Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 11

Search results for: flavanoids

11 The Antioxidant Activity of Grape Chkhaveri and Its Wine Cultivated in West Georgia (Adjaria)

Authors: Maia Kharadze, Indira Djaparidze, Maia Vanidze, Aleko Kalandia


Modern scientific world studies chemical components and antioxidant activity of different kinds of vines according to their breed purity and location. To our knowledge, this kind of research has not been conducted in Georgia yet. The object of our research was to study Chkhaveri vine, which is included in the oldest varieties of the Black Sea basin vine. We have studied different-altitude Chkaveri grapes, juice, and wine (half dry rose-colored produced with European technologies) and their technical markers, qualitative and quantitive composition of their biologically active compounds and their antioxidant activity. We were determining the amount of phenols using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, Flavonoids, Catechins and Anthocyanins using Spectral method and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Several compounds were identified using –HPLC-UV-Vis, UPLC-MS methods. Six samples of Chkhaveri species– 5, 300, 360, 380, 400, 780 meter altitudes were taken and analyzed. The sample taken from 360 m altitude is distinguished by its cluster mass (383.6 grams) and high amount of sugar (20.1%). The sample taken from the five-meter altitude is distinguished by having high acidity (0.95%). Unlike other grapes varieties, such concentration of sugar and relatively low levels of citric acid ultimately leads to Chkhaveri wine individuality. Biologically active compounds of Chkhaveri were researched in 2014, 2015, 2016. The amount of total phenols in samples of 2016 fruit varies from 976.7 to 1767.0 mg/kg. Amount of Anthocians is 721.2-1630.2 mg/kg, and the amount of Flavanoids varies from 300.6 to 825.5 mg/kg. Relatively high amount of anthocyanins was found in the Chkhaveri at 780-meter altitude - 1630.2 mg/kg. Accordingly, the amount of Phenols and Flavanoids is high- 1767.9 mg/kg and 825.5 mg/kg. These characteristics are low in samples gathered from 5 meters above sea level, Anthocyanins-721.2 mg/ kg, total Phenols-976.7 mg/ kg, and Flavanoids-300.6 mg/kg. The highest amount of bioactive compounds can be found in the Chkhaveri samples of high altitudes because with rising height environment becomes harsh, the plant has to develop a better immune system using Phenolic compounds. The technology that is used for the production of wine also plays a huge role in the composition of the final product. Optimal techniques of maceration and ageing were worked out. While squeezing Chkhaveri, there are no anthocyanins in the juice. However, the amount of Anthocyanins rises during maceration. After the fermentation of dregs, the amount of anthocyanins is 55%, 521.3 gm/l, total Phenols 80% 1057.7 mg/l and Flavanoids 23.5 mg/l. Antioxidant activity of samples was also determined using the effect of 50% inhibition of the samples. All samples have high antioxidant activity. For instance, in samples at 780 meters above the sea-level antioxidant activity was 53.5%. It is relatively high compared to the sample at 5 m above sea-level with the antioxidant activity of 30.5%. Thus, there is a correlation between the amount Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. The designated project has been fulfilled by financial support of the Georgia National Science Foundation (Grant AP/96/13, Grant 216816), Any idea in this publication is possessed by the author and may not represent the opinion of the Georgia National Science Foundation.

Keywords: antioxidants, bioactive content, wine, chkhaveri

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10 Phytochemical Screening of Roots of Peltophorum pterocarpum

Authors: Vidyadhar Suram, D. Chamundeeswari, Umamaheswara Rao, Krishna Mohan Chinnala


Peltophorum pterocarpum known as copper pod belongs to the family Fabaceae, native to tropical south-eastern asia and a popularly ornamental tree grown around the world. In traditional medicine it is used as an astringent to cure or relieve intestinal disorders after pain at childbirth, sprains, bruises and swelling or as a lotion for eye troubles, muscular pains and sores. It is also used for gargles and tooth powders. Medcinally; it has proven to possess various pharmacological activities. The powdered root part of Peltophorum pterocarpum (250gr) were extracted exhaustively using different solvents and phytochemical investigations has shown the presence of various secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, proteins, glycosides, steriods, and volatile.

Keywords: antibacterialactivity, fabaceae, peltophorum pterocarpum, isocoumari, alkaloids

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9 Supplementation of Fig Fruit (Ficus carica linn.) Extract in Extender on Sperm Motility and Viability of Native Chicken Semen after Cooling

Authors: N. Isnaini, S. Wahjuningsih


Fig fruit is the fruit of a tropical plant with content of flavanoids, vitamins A, C, and E which are antioxidants that effectively prevent and neutralize free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the supplementation of fig fruit extract in a physiological NaCl-based diluent on sperm motility and viability of native chicken semen after cooling. Semen was collected from 4 male mature chocks using massage method. Fresh semen evaluated for colour, pH, volume, concentration, mass motility, individual motility, life sperm and sperm abnormality. Semen was diluted with physiological NaCl-based extender supplemented with different levels of fig fruit extract (0, 10, 20 and 30 %) v/v with the ratio of 1 semen: 4 diluter. Semen used had mass motility of 2+ and motility of 70%. Immediately after dilution semen was stored in 3-5 °C and sperm motility and viability percentage were observed at 0, 12 and 24 h. The obtained data were analyze with Analysis of Variant (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference were determined. The experiment was designed using completely random design (4 treatments and 10 replications). The results showed that the level of fig fruit extract had very significant effect (P < 0,01) on sperm motility and viability percentage in 0, 12 and 24 h of cooling. It can be concluded that the best fig fruit extract level for resulting optimal sperm motility and viability was 10%.

Keywords: chock, antioxidant, fig fruit extract, sperm

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8 Allelopathic Effect of Foliar Extracts of Leucaena leucocephala on Germination and Growth Behavior of Zea mays L.

Authors: Guru Prasad Satsangi, Shiv Shankar Gautam


Allelopathy is a potential area of research for sustainable agriculture. It is environmentally safe, can conserve the available resources, and also may mitigate the problems raised by synthetic chemicals. The allelo-chemicals are secondary metabolites produced by plants, which are the byproducts of the primary metabolic process. These allelo-chemicals may be stimulatory, inhibitory, or may have no effect on the growth of the other plants. It has been observed in the present study that foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala showed an inhibitory effect on the germination of the test crop maize. The results revealed that at different concentrations of Leucaena leucocephala foliar extract, caused a significant inhibition in germination and growth behavior of Zea mays L. seedlings. Minimum germination and growth occurred in 100 % concentration, and an increase in extract concentrations result in a decrease in the germination. Bioassay also depicted that this inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentration of the extract as the higher concentration having a lesser stimulatory effect or vice versa. The phytochemical analysis of the secondary metabolites from foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala L. showed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, and flavanoids. Among various extracts, the presence of methanol extract was found in a significant amount of phytochemicals, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. Leaves showed a significantly higher amount of the allelochemicals.

Keywords: allelopathic effect, germination /growth behavior , foliar extracts, Leucaena leucceophala , Zea mays L.

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7 Effect of Biostimulants on Downstream Processing of Endophytic Fungi Hosted in Aromatic Plant, Ocimum basicilium

Authors: Kanika Chowdhary, Satyawati Sharma


Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. Exploring agriculturally beneficial endophytes is quite a prospective field of research. In the present work fungal endophytes associated with aromatic plant Ocimum basicilium L. were investigated for biocontrol potential. The anti-plant pathogenic activity of fungal endophytes was tested against causal agent of stem rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 75 endophytic fungi were recovered through culture-dependent approach. Fungal identification was performed both microscopically and by rDNA ITS sequencing. Curvuaria lunata (Sb-6) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sb-8) inhibited 86% and 72% mycelia growth of S. sclerotinia on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium at 7.4 pH. Small-scale fermentation was carried out on sterilised oatmeal grain medium. In another set of experiment, fungi were grown in oatmeal grain medium amended with certain biostimulants such as aqueous seaweed extract (10% v/w); methanolic seaweed extract (5% v/w); cow urine (20% v/w); biochar (10% w/w) in triplicate along with control of each to ascertain the degree of metabolic difference and anti-plant pathogenic activity induced. Phytochemically extracts of both the fungal isolates showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethylacetate extract of C. lunata and C. lindemuthianum suppressed S. sclerotinia conidial germination at IC50 values of 0.514± 0.02 and 0.913± 0.04 mg/ml. Therefore, fungal endophytes of O. basicilium are highly promising bio-resource agent, which can be developed further for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, ocimum basicilium, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, biostimulants

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6 Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Camellia sinensis Linn. Leaves

Authors: Babar Ali, Mohammad Rashid, Showkat Rasool Mir, Mohammad Ali, Saiba Shams


Background: The plant Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is an evergreen shrub indigenous to Assam (India) and parts of China and Japan. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended green tea for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, enhancement of immune defense, detoxification, as an energizer and to prolong life. The leaves have more than 700 chemical constituents, among which flavanoids, amino acids, vitamins (C, E, K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Adulteration and substitution may affect the quality of formulation containing tea leaves. Standardization of medicinal preparation is essential for further therapeutic results and for global acceptance. Hence, chromatographic fingerprint profiles were carried out for establishing the standards. Materials and methods: TLC studies for methanolic extracts of the leaves of Camellia sinensis were carried out in a new developed solvent system, Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7:3:1). TLC plates were dried in air, visualized in UV at wavelengths 254 nm and 366 nm and photographed. Results: Results provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Fingerprinting of methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis leaves revealed the presence of various phytochemicals in UV at 254 nm and 366 nm. Conclusion: Fingerprint profile is quite helpful in setting up of standards and thus to keep a check on intentional/unintentional adulteration. TLC offers major advantages over other conventional chromatographic techniques such as unsurpassed flexibility (esp. stationary and mobile phase), choice of detection wavelength, user friendly, rapid and cost effective.

Keywords: Cammelia sinensis Linn., standardization, methanolic extract, thin layer chromatography

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5 Production of Organic Solvent Tolerant Hydrolytic Enzymes (Amylase and Protease) by Bacteria Isolated from Soil of a Dairy Farm

Authors: Alok Kumar, Hari Ram, Lebin Thomas, Ved Pal Singh


Organic solvent tolerant amylases and proteases of microbial origin are in great demand for their application in transglycosylation of water-insoluble flavanoids and in peptide synthesizing reaction in organic media. Most of the amylases and proteases are unstable in presence of organic solvent. In the present work two different bacterial strains M-11 and VP-07 were isolated from the soil sample of a dairy farm in Delhi, India, for the efficient production of extracellular amylase and protease through their screening on starch agar (SA) and skimmed milk agar (SMA) plates, respectively. Both the strains (M-11 and VP-07) were identified based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. After analysis through Ez-Taxon software, the strains M-11 and VP-07 were found to have maximum pairwise similarity of 98.63% and 100% with Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 and Bacillus anthracis ATCC 14578 and were therefore identified as Bacillus sp. UKS1 and Bacillus sp. UKS2, respectively. Time course study of enzyme activity and bacterial growth has shown that both strains exhibited typical sigmoid growth behavior and maximum production of amylase (180 U/ml) and protease (78 U/ml) by these strains (UKS1 and UKS2) was commenced during stationary phase of growth at 24 and 20 h, respectively. Thereafter, both amylase and protease were tested for their tolerance towards organic solvents and were found to be active as well stable in p-xylene (130% and 115%), chloroform (110% and 112%), isooctane (119% and 107%), benzene (121% and 104%), n-hexane (116% and 103%) and toluene (112% and 101%, respectively). Owing to such properties, these enzymes can be exploited for their potential application in industries for organic synthesis.

Keywords: amylase, enzyme activity, industrial applications, organic solvent tolerant, protease

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4 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao


Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents, pharmacognosy, secondary metabolites

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3 Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthium

Authors: Hallal Nouria, Kharoubi Omar


Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) is a medicinal and aromatic bitter herb, which has been used as a medicine from ancient times. It has traditionally been used as anthelmintic, choleretic, antiseptic, balsamic, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue and in treating leukemia and sclerosis. The species was cited to be used externally as cataplasm of crushed leaves for snake and scorpion bites or decoction for wounds and sores applied locally as antiseptic and antifungal. Wormwood extract have high contents of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids indicating that these compounds contribute to antiradical and antioxidative activity. Most of the degenerative diseases are caused by free radicals. Antioxidants are the agents responsible for scavenging free radicals. The aim of present study was to evaluate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of Wormwood extract. DPPH assay and reducing power assay were the method adopted to study antioxidant potentials of extracts. Standard methods were used to screen preliminary phytochemistry and quantitative analysis of tannin, phenolics and flavanoids. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were showed good antioxidant effect with IC50 ranges from 62 μg/ml for aqueous and 116μg/ml for alcoholic extracts. Phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids were the major phytochemicals present in both the extracts. Percentage of inhibition increased with the increased concentration of extracts. The aqueous and alcoholic extract yielded 20, 15& 3, 59 mg/g gallic acid equivalent phenolic content 2, 78 & 1,83 mg/g quercetin equivalent flavonoid and 2, 34 & 6, 40 g tannic acid equivalent tannins respectively. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts showed a positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The present study provides evidence that both extracts of Artemisia absinthium is a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: pharmaceutical industries, medicinal and aromatic plant, antioxidants, phenolic compounds, Artemisia absinthium

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2 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Lens Esculenta Moench, Seeds

Authors: Vivek Kumar Gupta, Kripi Vohra, Monika Gupta


Pulses have been a vital ingredient of the balanced human diet in India. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus or Lens esculenta Moench.) is a common legume known since biblical times. Lentil seeds, with or without hulls, are cooked as dhal and this has been the main dish for millennia in the South Asian region. Oxidative stress can damage lipids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and DNA in cells and tissues, resulting in membrane damage, fragmentation or random cross linking of molecules like DNA, enzymes and structural proteins and even lead to cell death induced by DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation. These consequences of oxidative stress construct the molecular basis in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and autoimmune. The aim of the present work is to assess the antioxidant potential of the peteroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water extract of the Lens esculenta seeds. In vitro antioxidant assessment of the extracts was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay. The quantitative estimation of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content in extracts and in plant material, total saponin content, total alkaloid content, crude fibre content, total volatile content, fat content and mucilage content in drug material was also carried out. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity the acetone extract was found to possess significant hydrogen donating ability in DPPH (45.83%-93.13%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging system (28.7%-46.41%) than the peteroleum ether, methanol and water extracts. Total phenolic content in the acetone and methanol extract was found to be 608 and 188 mg gallic acid equivalent of phenol/g of sample respectively. Total flavonoid content of acetone and methanol extract was found to be 128 and 30.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of sample respectively. It is evident that acetone extract of Lentil seeds possess high levels of polyphenolics and flavonoids that could be utilized as antioxidants and neutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant, flavanoids, Lens esculenta, polyphenols

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1 White-Rot Fungi Phellinus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents

Authors: Yogesh Dalvi, Ruby Varghese, Nibu Varghese, C. K. Krishnan Nair


Introduction: The Genus Phellinus, locally known as Phansomba is a well-known traditional folk medicine. Especially, in Western Ghats of India, many tribes use several species of Phellinus for various ailments related to teeth, throat, tongue, stomach and even wound healing. It is one of the few mushrooms which play a pivotal role in Ayurvedic Dravyaguna. Aim: The present study focuses on to investigate phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, and antitumor (in vitro and in vivo) potential of Phellinus robinae from South India, Kerala Material and Methods: The present study explores the following: 1. Phellinus samples were collected from Ranni, Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state, India from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and species were identified using rDNA region. 2. The fruiting body was shadow dried, powdered and extracted with 50% alcohol using water bath at 60°C which was further condensed by rotary evaporator and lyophilized at minus 40°C temperature. 3. Secondary metabolites were analyzed by using various phytochemical screening assay (Hager’s Test, Wagner’s Test, Sodium hydroxide Test, Lead acetate Test, Ferric chloride Test, Folin-ciocalteu Test, Foaming Test, Benedict’s test, Fehling’s Test and Lowry’s Test). 4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were analyzed by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. 5. The antitumor potential of Water alcohol extract of Phellinus (PAWE) is evaluated through In vitro condition by Trypan blue dye exclusion method in DLA cell line and In vivo by murine model. Result and Discussion: Preliminary phytochemical screening by various biochemical tests revealed presence of a variety of active secondary molecules like alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins, carbohydrate, protein and phenol. In DPPH and FRAP assay PAWE showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to standard Ascorbic acid. While, in Iron chelating assay, PAWE exhibits similar antioxidant activity that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standard. Further, in the in vitro study, PAWE showed significant inhibition on DLA cell proliferation in dose dependent manner and showed no toxicity on mice splenocytes, when compared to standard chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. In vivo study, oral administration of PAWE showed dose dependent tumor regression in mice and also raised the immunogenicity by restoring levels of antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney tissue. In both in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies PAWE up-regulates pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Caspases 3, 8 and 9) and down- regulates anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl2). PAWE also down regulates inflammatory gene (Cox-2) and angiogenic gene (VEGF). Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that PAWE contains various secondary metabolites which contribute to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property as evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. PAWE exhibits anti-proliferative activity by the induction of apoptosis through a signaling cascade of death receptor-mediated extrinsic (Caspase8 and Tnf-α), as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic (caspase9) and caspase pathways (Caspase3, 8 and 9) and also by regressing angiogenic factor (VEGF) without any inflammation or adverse side effects. Hence, PAWE serve as a potential antioxidant and antitumor agent.

Keywords: antioxidant, antitumor, Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA), fungi, Phellinus robinae

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