Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: alkaloids

122 New Method for the Synthesis of Different Pyrroloquinazolinoquinolin Alkaloids

Authors: Abdulkareem M. Hamid, Yaseen Elhebshi, Adam Daïch

Abstract:

Luotonins and its derivatives (Isoluotonins) are alkaloids from the aerial parts of Peganum nigellastrum Bunge that display three major skeleton types. Luotonins A, B, and E are pyrroloquinazolinoquinoline alkaloids. A few methods were known for the sysnthesis of Isoluotonin. All luotonins have shown promising cytotoxicities towards selected human cancer cell lines, especially against leukemia P-388 cells. Luotonin A is the most active one, with its activity stemming from topoisomerase I-dependent DNA-cleavage. Such intriguing biological activities and unique structures have led not only to the development of synthetic methods for the efficient synthesis of these compounds, but also to interest in structural modifications for improving the biological properties. Recent progress in the study of luotonins is covered.

Keywords: luotonin A, isoluotonin, pyrroloquiolines, alkaloids

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121 Identification of Lipo-Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Aconitum carmichaelii Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ying Liang, Na Li

Abstract:

Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloids existed in Aconitum species, which usually contains an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid residues. The structures are very similar to that of diester-type alkaloids, which are considered as the main bioactive components in Aconitum carmichaelii. They have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative activities. So far, more than 200 lipo-alkaloids were reported from plants, semisynthesis, and biotransformations. In our research, by the combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and an in-house database, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. Considering the fatty acid residues in lipo-alkaloids should come from the free acids in the plant, the fatty acids and their relationship with lipo-alkaloids were further investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS. Among 17 fatty acids identified by GC-MS, 12 were detected as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids, which accounted for about 1/3 of total lipo-alkaloids, while these fatty acid residues were less than 1/4 of total fatty acid residues. And, total of 37 fatty acids were determined by UHPCL-Q-TOF-MS, including 18 oxidized fatty acids firstly identified from A. carmichaelii. These fatty acids were observed as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids. In addition, although over 140 lipo-alkaloids were identified, six lipo-alkaloids, 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (1), 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylaconine (2), 8-O-palmitoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (3), 8-O-oleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (4), 8-O-pal-benzoylaconine (5), and 8-O-ole-Benzoylaconine (6), were found to be the main components, which accounted for over 90% content of total lipo-alkaloids. Therefore, using these six components as standards, a UHPLC-Triple Quadrupole-MS (UHPLC-QQQ-MS) approach was established to investigate the influence of processing on the contents of lipo-alkaloids. Although it was commonly supposed that the contents of lipo-alkaloids increased after processing, our research showed that no significant change was observed before and after processing. Using the same methods, the lipo-alkaloids in the lateral roots of A. carmichaelii and the roots of A. kusnezoffii were determined and quantified. The contents of lipo-alkaloids in A. kusnezoffii were close to that of the parent roots of A. carmichaelii, while the lateral roots had less lipo-alkaloids than the parent roots. This work was supported by Macao Science and Technology Development Fund (086/2013/A3 and 003/2016/A1).

Keywords: Aconitum carmichaelii, fatty acids, GC-MS, LC-MS, lipo-alkaloids

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120 Identification of the Alkaloids of the Belladone (Atropa belladonna L.) and Evaluation of Their Inhibitory Effects Against Some Microbial Strains

Authors: Ait Slimane-Ait Kaki Sabrina, Foudi Lamia

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The present work consists of the study of the bio-ecology and the therapeutic effects of the belladone (Atropa belladonna L.). It is a medicinal plant of the Solanacées family, herbaceous, robust 0.5 up to 1.50 m high. The phytochemical analysis of leaves revealed alkaloids, tannins, catechin, coumarins, mucilages, saponins, starch, and reducing compounds. The experimental study concerns the extraction and characterization of belladonna alkaloids. Analysis of the purified extract by staining tests confirmed the presence of tropane alkaloids. The dosage chromatography revealed the presence of components that have been identified atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antifungal alkaloids from the methanol extract and aqueous extract of belladonna on pathogenic germs showed a positive bactericidal against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our preliminary results allow us an overall assessment of the medicinal value of Atropa belladonna.

Keywords: belladone, alkaloid, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity

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119 The Antimicrobrial Effect of Alkaloids (Harmin, Harmalin) Extracted from Peganum harmala (L) Seeds in the South of Algeria (Bousaada)

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene, Nadjiba Chebout

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This work examines the study of the antimicrobrial effect of alkaloids extracted from the seeds of Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae). This natural substance is extracted by using different solvents (aqueous, ethanolic, and hexane). The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity has only dealt with alkaloids. The antimicrobial effect of alkaloids is evaluated on several microorganisms. It has been tested on eight bacterial strains. The extract has been studied by using two yeasts. Finally, three molds have been studied. It should be noted that these agents are characterized by a high frequency of contamination and pathogenicity. Through this study, we note that Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerievisae and E. coli are very sensitive in respect of the ethanol extract. Pseudomonas aerogenosa and Penicillium sp. are resistant to this extract. The other microorganisms are moderately sensitive. The study of the antimicrobial activity of different extracts of the Harmel has shown an optimal activity with the ethanol extract.

Keywords: Peganum harmala L., seeds, alkaloids, bacteria, fungi, yeast, antimicrobial activity

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118 Cholinesterase Inhibitory Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Alireza Basiri, Yalda Kia, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah

Abstract:

Two new, rauvolfine C and 3- methyl-10,11-dimethoxyl-6- methoxycarbonyl- β- carboline, along with five known indole alkaloids, macusine B, vinorine, undulifoline, isoresrpiline and rescinnamine were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. All the compounds showed good to moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 8.06 to 73.23 πM, except rauvolfine C that was inactive against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Rescinnamine, a dual inhibitor was found to be the most potent inhibitor among the isolated alkaloids against both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Molecular docking revealed that rescinnamine interacted differently on AChE and BChE, by means of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Keywords: Rauvolfia reflexa, indole alkaloids, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, molecular docking

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117 Acute Toxicity Studies of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Datura stramonium in Female Rats: Effect on Liver and Kidney

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

Abstract:

The effects of acute administration of TOTAL alkaloids, the main active principle of Datura stramonium, with toxic properties, were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After acute intraperitoneal administration of dose 120 mg kg-1 (≈1/3 DL50) of total alkaloids to the seeds of D. stramonium, there were no remarkable changes in general appearance and no deaths occurred in any experimental group. After 5 days a significant reduction was observed in total alkaloids of seeds. The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT) and Hemoglobin (HGB) show significant changes in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, glucose and total protein observed between groups. After 24 h Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and creatinine were significantly higher in the treated male rats than the control group histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes.

Keywords: datura stramonium, rat, liver, kidney, alkaloids, toxicity

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116 Correlation of Structure and Antiviral Activity of Alkaloids of Polygonum L. Plants Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

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Currently to treat infectious diseases bioactive substances of plant origin having fewer side effects than synthetic medicines and medicines similar to natural components of a human body by the structure and action, become very important. One of the groups of secondary metabolites of the plants - alkaloids can be related the number of the most promising sources of medicines of plant origin. Currently, the structure of more than 7500 compounds has been identified. Analyzing the scope of research in the field of chemistry, pharmacology and technology of alkaloids, we can make a conclusion about that there is no system approach during the research of relation structure-activity on different groups of these substances. It is connected not only with a complex structure of their molecules, but also with insufficient information on the nature of their effect on organs, tissues and other targets in organism. The purpose of this research was to identify pharmacophore groups in the structure of alkaloids of endemic Polygonum L. plants growing in Kazakhstan responsible for their antiviral action. To isolate alkaloids pharmacopoeian methods were used. Antiviral activity of alkaloids of Polygonum L. plants was researched in the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Virus-inhibiting properties of compounds were studies in experiments with ortho- and paramyxoviruses on the model of chick-embryos. Anti-viral properties were determined using ‘screening test’ method designed to neutralization of a virus at the amount of 100EID50 with set concentrations of medicines. The difference of virus titer compared to control group was deemed as the criterion of antiviral action. It has been established that Polygonum L. alkaloids has high antiviral effect to influenza and parainfluenza viruses. The analysis of correlation of the structure and antiviral activity of alkaloids allowed identifying the main pharmacophore groups, among which the most important are glycosidation, the presence of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, molecular weight and molecular size.

Keywords: alkaloids, antiviral, bioactive substances, isolation, pharmacophore groups, Polygonum L.

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115 Subacute Toxicity Study of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Peganum harmala in Female Rat

Authors: Mahdeb Nadia, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Daamouche Z. El Youm, Bouzidi Abdelouahab

Abstract:

The effects of subacute administration of total alkaloids of seeds Peganum harmala were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After intraperitoneal administration of dose 50 mg/kg for 10 days and 40 mg/kg for 7 days of total alkaloids to the seeds of Peganum harmala (animal treatment lasted 17 days), there were remarkable changes in general appearance and deaths occurred in experimental group. After 17 days a significant reduction was observed in the surviving animals treated with total alkaloid seeds.The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT), Hemoglobin (HGB) and White blood cells (WBCs), show significant reduction in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT), Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, glucose and creatinine observed between groups. However the urea was significantly higher in the treated female rats than the control group. Histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes. Alkaloids of Peganum harmala showed significant toxicity in female rats.

Keywords: Peganum harmala, rat, liver, kidney, alkaloids, toxicity

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114 Irradiated-Chitosan and Methyl Jasmonate Modulate the Growth, Physiology and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus (l.) G. Don.

Authors: Moin Uddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Faisal Rasheed, Tariq Ahmad Dar, Akbar Ali, Lalit Varshney

Abstract:

Oligomers, obtained by exposing the natural polysaccharides (alginate, carrageenan, chitosan, etc.) to cobalt-60 generated gamma radiation may prove as potent plant growth promoters when applied as foliar sprays to the plants. They function as endogenous growth elicitors, triggering the synthesis of different enzymes and modulating various plant responses by exploiting the gene expression. Exogenous application of Jasmonic acid or of its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) has been reported to increase the secondary metabolites production in medicinal and aromatic plants. Keeping this in mind, three pot experiments were conducted to test whether the foliar application of irradiated-chitosan (IC) and MeJ, applied alone or in combination, could augment the active constituents as well as growth, physiological and yield attributes of Catharanthus roseus, which carries anticancer alkaloids, viz. vincristine and vinblastine, in its leaves in addition to various other useful alkaloids. Totally, 5 spray treatments, comprising various aqueous solutions of IC [20, 40, 80 and 160 mg L-1 (Experiment 1)], MeJ (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg L-1 (Experiment 2)] and those of IC+MeJ [40+20, 40+30, 80+20, 80+30, 160+20 and 160+30 mg L-1 (Experiment 3)], were applied at seven days interval. Total leaf-alkaloids content as well as growth, physiological and yield parameters, evaluated at 120 days after sowing, were significantly enhanced by IC application. IC application could not increase the leaf-content of vincristine and vinblastine; nonetheless, it significantly augmented the yield of these alkaloids owing to enhancing the dry mass of leaves per plant. MeJ application, particularly at 30 mg L-1, increased both content (17%) and yield (48%) of total leaf-alkaloids as well as the content and yield of vincristine ( 29 and 63%, respectively) and vinblastine (14 and 44%, respectively) alkaloids, though it significantly decreased most other parameters studied, particularly at higher concentrations (30 and 40 mg L-1 of MeJ). As compared to the control (water-spray treatment), collective application of IC (80 mg L-1) and MeJ (20 mg L-1) resulted in the highest values of most of the parameters studied. However, 80 mg L-1 of IC applied with 30 mg L-1 of MeJ gave the best results for the content and yield of total as well as anticancer leaf-alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine). Comparing the control, it increased the content and yield of total leaf-alkaloids (37 and 118%, respectively) and those of vincristine (65 and 163%, respectively) and vinblastine (31 and 107%, respectively). Conclusively, the applied technique significantly enhanced the production of total as well as anticancer alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus.

Keywords: anticancer alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine), catharanthus roseus, irradiated chitosan, methyl jasmonate

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113 DNA Intercalating Alkaloids Isolated from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae)

Authors: Mohamed Tamer, Wink Michael

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DNA intercalating agents increase the stability of DNA which can be demonstrated by measuring the melting temperature Tm. Tm can be determined in a spectrophotometer in which the cell temperature is increased gradually. The resulting absorption data comes as a sigmoidal curve from which melting temperature can be determined when half of the DNA has denatured. The current study aims to assess DNA intercalating activities of four pure bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids: sanguinarine, berberine, allocryptopine, and chelerythrine which were isolated from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae) by repeated silica gel column chromatography, recrystallization and preparative TLC. The isolated compounds were identified by comparing their physical properties and mass spectra with those of the published data. The results showed that sanguiarine is the most active intercalating agent with Tm value of 83.55 ± 0.49 followed by berberine, chelerythrine, and allocryptopine with Tm values 62.58 ± 0.47, 51.38 ± 0.37 and 50.94 ± 0.65, respectively, relative to 49.78 ± 1.05 of bacteriophage DNA alone and 86.09 ± 0.5 for ethidium bromide as a positive control.

Keywords: alkaloids, Chelidonium majus, DNA intercalation, Tm

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112 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao

Abstract:

Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents, pharmacognosy, secondary metabolites

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111 Phytochemical Investigation of Berries of the Embelia schimperi Plant

Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke

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Embelia is a genus of climbing shrubs in the family Myrsinaceae. Embelia schimperi is as important in traditional medicine as the other species in the genus. The plant has been much known as a local medicine for the treatment of tapeworms. In this project, extraction, phytochemical screening tests, isolation, and characterization of berries of the Embelia schimperi plant have been conducted. The chemical investigations of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:1) ratio extracts of the berries lead to the isolation of three new compounds. The compounds were identified to be alkaloids coded as AD, AN, and AG. Structural elucidations of the isolated compounds were accomplished using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR, HPLC, and LC-MS). The alkaloid coded as (AN) has a wide MIC range of 6.31-25.46 mg/mL against all tested bacteria strains.

Keywords: Embelia schimper, HPLC, alkaloids, 2D NMR, MIC

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110 Phytochemical Screening of Roots of Peltophorum pterocarpum

Authors: Vidyadhar Suram, D. Chamundeeswari, Umamaheswara Rao, Krishna Mohan Chinnala

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Peltophorum pterocarpum known as copper pod belongs to the family Fabaceae, native to tropical south-eastern asia and a popularly ornamental tree grown around the world. In traditional medicine it is used as an astringent to cure or relieve intestinal disorders after pain at childbirth, sprains, bruises and swelling or as a lotion for eye troubles, muscular pains and sores. It is also used for gargles and tooth powders. Medcinally; it has proven to possess various pharmacological activities. The powdered root part of Peltophorum pterocarpum (250gr) were extracted exhaustively using different solvents and phytochemical investigations has shown the presence of various secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, proteins, glycosides, steriods, and volatile.

Keywords: antibacterialactivity, fabaceae, peltophorum pterocarpum, isocoumari, alkaloids

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109 Biosynthesis of Natural and Halogenated Plant Alkaloids in Yeast

Authors: Beata J. Lehka, Samuel A. Bradley, Frederik G. Hansson, Khem B. Adhikari, Daniela Rago, Paulina Rubaszka, Ahmad K. Haidar, Ling Chen, Lea G. Hansen, Olga Gudich, Konstantina Giannakou, Yoko Nakamura, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Konstantinos Koudounas, Sarah E. O’Connor, Vincent Courdavault, Jay D. Keasling, Jie Zhang, Michael K. Jensen

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Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) represent a large class of natural plant products with marketed pharmaceutical activities against a wide range of applications, including cancer and mental disorders. Halogenated MIAs have shown improved pharmaceutical properties; however, characterisation and synthesis of new-to-nature halogenated MIAs remain a challenge in slow-growing plants with limited genetic tractability. Here, we demonstrate a platform for de novo biosynthesis of two bioactive MIAs, serpentine and alstonine, in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reaching titers of 8.85 mg/L and 4.48 mg/L, respectively, when cultivated in fed-batch micro bioreactors. Using this MIA biosynthesis platform, we undertake a systematic exploration of the derivative space surrounding these compounds and produce halogenated MIAs. The aim of the current study is to develop a fermentation process for halogenated MIAs.

Keywords: monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, halogenated derivatives, fermentation

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108 Component Composition of Biologically Active Substances in Extracts of Some Species from the Family Lamiaceae Lindl.

Authors: Galina N. Parshina, Olga N. Shemshura, Ulzhan S. Mukiyanova, Gulnur M. Beisetbayeva

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From a medical point of view some species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. attract the attention of scientists. Many plant species from this family are used in science and medicine. Some researchers believe that the medicinal properties of these plants are caused by the action on the organism of the individual components (camphor, menthol, thymol, eugenol, phenols, flavonoids, alcohols, and their derivatives) or the entire complex of essential oils. Biologically active substances (BAS), isolated from these medicinal plants can be an effective supplement in the complex treatment of infectious diseases. The substances of the phenolic group such as flavonoids and phenolic acids; and also alkaloids included in the component composition of the plants from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. present the scientific and practical interest for future investigations of their biological activity and development of medicinal products. The research objects are the species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl., cultivated in the North-Kazakhstan region. In this abstract, we present the results of the investigation of polyphenolic complex (flavonoids and phenolic acids) and alkaloids in aqueous and ethanol extracts. Investigation of the qualitative composition of flavonoids in the aqueous extracts showed that the species Monarda Diana contains flavone, Dracocephalum moldavica contains rutin, Ocimum basilicum (purple form) contains both ruin and quercetin. Biochemical analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of Monarda Diana has phenolic acids, similar to protocatechuic and benzoic acids by their chromatographic characteristics. But the aqueous extract contains four phenolic acids, one of which is an analogue of gentisic acid; and the other three are not identified yet. The phenolic acids such as benzoic and gentisic acids identified in ethanol extracts of species Ocimum basilicum (purple form) and Satureja hortensis, correspondingly. But the same phenolic acids did not appear in aqueous extracts. The phenolic acids were not determined neither in the ethanol or aqueous extracts of species Dracocephalum moldavica. The biochemical analysis did not reveal the content of alkaloids in aqueous extracts of investigated plants. However, the alkaloids in the amount of 5-13 components were identified in the ethanolic extracts of plants by the qualitative reactions. The results of analysis with reagent of Dragendorff showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (6-7), Satureja hortensis (6), Ocimum basilicum (7-9) and Dracocephalum moldavica (5-6). The reactions with reagent of Van-Urca showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (9-12), Satureja hortensis (9-10), two alkaloids of them with Rf6=0,39 and Rf6=0,31 similar to roquefortine), Ocimum basilicum (11) and Dracocephalum moldavica (13, two of them with Rf5=0,34 and Rf5=0,33 by their chromatographic characteristics similar to epikostaklavin).

Keywords: biologically active substances, Lamiaceae, component composition, medicinal plant

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107 Isolation and Identification of Compounds from the Leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Lauraceae)

Authors: O. Hanita, S. A. Ainnul Hamidah, A. H. Yang Zalila, M. R. Siti Nadiah, M. H. Najihah, M. A. Hapipah

Abstract:

The crude extract of the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), was taken under phytochemical investigation. The crude methanolic extract was partitioned with a different solvent system by increasing their polarities (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol). The compounds were fractionated and isolated from n-hexane partition by using column chromatography with silica gel 60 or Sephadex LH-20 as a stationary phase and preparative thin layer chromatographic technique. Isolates were characterized using TLC, FTIR, UV spectrophotometer and NMR spectroscopy. The n-hexane fractionates yielded a total of four compounds namely N-methyllaurotetanine (1), dicentrine (2), β-sitosterol (3), and stigmasterol (4). The result indicates that the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis may provide a rich source of alkaloids and triterpenoids.

Keywords: actinodaphne sesquipedalis, alkaloids, phytochemical investigation, triterpenoids

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106 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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105 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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104 Development of One-Pot Sequential Cyclizations and Photocatalyzed Decarboxylative Radical Cyclization: Application Towards Aspidospermatan Alkaloids

Authors: Guillaume Bélanger, Jean-Philippe Fontaine, Clémence Hauduc

Abstract:

There is an undeniable thirst from organic chemists and from the pharmaceutical industry to access complex alkaloids with short syntheses. While medicinal chemists are interested in the fascinating wide range of biological properties of alkaloids, synthetic chemists are rather interested in finding new routes to access these challenging natural products of often low availability from nature. To synthesize complex polycyclic cores of natural products, reaction cascades or sequences performed one-pot offer a neat advantage over classical methods for their rapid increase in molecular complexity in a single operation. In counterpart, reaction cascades need to be run on substrates bearing all the required functional groups necessary for the key cyclizations. Chemoselectivity is thus a major issue associated with such a strategy, in addition to diastereocontrol and regiocontrol for the overall transformation. In the pursuit of synthetic efficiency, our research group developed an innovative one-pot transformation of linear substrates into bi- and tricyclic adducts applied to the construction of Aspidospermatan-type alkaloids. The latter is a rich class of indole alkaloids bearing a unique bridged azatricyclic core. Despite many efforts toward the synthesis of members of this family, efficient and versatile synthetic routes are still coveted. Indeed, very short, non-racemic approaches are rather scarce: for example, in the cases of aspidospermidine and aspidospermine, syntheses are all fifteen steps and over. We envisaged a unified approach to access several members of the Aspidospermatan alkaloids family. The key sequence features a highly chemoselective formamide activation that triggers a Vilsmeier-Haack cyclization, followed by an azomethine ylide generation and intramolecular cycloaddition. Despite the high density and variety of functional groups on the substrates (electron-rich and electron-poor alkenes, nitrile, amide, ester, enol ether), the sequence generated three new carbon-carbon bonds and three rings in a single operation with good yield and high chemoselectivity. A detailed study of amide, nucleophile, and dipolarophile variations to finally get to the successful combination required for the key transformation will be presented. To complete the indoline fragment of the natural products, we developed an original approach. Indeed, all reported routes to Aspidospermatan alkaloids introduce the indoline or indole early in the synthesis. In our work, the indoline needs to be installed on the azatricyclic core after the key cyclization sequence. As a result, typical Fischer indolization is not suited since this reaction is known to fail on such substrates. We thus envisaged a unique photocatalyzed decarboxylative radical cyclization. The development of this reaction as well as the scope and limitations of the methodology, will also be presented. The original Vilsmeier-Haack and azomethine ylide cyclization sequence as well as the new photocatalyzed decarboxylative radical cyclization will undoubtedly open access to new routes toward polycyclic indole alkaloids and derivatives of pharmaceutical interest in general.

Keywords: Aspidospermatan alkaloids, azomethine ylide cycloaddition, decarboxylative radical cyclization, indole and indoline synthesis, one-pot sequential cyclizations, photocatalysis, Vilsmeier-Haack Cyclization

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103 Identification of Synthetic Hybrids of 4-Thiazolidinone-Bromopyrrole Alkaloid as HIV-1 RT Inhibitors

Authors: Rajesh A. Rane, Shital S. Naphade, Rajshekhar Karpoormath

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Thiozolidin-4-one, a mimic of thiazolobenzimidazole (TBZ) has drawn many attentions due to its potent and selective inhibition against the HIV-1 and low toxicity by binding to the allosteric site of the reverse transcriptase (RT) as a non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI). Similarly, marine bromopyrrole alkaloids are well known for their diverse array of anti-infective properties. Hence, we have reported synthesis and in vitro HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity of a series of 4-thiazolidinone-bromopyrrole alkaloid hybrids tethered with amide linker. The results of in vitro HIV-1 RT kit assay showed that some of the compounds, such as 4c, 4d, and 4i could effectively inhibit RT activity. Among them, compounds 4c having 4-chlorophenyl substituted 4-thiazolidione ring was the best one with the IC50 value of 0.26 µM. The sturdy emerges with key structure-activity relationship that pyrrole-NH-free core benefited inhibition against HIV-1 RT inhibition. This study identified conjugate 4c with potent activity and selectivity as promising compound for further drug development to HIV.

Keywords: antiviral drugs, bromopyrrole alkaloids, HIV-1 RT inhibition, 4-thiazolidinone

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102 Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activity of Cinchona Alkaloids

Authors: Alma Ramić, Mirjana Skočibušić, Renata Odžak, Tomica Hrenar, Ines Primožič

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In an attempt to identify a new class of antimicrobial agents, the antimicrobial potential of Cinchona alkaloid derivatives was evaluated. The bark of the Cinchona trees is the source of a variety of alkaloids, among which the best known are quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine. They are very useful as organocatalysts in stereoselective synthesis. On the other hand, quinine is traditionally used in the treatment of malaria. Furthermore, Cinchona alkaloids possess various analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti–arrhythmic properties as well. In this work we present the synthesis of twenty quaternary derivatives of pseudo−enantiomeric Cinchona alkaloid derivatives to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Quaternization of quinuclidine moiety was carried out with groups diverse in their size. The structures of compounds were systematically modified to obtain drug-like properties with proper physical and chemical properties and avoiding toxophore. All compounds were prepared in good yields and were characterized by standard analytical spectroscopy methods (1D and 2D NMR, IR, MS). The antibacterial activities of all compounds were evaluated against series of recent clinical isolates of antibiotic susceptible Gram-positive and resistant Gram-negative pathogens by determining their zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. All compounds showed good to strong broad-spectrum activity, equivalent or better in comparison with standard antibiotics used. Furthermore, seven compounds exhibited significant antibacterial efficiency against Gram-negative isolates. To visualize the results, principal component analysis was used as an additional classification tool. Cytotoxicity of compounds with different cell lines in human cell culture was determined. Based on these results, substituted quaternary Cinchona scaffold can be considered as promising new class of antimicrobials and further investigations should be performed. Supported by Croatian Science Foundation, Project No 3775 ADESIRE.

Keywords: antibacterial efficiency, cinchona alkaloids, cytotoxicity, pseudo‐enantiomers

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101 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque

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The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum ether

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100 How Addictive Are They: Effects of E-Cigarette Vapor on Intracranial Self-Stimulation Compared to Nicotine Alone

Authors: Annika Skansberg

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Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use vapor to deliver nicotine, have recently become popular, especially amongst adolescents. Because of this, the FDA has decided to regulate e-cigarettes, and therefore would like to determine the abuse liability of the products compared to traditional nicotine products. This will allow them to determine the impact of regulating them on public health and shape the decisions they make when creating new laws. This study assessed the abuse liability of Aroma E-juice Dark Honey Tobacco compared to nicotine using an animal model. This e-liquid contains minor alkaloids that may increase abuse liability compared to nicotine alone. The abuse liability of nicotine alone and e-juice liquid were compared in rats using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds. E-liquid had less aversive effects at high nicotine doses in the ICSS model, suggesting that the minor alkaloids in the e-liquid allow users to use higher doses without experiencing the negative effects felt when using high doses of nicotine alone. This finding could mean that e-cigarettes have a higher abuse liability than nicotine alone, but more research is needed before this can be concluded. These findings are useful in observing the abuse liability of e-cigarettes and will help inform the FDA while regulating these products.

Keywords: electronic cigarettes, intra-cranial self stimulation, abuse liability, anhedonia

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99 Assesment of Genetic Fidelity of Micro-Clones of an Aromatic Medicinal Plant Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng

Authors: Ramesh Joshi, Nisha Khatik

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Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng locally known as “Curry patta” or “Meetha neem” belonging to the family Rutaceae that grows wildly in Southern Asia. Its aromatic leaves are commonly used as the raw material for traditional medicinal formulations in India. The leaves contain essential oil and also used as a condiment. Several monomeric and binary carbazol alkaloids present in the various plant parts. These alkaloids have been reported to possess anti-microbial, mosquitocidal, topo-isomerase inhibition and antioxidant properties. Some of the alkaloids reported in this plant have showed anti carcinogenic and anti-diabetic properties. The conventional method of propagation of this tree is limited to seeds only, which retain their viability for only a short period. Hence, a biotechnological approach might have an advantage edging over traditional breeding as well as the genetic improvement of M. koenigii within a short period. The development of a reproducible regeneration protocol is the prerequisite for ex situ conservation and micropropagation. An efficient protocol for high frequency regeneration of in vitro plants of Murraya koenigii via different explants such as- nodal segments, intermodal segments, leaf, root segments, hypocotyle, cotyledons and cotyledonary node explants is described. In the present investigation, assessment of clonal fidelity in the micropropagated plantlets of Murraya koenigii was attempted using RAPD and ISSR markers at different pathways of plant tissue culture technique. About 20 ISSR and 40 RAPD primers were used for all the samples. Genomic DNA was extracted by CTAB method. ISSR primer were found to be more suitable as compared to RAPD for the analysis of clonal fidelity of M. koenigii. The amplifications however, were finally performed using RAPD, ISSR markers owing to their better performance in terms of generation of amplification products. In RAPD primer maximum 75% polymorphism was recorded in OPU-2 series which exhibited out of 04 scorable bands, three bands were polymorphic with a band range of size 600-1500 bp. In ISSR primers the UBC 857 showed 50% polymorphism with 02 band were polymorphic of band range size between 400-1000 bp.

Keywords: genetic fidelity, Murraya koenigii, aromatic plants, ISSR primers

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98 The Effect of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Alkaloids on the Blood Glucose and Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolic Pathways in Db/Db Mice

Authors: Juan Huang, Nanqu Huang, Jingshan Shi, Yu Qiu

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Objectives: There are pathophysiological connections between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and research on drugs with hypoglycemic and beta-amyloid (Aβ)-clearing effects have great therapeutic potential for AD. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Alkaloids (DNLA) as one of the active compounds of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. In this study, we attempted to verify the hypoglycemic effect and investigate the effects of DNLA on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolic pathway of the hippocampus in db/db mice. Methods: 4-weeks-old male C57BL/KsJ mice were the control group. And the same age and sexuality db/db mice were: model, DNLA-L (20 mg/kg), DNLA-M (40 mg/kg), and DNLA-H (80 mg/kg). After, mice were treated with different concentrations of DNLA for 17 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) was detected by glucose oxidase assay every week from the 4th to last week. The protein expression of β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42), β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and APP were examined by Western blotting. Results: The concentration of FBG and the protein expression of Aβ1-42, BACE1, and APP were increased in the hippocampus of the model group. Moreover, DNLA not only significantly decreased the concentration of FBG but also reduced the protein expressions of Aβ1-42, BACE1 and APP in the hippocampus of db/db mice in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: DNLA can decrease the protein expressions of Aβ1-42 in the hippocampus of db/db mice, and the mechanism may be involved in the APP metabolic pathway.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, traditional Chinese medicines, beta-amyloid

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97 Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Alkaloids Contents and Inhibited Properties against α-Amylase and Invertase Enzymes of Stem Bark Extracts Coula edulis B

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

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Background: It is clearly that phytochemical constituents of plants in relation exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and glycosylation properties. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging, inhibited activities against α-amylase and invertase enzymes of stem bark extracts C. edulis (Olacaceae). Methods: Four extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous) from the barks of C. edulis were used in this study. Colorimetric in vitro methods were using for evaluate free radical scavenging activity DPPH, ABTS, NO, OH, antioxidant capacity, glycosylation activity, inhibition of α-amylase and invertase activities, phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents. Results: C. edulis extracts (CEE) had a higher scavenging potential on the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and glucose scavenging with the IC50 varied between 41.95 and 36694.43 µg/ml depending on the solvent of extraction. The ethanol extract of C. edulis stem bark (CE EtOH) showed the highest polyphenolic (289.10 + 30.32), flavonoid (1.12 + 0.09) and alkaloids (18.47 + 0.16) content. All the tested extracts demonstrated a relative high inhibition potential against α-amylase and invertase digestive enzymes activities. Conclusion: This study suggests that CEE exhibited higher antioxidant potential and significant inhibition potential against digestive enzymes.

Keywords: Coula edulis, antioxidant, scavenging activity, amylase, invertase

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96 Exploring the Bifunctional Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Synthesis of 3-Substituted-3-Aminooxindoles

Authors: Jasneet Kaur, Swapandeep Singh Chimni

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The unfavorable use of metal-based catalysts that are often extortionate and toxic can be overcome by using small organic molecules known as organocatalysts. A variety of small organic molecules, including Brønsted/Lewis bases and acids, based on sulfonic acids, phosphoric acids, amines, phosphines or carbenes, Cinchona alkaloids, have been used as organocatalysts. One of the key reasons for using organocatalysis is their ability to be effectively removed from the final product in comparison to the metallic counterparts, which are exceedingly difficult to remove. The present investigation seeks to explore the catalytic nature of Cinchona alkaloids as an organocatalyst for enantioselective synthesis of 3-substituted-3-aminooxindole, which is known to exhibit a variety of biological activities and pharmacological activities. In this context, an organocatalytic asymmetric route for the synthesis of 3-aminooxindoles via reaction of isatin imine with α-acetoxy-β-ketoesters has been developed. The bifunctional Cinchona derived thiourea catalyzed the reaction of α-acetoxy-β-ketoesters derivatives with isatin imine to afford 3-substituted-aminooxindole derivatives in up to 93% yield, 95% enantiomeric excess and >20:1 diastereomeric ratio. The reaction was performed at room temperature for two hours using 10 mol% of catalyst, in the presence of 4Å molecular sieves in tetrahydrofuran as a solvent at ambient temperature. After the completion of the reaction, the pure product could be easily separated by using column chromatography using hexane and ethyl acetate as solvents. In conclusion, the catalytic potential of Cinchona derived chiral thiourea-tertiary amine catalyst was explored for an organocatalytic enantioselective Mannich reaction of β-ketoester derivatives with various isatin imine derivatives under mild conditions.

Keywords: asymmetric synthesis, aminooxindoles, enantioselective, isatin imine

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95 Chemical Study and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts from Erythroxylum Genus against HeLa Cells

Authors: Richele P. Severino, Maria M. F. Alchaar, Lorena R. F. De Sousa, Patrik S. Vital, Ana G. Silva, Rosy I. M. A. Ribeiro

Abstract:

Recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot, the Cerrado (Brazil) presents an extreme abundance of endemic species and it is considered to be one of the biologically richest tropical savanna regions in the world. Erythroxylum genus is found in Cerrado and chemically is characterized by the presence of tropane alkaloids, among them cocaine, a natural alkaloid produced by Erythroxylum coca Lam., which was used as a local anesthetic in small surgeries. However, cocaine gained notoriety due to its psychoactive activity in the Central Nervous System (CNS), becoming one of the major problems of public health today. Some species of Erythroxylum are referred to in the literature as having pharmacological potential, which provide alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids. E. vacciniifolium Mart., commonly known as 'catuaba', is used as a central nervous system stimulant and has aphrodisiac properties and E. pelleterianum A. St.-Hil. in the treatment of stomach pains. Already E. myrsinites Mart. and E. suberosum A. St.-Hil. are used in the tannery industry. Species of Erythroxylum are also used in folk medicine for various diseases, against diabetes, antiviral, fungicidal, cytotoxicity, among others. The Cerrado is recognized as the richer savannah in the world in biodiversity but little explored from the chemical view. In our on-going study of the chemistry of Erythroxylum genus, we have investigated four specimens collected in central Cerrado of Brazil: E. campestre (EC), E. deciduum (ED), E. suberosum (ES) and E. tortuosum (ET). The cytotoxic activity of extracts was evaluated using HeLa cells, in vitro assays. The chemical investigation was performed preparing the extracts using n-hexane (H), dichloromethane (D), ethyl acetate (E) and methanol (M). The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of extracts (50, 75 and 100 μg/mL) diluted in DMSO (1%) and DMEM (0.5% FBS and 1% P/S). The IC₅₀ values were determined measured spectrophotometrically at 570 nm, after incubation of HeLa cell line for 48 hours using the MTT (SIGMA M5655), and calculated by nonlinear regression analysis using GraphPad Prism software. All the assays were done in triplicate and repeated at least two times. The cytotoxic assays showed some promising results with IC₅₀ values less than 100 μg/mL (ETD = 38.5 μg/mL; ETM = 92.3 μg/mL; ESM = 67.8 μg/mL; ECD = 24.0 μg/mL; ECM = 32.9; EDA = 44.2 μg/mL). The chemical profile study of ethyl acetate (E) and methanolic (M) extracts of E. tortuosum leaves was performed by LC-MS, and the structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of ¹H, HSQC and HMBC spectra, and confirmed by comparison with the literature data. The investigation led to six substances: α-amyrin, β-amyrin, campesterol, stigmastan-3,5-diene, β-sitosterol and 7,4’-di-O-methylquercetin-3-O-β-rutinoside, with flavonoid the major compound of extracts. By alkaline extraction of the methanolic extract, it was possible to identify three alkaloids: tropacocaine, cocaine and 6-methoxy-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol. The results obtained are important for the chemical knowledge of the Cerrado biodiversity and brought a contribution to the chemistry of Erythroxylum genus.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, Erythroxylum, chemical profile, secondary metabolites

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94 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar

Abstract:

Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

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93 Transcriptomic Analysis for Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Secondary Metabolite Production in Narcissus Bulb and in vitro Callus

Authors: Aleya Ferdausi, Meriel Jones, Anthony Halls

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The Amaryllidaceae genus Narcissus contains secondary metabolites, which are important sources of bioactive compounds such as pharmaceuticals indicating that their biological activity extends from the native plant to humans. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) is an effective platform for the identification and functional characterization of candidate genes as well as to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The biotechnological production of secondary metabolites in plant cell or organ cultures has become a tempting alternative to the extraction of whole plant material. The biochemical pathways for the production of secondary metabolites require primary metabolites to undergo a series of modifications catalyzed by enzymes such as cytochrome P450s, methyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, and acyltransferases. Differential gene expression analysis of Narcissus was obtained from two conditions, i.e. field and in vitro callus. Callus was obtained from modified MS (Murashige and Skoog) media supplemented with growth regulators and twin-scale explants from Narcissus cv. Carlton bulb. A total of 2153 differentially expressed transcripts were detected in Narcissus bulb and in vitro callus, and 78.95% of those were annotated. It showed the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids were present in both conditions i.e. cytochrome P450s, O-methyltransferase (OMTs), NADP/NADPH dehydrogenases or reductases, SAM-synthetases or decarboxylases, 3-ketoacyl-CoA, acyl-CoA, cinnamoyl-CoA, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeic acid, N-methyltransferase, and NADPH-cytochrome P450s. However, cytochrome P450s and OMTs involved in the later stage of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids biosynthesis were mainly up-regulated in field samples. Whereas, the enzymes involved in initial biosynthetic pathways i.e. fructose biphosphate adolase, aminotransferases, dehydrogenases, hydroxyl methyl glutarate and glutamate synthase leading to the biosynthesis of precursors; tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan for secondary metabolites were up-regulated in callus. The knowledge of probable genes involved in secondary metabolism and their regulation in different tissues will provide insight into the Narcissus plant biology related to alkaloid production.

Keywords: narcissus, callus, transcriptomics, secondary metabolites

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