photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: organic photovoltaics, quantum efficiency, exciton binding energy, device physics

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6886 In-Silico Investigation of Phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum as Plausible Antiviral Agent in COVID-19

Authors: Dileep Kumar, Janhavi Ramchandra Rao Kumar, Rao


COVID-19 has ravaged the globe, and it is spreading its Spectre day by day. In the absence of established drugs, this disease has created havoc. Some of the infected persons are symptomatic or asymptomatic. The respiratory system, cardiac system, digestive system, etc. in human beings are affected by this virus. In our present investigation, we have undertaken a study of the Indian Ayurvedic herb, Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics studies. The docking analysis was performed on the Glide module of Schrödinger suite on two different proteins from SARS-CoV-2 viz. NSP15 Endoribonuclease and spike receptor-binding domain. MM-GBSA based binding free energy calculations also suggest the most favorable binding affinities of carvacrol, β elemene, and β caryophyllene with binding energies of −61.61, 58.23, and −54.19 Kcal/mol respectively with spike receptor-binding domain and NSP15 Endoribonuclease. It rekindles our hope for the design and development of new drug candidates for the treatment of COVID19.

Keywords: molecular docking, COVID-19, ocimum sanctum, binding energy

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6885 Insight into the Binding Theme of CA-074Me to Cathepsin B: Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Scaffold Hopping to Identify Potential Analogues as Anti-Neurodegenerative Diseases

Authors: Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson, Mahmoud E. S. Soliman


To date, the cause of neurodegeneration is not well understood and diseases that stem from neurodegeneration currently have no known cures. Cathepsin B (CB) enzyme is known to be involved in the production of peptide neurotransmitters and toxic peptides in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). CA-074Me is a membrane-permeable irreversible selective cathepsin B (CB) inhibitor as confirmed by in vivo studies. Due to the lack of the crystal structure, the binding mode of CA-074Me with the human CB at molecular level has not been previously reported. The main aim of this study is to gain an insight into the binding mode of CB CA-074Me to human CB using various computational tools. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations, binding free energy calculations and per-residue energy decomposition analysis were employed to accomplish the aim of the study. Another objective was to identify novel CB inhibitors based on the structure of CA-074Me using fragment based drug design using scaffold hoping drug design approach. Results showed that two of the designed ligands (hit 1 and hit 2) were found to have better binding affinities than the prototype inhibitor, CA-074Me, by ~2-3 kcal/mol. Per-residue energy decomposition showed that amino acid residues Cys29, Gly196, His197 and Val174 contributed the most towards the binding. The Van der Waals binding forces were found to be the major component of the binding interactions. The findings of this study should assist medicinal chemist towards the design of potential irreversible CB inhibitors.

Keywords: cathepsin B, scaffold hopping, docking, molecular dynamics, binding-free energy, neurodegerative diseases

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6884 Modelling Ibuprofen with Human Albumin

Authors: U. L. Fulco, E. L. Albuquerque, José X. Lima Neto, L. R. Da Silva


The binding of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) to human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations within a fragmentation strategy. Crystallographic data for the IBU–HSA supramolecular complex shows that the ligand is confined to a large cavity at the subdomain IIIA and at the interface between the subdomains IIA and IIB, whose binding sites are FA3/FA4 and FA6, respectively. The interaction energy between the IBU molecule and each amino acid residue of these HSA binding pockets was calculated using the Molecular Fractionation with Conjugate Caps (MFCC) approach employing a dispersion corrected exchange–correlation functional. Our investigation shows that the total interaction energy of IBU bound to HSA at binding sites of the fatty acids FA3/FA4 (FA6) converges only for a pocket radius of at least 8.5 °A, mainly due to the action of residues Arg410, Lys414 and Ser489 (Lys351, Ser480 and Leu481) and residues in nonhydrophobic domains, namely Ile388, Phe395, Phe403, Leu407, Leu430, Val433, and Leu453 (Phe206, Ala210, Ala213, and Leu327), which is unusual. Our simulations are valuable for a better understanding of the binding mechanism of IBU to albumin and can lead to the rational design and the development of novel IBU-derived drugs with improved potency.

Keywords: ibuprofen, human serum albumin, density functional theory, binding energies

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6883 Investigating the Energy Gap and Wavelength of (AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs)ₘ/(GaAs)ₙ Superlattices in Terms of Material Thickness and Al Mole Fraction Using Empirical Tight-Binding Method

Authors: Matineh Sadat Hosseini Gheidari, Vahid Reza Yazdanpanah


In this paper, we used the empirical tight-binding method (ETBM) with sp3s* approximation and considering the first nearest neighbor with spin-orbit interactions in order to model superlattice structure (SLS) of (AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs)ₘ/(GaAs)ₙ grown on GaAs (100) substrate at 300K. In the next step, we investigated the behavior of the energy gap and wavelength of this superlattice in terms of different thicknesses of core materials and Al mole fractions. As a result of this survey, we found out that as the Al composition increases, the energy gap of this superlattice has an upward trend and ranges from 1.42-1.63 eV. Also, according to the wavelength range that we gained from this superlattice in different Al mole fractions and various thicknesses, we can find a suitable semiconductor for a special light-emitting diode (LED) application.

Keywords: energy gap, empirical tight-binding method, light-emitting diode, superlattice, wavelength

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6882 Understanding the Dynamics of Linker Histone Using Mathematical Modeling and FRAP Experiments

Authors: G. Carrero, C. Contreras, M. J. Hendzel


Linker histones or histones H1 are highly mobile nuclear proteins that regulate the organization of chromatin and limit DNA accessibility by binding to the chromatin structure (DNA and associated proteins). It is known that this binding process is driven by both slow (strong binding) and rapid (weak binding) interactions. However, the exact binding mechanism has not been fully described. Moreover, the existing models only account for one type of bound population that does not distinguish explicitly between the weakly and strongly bound proteins. Thus, we propose different systems of reaction-diffusion equations to describe explicitly the rapid and slow interactions during a FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) experiment. We perform a model comparison analysis to characterize the binding mechanism of histone H1 and provide new meaningful biophysical information on the kinetics of histone H1.

Keywords: FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching), histone H1, histone H1 binding kinetics, linker histone, reaction-diffusion equation

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6881 Insight into Structure and Functions of of Acyl CoA Binding Protein of Leishmania major

Authors: Rohit Singh Dangi, Ravi Kant Pal, Monica Sundd


Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a housekeeping protein which functions as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters. Given the fact that the amastigote stage (blood stage) of Leishmania depends largely on fatty acids as the energy source, of which a large part is derived from its host, these proteins might have an important role in its survival. In Leishmania major, genome sequencing suggests the presence of six ACBPs, whose function remains largely unknown. For functional and structural characterization, one of the ACBP genes was cloned, and the protein was expressed and purified heterologously. Acyl-CoA ester binding and stoichiometry were analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry and Dynamic light scattering. Our results shed light on high affinity of ACBP towards longer acyl-CoA esters, such as myristoyl-CoA to arachidonoyl-CoA with single binding site. To understand the binding mechanism & dynamics, Nuclear magnetic resonance assignments of this protein are being done. The protein's crystal structure was determined at 1.5Å resolution and revealed a classical topology for ACBP, containing four alpha-helical bundles. In the binding pocket, the loop between the first and the second helix (16 – 26AA) is four residues longer from other extensively studied ACBPs (PfACBP) and it curls upwards towards the pantothenate moiety of CoA to provide a large tunnel space for long acyl chain insertion.

Keywords: acyl-coa binding protein (ACBP), acyl-coa esters, crystal structure, isothermal titration, calorimetry, Leishmania

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6880 An Energy Transfer Fluorescent Probe System for Glucose Sensor at Biomimetic Membrane Surface

Authors: Hoa Thi Hoang, Stephan Sass, Michael U. Kumke


Concanavalin A (conA) is a protein has been widely used in sensor system based on its specific binding to α-D-Glucose or α-D-Manose. For glucose sensor using conA, either fluoresence based techniques with intensity based or lifetime based are used. In this research, liposomes made from phospholipids were used as a biomimetic membrane system. In a first step, novel building blocks containing perylene labeled glucose units were added to the system and used to decorate the surface of the liposomes. Upon the binding between rhodamine labeled con A to the glucose units at the biomimetic membrane surface, a Förster resonance energy transfer system can be formed which combines unique fluorescence properties of perylene (e.g., high fluorescence quantum yield, no triplet formation) and its high hydrophobicity for efficient anchoring in membranes to form a novel probe for the investigation of sugar-driven binding reactions at biomimetic surfaces. Two glucose-labeled perylene derivatives were synthesized with different spacer length between the perylene and glucose unit in order to probe the binding of conA. The binding interaction was fully characterized by using high-end fluorescence techniques. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques (e.g., fluorescence depolarization) in combination with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy techniques (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS) were used to monitor the interaction with conA. Base on the fluorescence depolarization, the rotational correlation times and the alteration in the diffusion coefficient (determined by FCS) the binding of the conA to the liposomes carrying the probe was studied. Moreover, single pair FRET experiments using pulsed interleaved excitation are used to characterize in detail the binding of conA to the liposome on a single molecule level avoiding averaging out effects.

Keywords: concanavalin A, FRET, sensor, biomimetic membrane

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6879 Quantum Fisher Information of Bound Entangled W-Like States

Authors: Fatih Ozaydin


Quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a multipartite entanglement witness and recently it has been studied extensively with separability and entanglement in the focus. On the other hand, bound entanglement is a special phenomena observed in mixed entangled states. In this work, we study the QFI of W states under a four-dimensional entanglement binding channel. Starting with initally pure W states of several qubits, we find how the QFI decreases as two qubits of the W state is subject to entanglement binding. We also show that as the size of the W state increases, the effect of entanglement binding is decreased.

Keywords: Quantum Fisher information, W states, bound entanglement, entanglement binding

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6878 A Platform to Screen Targeting Molecules of Ligand-EGFR Interactions

Authors: Wei-Ting Kuo, Feng-Huei Lin


Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often constitutively stimulated in cancer owing to the binding of ligands such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), so it is necessary to investigate the interaction between EGFR and its targeting biomolecules which were over ligands binding. This study would focus on the binding affinity and adhesion force of two targeting products anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and peptide A to EGFR comparing with EGF. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to obtain the equilibrium dissociation constant to evaluate the binding affinity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to detect adhesion force. The result showed that binding affinity of mAb to EGFR was higher than that of EGF to EGFR, and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. The adhesion force between EGFR and mAb that was higher than EGF and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. From the studies, we could conclude that mAb had better adhesion force and binding affinity to EGFR than that of EGF and peptide A. SPR and AFM could confirm the interaction between receptor and targeting ligand easily and carefully. It provide a platform to screen ligands for receptor targeting and drug delivery.

Keywords: adhesion force, binding affinity, epidermal growth factor receptor, target molecule

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6877 Effects of Bacteria on Levels of AFM1 in Phosphate Buffer at Different Level of Energy Source

Authors: Ali M. Elgerbi, Obied A. Alwan, Al-Taher O. Alzwei, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi


The binding of AFM1 to bacteria in phosphate buffer solution depended on many factors such as: availability of energy, incubation period, species and strain of bacteria. Increase in concentration of sugar showed higher removal of AFM1 and faster than in phosphate buffer alone. With 1.0% glucose lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria showed toxin removal ranging from 7.7 to 39.7% whereas with 10.0% glucose the percentage removal was 21.8 to 45.4% at 96 hours of incubation.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria , binding, phosphate buffer

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6876 Energy Service Companies as a Facilitator for Implementation of Energy-Environment Conventions

Authors: Bahareh Arghand


The establishment of rules and regulations for more effective energy-environment interactions are essential to achieving sustainable development. Sustainable development requires mechanisms that can promote compliance in energy-environment conventions. There are many binding agreements and non-binding instruments at regional and international levels on energy and the environment. These conventions try to decrease conflicts of interest between energy, environment and economic by legal principles and practical mechanisms. The major core of conventions is their implementations because the poor implementation and enforcement power affect their success. In this regard, the main goal of this study is proposing the effective implementation mechanisms. Energy service companies' (ESCOs) activities can improve energy efficiency and decrease the environmental degradations. Therefore, it can be proposed and assessed the merit mechanism of ESCO performance as a facilitator to implement energy-environment conventions. An assessment of ESCO performance, including its potentials, problems, and limitations, as a facilitator for effective implementation of the energy-environment convention, is included. This study is oriented towards effective development and application of laws and the function of ESCOs as appropriate economic instruments and facilitator for implementation of energy-environment conventions. The resulting system of close cooperation between the energy-environment conventions and ESCOs is geared toward advancing environmental protection and economic factors by the transfer of environmentally-sound technologies that meet sustainable development objectives.

Keywords: energy-environment conventions, energy service company, facilitator mechanism, sustainable development

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6875 Antitrypanosomal Activity of Stigmasterol: An in silico Approach

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Aminu Mohammed


Stigmasterol has previously been reported to possess antitrypanosomal activity using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism of antitrypanosomal activity is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, molecular docking was used to decipher the mode of interaction and binding affinity of stigmasterol to three known antitrypanosomal drug targets viz; adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase and triose phosphate isomerase. Stigmasterol was found to bind to the selected trypanosomal enzymes with minimum binding energy of -4.2, -6.5 and -6.6 kcal/mol for adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase, and triose phosphate isomerase respectively. However, hydrogen bond was not involved in the interaction of stigmasterol with all the three enzymes, but hydrophobic interaction seemed to play a vital role in the binding phenomenon which was predicted to be non-competitive like type of inhibition. It was concluded that binding to the three selected enzymes, especially triose phosphate isomerase, might be involved in the antitrypanosomal activity of stigmasterol but not mediated via a hydrogen bond interaction.

Keywords: antitrypanosomal, in silico, molecular docking, stigmasterol

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6874 Effect of Low Temperature on Structure and RNA Binding of E.coli CspA: A Molecular Dynamics Based Study

Authors: Amit Chaudhary, B. S. Yadav, P. K. Maurya, A. M., S. Srivastava, S. Singh, A. Mani


Cold shock protein A (CspA) is major cold inducible protein present in Escherichia coli. The protein is involved in stabilizing secondary structure of RNA by working as chaperone during cold temperature. Two RNA binding motifs play key role in the stabilizing activity. This study aimed to investigate implications of low temperature on structure and RNA binding activity of E. coli CspA. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the stability of the protein at 37°C and 10 °C. The protein was mutated at RNA binding motifs and docked with RNA to assess the stability of both complexes. Results suggest that CspA as well as CspA-RNA complex is more stable at low temperature. It was also confirmed that RNP1 and RNP2 play key role in RNA binding.

Keywords: CspA, homology modelling, mutation, molecular dynamics simulation

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6873 The Influence of Physical-Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hemp Filling Materials by the Addition of Energy Byproducts

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Jiri Bydzovsky


This article describes to what extent the addition of energy by-products into the structures of the technical hemp filling materials influence their properties. The article focuses on the changes in physical-mechanical and thermal technical properties of materials after the addition of ash or FBC ash or slag in the binding component of material. Technical hemp filling materials are made of technical hemp shives bonded by the mixture of cement and dry hydrate lime. They are applicable as fillers of vertical or horizontal structures or roofs. The research used eight types of energy by-products of power or heating plants in the Czech Republic. Secondary energy products were dispensed in three different percentage ratios as a replacement of cement in the binding component. Density, compressive strength and determination of the coefficient of thermal conductivity after 28, 60 and 90 days of curing in a laboratory environment were determined and subsequently evaluated on the specimens produced.

Keywords: ash, binder, cement, energy by-product, FBC ash (fluidized bed combustion ash), filling materials, shives, slag, technical hemp

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6872 Synthesis, Characterization and in vitro DNA Binding and Cleavage Studies of Cu(II)/Zn(II) Dipeptide Complexes

Authors: A. Jamsheera, F. Arjmand, D. K. Mohapatra


Small molecules binding to specific sites along DNA molecule are considered as potential chemotherapeutic agents. Their role as mediators of key biological functions and their unique intrinsic properties make them particularly attractive therapeutic agents. Keeping in view, novel dipeptide complexes Cu(II)-Val-Pro (1), Zn(II)-Val-Pro (2), Cu(II)-Ala-Pro (3) and Zn(II)-Ala-Pro (4) were synthesized and thoroughly characterized using different spectroscopic techniques including elemental analyses, IR, NMR, ESI–MS and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study carried out by UV–vis absorption titration over a broad range of pH proved the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro DNA binding studies of complexes 1–4 carried out employing absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism and viscometric studies revealed the binding of complexes to DNA via groove binding. UV–vis titrations of 1–4 with mononucleotides of interest viz., 5´-GMP and 5´-TMP were also carried out. The DNA cleavage activity of the complexes 1 and 2 were ascertained by gel electrophoresis assay which revealed that the complexes are good DNA cleavage agents and the cleavage mechanism involved a hydrolytic pathway. Furthermore, in vitro antitumor activity of complex 1 was screened against human cancer cell lines of different histological origin.

Keywords: dipeptide Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes, DNA binding profile, pBR322 DNA cleavage, in vitro anticancer activity

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6871 Isotope Effects on Inhibitors Binding to HIV Reverse Transcriptase

Authors: Agnieszka Krzemińska, Katarzyna Świderek, Vicente Molinier, Piotr Paneth


In order to understand in details the interactions between ligands and the enzyme isotope effects were studied between clinically used drugs that bind in the active site of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase, HIV-1 RT, as well as triazole-based inhibitor that binds in the allosteric pocket of this enzyme. The magnitudes and origins of the resulting binding isotope effects were analyzed. Subsequently, binding isotope effect of the same triazole-based inhibitor bound in the active site were analyzed and compared. Together, these results show differences in binding origins in two sites of the enzyme and allow to analyze binding mode and place of newly synthesized inhibitors. Typical protocol is described below on the example of triazole ligand in the allosteric pocket. Triazole was docked into allosteric cavity of HIV-1 RT with Glide using extra-precision mode as implemented in Schroedinger software. The structure of HIV-1 RT was obtained from Protein Data Bank as structure of PDB ID 2RKI. The pKa for titratable amino acids was calculated using PROPKA software, and in order to neutralize the system 15 Cl- were added using tLEaP package implemented in AMBERTools ver.1.5. Also N-terminals and C-terminals were build using tLEaP. The system was placed in 144x160x144Å3 orthorhombic box of water molecules using NAMD program. Missing parameters for triazole were obtained at the AM1 level using Antechamber software implemented in AMBERTools. The energy minimizations were carried out by means of a conjugate gradient algorithm using NAMD. Then system was heated from 0 to 300 K with temperature increment 0.001 K. Subsequently 2 ns Langevin−Verlet (NVT) MM MD simulation with AMBER force field implemented in NAMD was carried out. Periodic Boundary Conditions and cut-offs for the nonbonding interactions, range radius from 14.5 to 16 Å, are used. After 2 ns relaxation 200 ps of QM/MM MD at 300 K were simulated. The triazole was treated quantum mechanically at the AM1 level, protein was described using AMBER and water molecules were described using TIP3P, as implemented in fDynamo library. Molecules 20 Å apart from the triazole were kept frozen, with cut-offs established on range radius from 14.5 to 16 Å. In order to describe interactions between triazole and RT free energy of binding using Free Energy Perturbation method was done. The change in frequencies from ligand in solution to ligand bounded in enzyme was used to calculate binding isotope effects.

Keywords: binding isotope effects, molecular dynamics, HIV, reverse transcriptase

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6870 Dimensionless Binding Values in the Evaluation of Paracetamol Tablet Formulation

Authors: Abayomi T. Ogunjimi, Gbenga Alebiowu


Mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets containing Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum were compared with standard Acacia gum BP as binder. Two dimensionless binding quantities BEN and BEC were used in assessing the influence of binder type on two mechanical properties, Tensile Strength (TS) and Brittle Fracture Index (BFI). The two quantities were also used to assess the influence of relative density and binder concentration on TS and BFI as well as compare Binding Efficiencies (BE). The result shows that TS is dependent on relative density, binder type and binder concentration while BFI is dependent on the binder type and binder concentration; and that although, the inclusion of NMG in a paracetamol tablet formulation may not enhance the TS of the tablets produced, however it will decrease the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate. This work concludes that BEN may be useful in quantitative assessment while BEC may be appropriate for qualitative assessment.

Keywords: binding efficiency, brittle fracture index, dimensionless binding, tensile strength

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6869 Investigation of Corrosion Inhibition Potential of Acalypha chamaedrifolia Leaves Extract towards Mild Steel in Acid Medium

Authors: Stephen Eyije Abechi, Casimir Emmanuel Gimba, Zaharaddeen Nasiru Garba, Sani Shamsudeen, David Ebuka Authur


Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid medium using Acalypha chamaedrifolia leaves extract as potential green inhibitor was investigated. Gravimetric (weight loss) technique was used for the corrosion studies. Mild steel coupons of 2cm × 1cm × 0.27 cm dimensions were exposed for varying durations of between 24 to 120 hours, in 1M HCl medium containing a varying concentrations of the leaves extract (0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L). The results show that corrosion rates dropped from a value of 0.49 mgcm-2hr-1 for the uninhibited medium to a value of 0.15 mgcm-2hr-1 for the inhibited medium of 1M HCl in 0.25 g/l of the extract. Values of corrosion inhibition efficiencies of 70.38-85.11% were observed as the concentration of the inhibitor were increased from 0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L. Corrosion Inhibition was found to increase with increase in immersion time and temperature. The magnitude of the Ea indicates that the interaction between the metal surface and the inhibitor was chemisorptions. The Adsorption process fit into the Langmuir isotherm model with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. Evidence from molecular dynamics model shows that Methyl stearate (Line 5) and (3Z, 13Z)-2-methyloctadeca-3,13-dien-1-ol (line 11) were found to have the highest binding energy of -197.69 ± 3.12 and-194.56 ± 10.04 in kcal/mol respectively. The binding energy of these compounds indicates that they would be a very good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel and other Fe related materials.

Keywords: binding energy, corrosion, inhibitor, langmuir isotherm, mild steel

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6868 Studies on Mechanisms of Corrosion Inhibition of Acalypha chamaedrifolia Leaves Extract towards Mild Steel in Acid Medium

Authors: Stephen Eyije Abechi, Casimir Emmanuel Gimba, Zaharaddeen Nasiru Garba, Sani Shamsudeen, David Ebuka Authur


The mechanisms of corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid medium using Acalypha chamaedrifolia leaves extract as potential green inhibitor were investigated. Gravimetric (weight loss) technique was used for the corrosion studies. Mild steel coupons of 2cm × 1cm × 0.27 cm dimensions were exposed for varying durations of between 24 to 120 hours, in 1M HCl medium containing a varying concentrations of the leaves extract (0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L). The results show that corrosion rates dropped from a value of 0.49 mgcm-2hr-1 for the uninhibited medium to a value of 0.15 mgcm-2hr-1 for the inhibited medium of 1M HCl in 0.25 g/l of the extract. Values of corrosion inhibition efficiencies of 70.38-85.11% were observed as the concentration of the inhibitor were increased from 0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L. Corrosion Inhibition was found to increase with increase in immersion time and temperature. The magnitude of the Ea indicates that the interaction between the metal surface and the inhibitor was chemisorptions. The Adsorption process fit into the Langmuir isotherm model with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. Evidence from molecular dynamics model shows that Methyl stearate (Line 5) and (3Z, 13Z)-2-methyloctadeca-3,13-dien-1-ol (line 11) were found to have the highest binding energy of -197.69 ± 3.12 and-194.56 ± 10.04 in kcal/mol respectively. The binding energy of these compounds indicates that they would be a very good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel and other Fe related materials.

Keywords: binding energy, corrosion, inhibitor, Langmuir isotherm, mild steel.

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6867 Interaction of Low-Energy Positrons with Mg Atoms: Elastic Scattering, Bound States, and Annihilation

Authors: Mahasen M. Abdel Mageed, H. S. Zaghloul


Annihilations, phase shifts, scattering lengths, and elastic cross sections of low energy positrons scattering from magnesium atoms were studied using the least-squares variational method (LSVM). The possibility of positron binding to the magnesium atoms is investigated. A trial wavefunction is suggested to represent e+-Mg elastic scattering and scattering parameters were derived to estimate the binding energy and annihilation rates. The trial function is taken to depend on several adjustable parameters and is improved iteratively by increasing the number of terms. The present results have the same behavior as reported semi-empirical, theoretical, and experimental results. Especially, the estimated positive scattering length supports the possibility of positron-magnesium bound state system that was confirmed in previous experimental and theoretical work.

Keywords: bound wavefunction, positron annihilation, scattering phase shift, scattering length

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6866 Functional Characteristics of Chemosensory Proteins in the Sawyer Beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope

Authors: Saqib Ali, Man-Qun Wang


The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a major pest of pines and it is also the key vector of the exotic pinewood nematode in China. In the present study, we cloned, expressed, and purified a chemosensory protein (CSP) in M. alternatus. We surveyed its expression in various developmental stages of male and female adult tissues and determined its binding affinities for different pine volatiles using a competitive binding fluorescence assay. A CSP known as CSP5 in M. alternatus was obtained from an antennal cDNA library and expressed in Escherichia coli. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the CSP5 gene was mainly expressed in male and female antennae. Competitive binding assays were performed to test the binding affinity of recombinant CSP5 to 13 odour molecules of pine volatiles. The results showed that CSP5 showed very strong binding abilities to myrcene, (+)-β-pinene, and (−)-isolongifolene, whereas the volatiles 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, p-cymene, and (+)-limonene oxide have relatively weak binding affinity at pH 5.0. Three volatiles myrcene, (+)-β-pinene, and (−)-isolongifolene may play crucial roles in CSP5 binding with ligands, but this needs further study for confirmation. The sensitivity of insect to host plant volatiles can effectively be used to control and monitor the population through mass trapping as part of integrated pest management programs.

Keywords: olfactory-specific protein, volatiles, competitive binding assay, expression characteristics, qPCR

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6865 MICA-TM Peptide Selectively Binds to HLAs Associated with Behçet's Disease

Authors: Sirilak Kongkaew, Pathumwadee Yodmanee, Nopporn Kaiyawet, Arthitaya Meeprasert, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol, Toshikatsu Kaburaki, Hiroshi Noguchi, Fujio Takeuch, Nawee Kungwan, Supot Hannongbua


Behçet’s disease (BD) is a genetic autoimmune expressed by multisystemic inflammatory disorder mostly occurred at the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract, and genitalia, including ocular, oral, genital, and central nervous systems. Most BD patients in Japan and Korea were strongly indicated by the genetic factor namely HLA-B*51 (especially, HLA-B*51:01) marker in HMC class I, while HLA-A*26:01 allele has been detected from the BD patients in Greek, Japan, and Taiwan. To understand the selective binding of the MICA-TM peptide towards the HLAs associated with BD, the molecular dynamics simulations were applied on the four HLA alleles (B*51:01, B*35:01, A*26:01, and A*11:01) in complex with such peptide. As a result, the key residues in the binding groove of HLA protein which play an important role in the MICA-TM peptide binding and stabilization were revealed. The Van der Waals force was found to be the main protein-protein interaction. Based on the binding free energy prediction by MM/PBSA method, the MICA-TM peptide interacted stronger to the HLA alleles associated to BD in the identical class by 7-12 kcal/mol. The obtained results from the present study could help to differentiate the HLA alleles and explain a source of Behçet’s disease.

Keywords: Behçet’s disease, MD simulations, HMC class I, autoimmune

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6864 Understanding Inhibitory Mechanism of the Selective Inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 Complex by Molecular Modeling Studies

Authors: Amir Zeb, Shailima Rampogu, Minky Son, Ayoung Baek, Sang H. Yoon, Keun W. Lee


Neurotoxic insults activate calpain, which in turn produces truncated p25 from p35. p25 forms hyperactivated Cdk5/p25 complex, and thereby induces severe neuropathological aberrations including hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and neuronal death. Inhibition of Cdk5/p25 complex alleviates aberrant phosphorylation of tau to mitigate AD pathology. PHA-793887 and Roscovitine have been investigated as selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 with IC50 values 5nM and 160nM, respectively, but their mechanistic studies remain unknown. Herein, computational simulations have explored the binding mode and interaction mechanism of PHA-793887 and Roscovitine with Cdk5/p25. Docking results suggested that PHA-793887 and Rsocovitine have occupied the ATP-binding site of Cdk5 and obtained highest docking (GOLD) score of 66.54 and 84.03, respectively. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation demonstrated that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine established stable RMSD of 1.09 Å and 1.48 Å with Cdk5/p25, respectively. Profiling of polar interactions suggested that each inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds (H-bond) with catalytic residues of Cdk5 and could remain stable throughout the molecular dynamics simulation. Additionally, binding free energy calculation by molecular mechanics/Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) suggested that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine had lowest binding free energies of -150.05 kJ/mol and -113.14 kJ/mol, respectively with Cdk5/p25. Free energy decomposition demonstrated that polar energy by H-bond between the Glu81 of Cdk5 and PHA-793887 is the essential factor to make PHA-793887 highly selective towards Cdk5/p25. Overall, this study provided substantial evidences to explore mechanistic interactions of the selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 and could be used as fundamental considerations in the development of structure-based selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25.

Keywords: Cdk5/p25 inhibition, molecular modeling of Cdk5/p25, PHA-793887 and roscovitine, selective inhibition of Cdk5/p25

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6863 Tail-Binding Effect of Kinesin-1 Auto Inhibition Using Elastic Network Model

Authors: Hyun Joon Chang, Jae In Kim, Sungsoo Na


Kinesin-1 (hereafter called kinesin) is a molecular motor protein that moves cargos toward the end of microtubules using the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. When kinesin is inactive, its tail autoinhibits the motor chain in order to prevent from reacting with the ATP by cross-linking of the tail domain to the motor domains at two positions. However, the morphological study of kinesin during autoinhibition is yet remained obscured. In this study, we report the effect of the binding site of the tail domain using the normal mode analysis of the elastic network model on kinesin in the tail-free form and tail-bind form. Considering the relationship between the connectivity of conventional network model with respect to the cutoff length and the functionality of the binding site of the tail, we revaluated the network model to observe the key role of the tail domain in its structural aspect. Contingent on the existence of the tail domain, the results suggest the morphological stability of the motor domain. Furthermore, employing the results from normal mode analysis, we have determined the strain energy of the neck linker, an essential portion of the motor domain for ATP hydrolysis. The results of the neck linker also converge to the same indication, i.e. the morphological analysis of the motor domain.

Keywords: elastic network model, Kinesin-1, autoinhibition

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6862 Iron Response Element-mRNA Binding to Iron Response Protein: Metal Ion Sensing

Authors: Mateen A. Khan, Elizabeth J. Theil, Dixie J. Goss


Cellular iron homeostasis is accomplished by the coordinated regulated expression of iron uptake, storage, and export. Iron regulate the translation of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA by interaction with an iron regulatory protein (IRPs). Iron increases protein biosynthesis encoded in iron responsive element. The noncoding structure IRE-mRNA, approximately 30-nt, folds into a stem loop to control synthesis of proteins in iron trafficking, cell cycling, and nervous system function. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed the presence of one binding site on IRP1 for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA. Scatchard analysis revealed the binding affinity (Kₐ) and average binding sites (n) for ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase IRE-mRNA were 68.7 x 10⁶ M⁻¹ and 9.2 x 10⁶ M⁻¹, respectively. In order to understand the relative importance of equilibrium and stability, we further report the contribution of electrostatic interactions in the overall binding of two IRE-mRNA with IRP1. The fluorescence quenching of IRP1 protein was measured at different ionic strengths. The binding affinity of IRE-mRNA to IRP1 decreases with increasing ionic strength, but the number of binding sites was independent of ionic strength. Such results indicate a differential contribution of electrostatics to the interaction of IRE-mRNA with IRP1, possibly related to helix bending or stem interactions and an overall conformational change. Selective destabilization of ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase RNA/protein complexes as reported here explain in part the quantitative differences in signal response to iron in vivo and indicate possible new regulatory interactions.

Keywords: IRE-mRNA, IRP1, binding, ionic strength

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6861 Biophysical Study of the Interaction of Harmalol with Nucleic Acids of Different Motifs: Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Approaches

Authors: Kakali Bhadra


Binding of small molecules to DNA and recently to RNA, continues to attract considerable attention for developing effective therapeutic agents for control of gene expression. This work focuses towards understanding interaction of harmalol, a dihydro beta-carboline alkaloid, with different nucleic acid motifs viz. double stranded CT DNA, single stranded A-form poly(A), double-stranded A-form of poly(C)·poly(G) and clover leaf tRNAphe by different spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. Results of this study converge to suggest that (i) binding constant varied in the order of CT DNA > poly(C)·poly(G) > tRNAphe > poly(A), (ii) non-cooperative binding of harmalol to poly(C)·poly(G) and poly(A) and cooperative binding with CT DNA and tRNAphe, (iii) significant structural changes of CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe with concomitant induction of optical activity in the bound achiral alkaloid molecules, while with poly(A) no intrinsic CD perturbation was observed, (iv) the binding was predominantly exothermic, enthalpy driven, entropy favoured with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) while it was entropy driven with tRNAphe and poly(A), (v) a hydrophobic contribution and comparatively large role of non-polyelectrolytic forces to Gibbs energy changes with CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe, and (vi) intercalated state of harmalol with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) structure as revealed from molecular docking and supported by the viscometric data. Furthermore, with competition dialysis assay it was shown that harmalol prefers hetero GC sequences. All these findings unequivocally pointed out that harmalol prefers binding with ds CT DNA followed by ds poly(C)·poly(G), clover leaf tRNAphe and least with ss poly(A). The results highlight the importance of structural elements in these natural beta-carboline alkaloids in stabilizing different DNA and RNA of various motifs for developing nucleic acid based better therapeutic agents.

Keywords: calorimetry, docking, DNA/RNA-alkaloid interaction, harmalol, spectroscopy

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6860 Investigation of Mutagenicity and DNA Binding Properties of Metal-Free and Metallophthalocyanines Containing α-Napththolbenzein Groups on the Peripheral Positions

Authors: Meltem Betül Sağlam, Halil İbrahim Güler, Aykut Sağlam


In this work, phthalocyanine compounds containing α-naphtholbenzeinunits have been synthesized. Mutagenicity and DNA binding properties of the compounds were investigated by Salmonella/Microsome Assay and spectrophotometer. According to the results of the preliminary range finding tests, the compounds gave no toxic effect to all tester strain S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 at doses of 500, 1100, 350, 500 and 750 µg/plate in the presence and absence of S9, respectively. This study showed that all compounds exhibited efficient DNA-binding activity. In conclusion, these non-toxic compounds may be used as effective DNA dyes for molecular biology studies.

Keywords: dye, mutagenicity, phthalocyanine, toxicity

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6859 Metal-Based Anticancer Agents: In vitro DNA Binding, Cleavage and Cytotoxicity

Authors: Mala Nath, Nagamani Kompelli, Partha Roy, Snehasish Das


Two new metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, [(Ph2Sn)2(HGuO)2(phen)Cl2] 1 and [(Ph3Sn)(HGuO)(phen)]- Cl.CH3OH.H2O 2, were designed, prepared and characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, ESI-Mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR) techniques. The proposed geometry of Sn(IV) in 1 and 2 is distorted octahedral and distorted trigonal-bipyramidal, respectively. Both 1 and 2 exhibit potential cytotoxicity in vitro against MCF-7, HepG-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) values of 1 (2.33 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.46 × 105 M-1) evaluated from UV-Visible absorption studies suggest non-classical electrostatic mode of interaction via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) of 1 (9.74 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.9 × 106 M-1) determined by fluorescence studies suggests the groove binding and intercalation mode for 1 and 2, respectively. Effective cleavage of pBR322 DNA is induced by 1. Their interaction with DNA of cancer cells may account for potency.

Keywords: anticancer agents, DNA binding studies, NMR spectroscopy, organotin

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6858 The Effect of Hydrogen on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO: A Density Functional Tight Binding Study

Authors: M. A. Lahmer, K. Guergouri


The ferromagnetic properties of carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO) and hydrogenated carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO+H) are investigated using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. Our results reveal that CO-doped ZnO is a ferromagnetic material with a magnetic moment of 1.3 μB per carbon atom. The presence of hydrogen in the material in the form of CO-H complex decreases the total magnetism of the material without suppressing ferromagnetism. However, the system in this case becomes quickly antiferromagnetic when the C-C separation distance was increased.

Keywords: ZnO, carbon, hydrogen, ferromagnetism, density functional tight binding

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