Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3517

Search results for: swelling pressure

3517 Effect of Swelling Pressure on Drug Release from Polyelectrolyte Micro-Hydrogel Particles

Authors: Mina Boroujerdi, Javad Tavakoli


Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of drugs. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. In this contribution, an electronic device for swelling pressure measurement during drug release from hydrogel network was developed. Also, poly acrylic acid micro particles were prepared for prolonged and sustained controlled acetaminophen release. Effect of swelling pressure on drug release from micro particles studied under different environment pH in order to predict release profile in gastro-intestine medium. Swelling ratio and swelling pressure were measured in different pH.

Keywords: swelling pressure, drug delivery, hydrogel, polyelectrolyte

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3516 A Soil Stabilization Technique on Apa-Hotamiş Conveyance Channel

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı


Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel is located within in the boundaries of Konya Regional Directorate of Water Works. This channel transfers the water to the fount of Apa Dam with 17 km length of Blue Channel. Then the water is transmitted with Apa- Hotamış conveyance channel to Hotamış Water Storage. In some places along the Apa-Hotamış conveyance canal which will be constructed by Directorate of Water Works of Konya, some swelling soils have been seen. The samples taken from these places have 35-95 kPa swelling pressure. To prevent the swelling pressure arising from the penetration of water to the concrete channel, it was proposed to make 10 cm concrete coating by spreading the geomembrane and geotextile between the soil and concrete. In this way, the pressure (35-95 kPa) caused by the swelling and cracking of concrete failure will be blocked.

Keywords: conveyance channel, swelling pressure, geomembrane, geotextile, concrete

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3515 An Experimental Study to Mitigate Swelling Pressure of Expansive Tabuk Shale, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. A. Embaby, A. Abu Halawa, M. Ramadan


In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are several areas where expansive soil exists in the form of variable-thicknesses layers in the developed regions. Severe distress to infrastructures can be caused by the development of heave and swelling pressure in this kind of expansive shale. Among the various techniques for expansive soil mitigation, the removal and replacement technique is very popular for lightly loaded structures and shallow foundations. This paper presents the result of an experimental study conducted for evaluating the effect of type and thickness of the cushion soils on mitigation of swelling characteristics of expanded shale. Seven undisturbed shale samples collected from Al Qadsiyah district, which is located in the Tabuk town north Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are treated with two types of cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS); sand and gravel. Each type is represented with three thicknesses, 22%, 33% and 44% in relation to the depth of the active zone. The test results indicated that the replacement of expansive shale by CCS reduces the swelling potential and pressure. It is found that the reduction in swelling depends on the type and thickness of CCS. The treatment by removing the original expansive shale and replacing it by cushion sand with 44% thickness reduced the swelling potential and pressure of about 53.29% and 62.78 %, respectively.

Keywords: cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS), expansive soil, Saudi Arabia, swelling pressure, Tabuk Shale

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3514 Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils

Authors: Saloni Pandya, Nikhil Sharma, Ajanta Sachan


Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.

Keywords: differential free swell index, expansive soils, matric suction, swelling pressure

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3513 Analytical and Statistical Study of the Parameters of Expansive Soil

Authors: A. Medjnoun, R. Bahar


The disorders caused by the shrinking-swelling phenomenon are prevalent in arid and semi-arid in the presence of swelling clay. This soil has the characteristic of changing state under the effect of water solicitation (wetting and drying). A set of geotechnical parameters is necessary for the characterization of this soil type, such as state parameters, physical and chemical parameters and mechanical parameters. Some of these tests are very long and some are very expensive, hence the use or methods of predictions. The complexity of this phenomenon and the difficulty of its characterization have prompted researchers to use several identification parameters in the prediction of swelling potential. This document is an analytical and statistical study of geotechnical parameters affecting the potential of swelling clays. This work is performing on a database obtained from investigations swelling Algerian soil. The obtained observations have helped us to understand the soil swelling structure and its behavior.

Keywords: analysis, estimated model, parameter identification, swelling of clay

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3512 Swelling Behaviour of Kappa Carrageenan Hydrogel in Neutral Salt Solution

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina


Hydrogel films were prepared from kappa carrageenan by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Carrageenan films extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed were immersed in glutaraldehyde solution for 2 min and then cured at 110 °C for 25 min. The obtained crosslinked films were washed with ethanol to remove the unreacted glutaraldehyde and then air dried to constant weights. The aim of this research was to study the swelling degree behaviour of the hydrogel film to neutral salts solution, namely NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. The results showed that swelling degree of crosslinked films varied non-monotonically with salinity of NaCl. Swelling degree decreased with the increasing of KCl concentration. Swelling degree of crosslinked film in CaCl2 solution was lower than that in NaCl and in KCl solutions.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, glutaraldehyde, salt, swelling

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3511 Stabilization of Expansive Soils by Additions Binders Hydraulic Lime and Cement

Authors: Kherafa Abdennasser


A literature review was conducted to gather as much information. Concerns the phenomenon of swelling clays, as well as a presentation of some bibliographic findings on factors affecting the swelling potential. Citing the various techniques of stabilization of clays as well as a presentation of some literature results on the stabilization of swelling. Then a characterization of the materials was carried out at basic bibliographic study. These are standard mechanical geotechnical testing. Simple practical, economical and efficient to minimize the phenomenon swelling.

Keywords: stabilization, expansive soils, cement, lime, oedometer

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3510 Geo-Engineering Properties of Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil with Shredded Waste Tyre

Authors: Upasana Pattnaik, Akshaya Kumar Sabat


The compaction properties, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), soaked California bearing ratio (CBR), hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure of lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes have been discussed in this paper. Shredded waste tyres, passing 4.75 mm Indian Standard (IS) sieve and retained on 75µ IS sieve have been used in the experimental programme. First of all expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes were prepared by adding shredded waste tyre from 0 to 20% at an increment of 5%.Standard Proctor compaction, UCS and soaked CBR tests were conducted on these mixes. The optimum percentage of shredded waste tyre found out was 10%.In the second phase of the experiment, lime was added to sample having optimum percentage of expansive soil and shredded waste tyre from 2 to 6% at an increment of 1%.Compaction, UCS, soaked CBR, hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure tests were conducted on lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes. The optimum percentage of lime for stabilization was found out to be 5%.At the optimum percentage of lime the stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mix had increased strength, reduced hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure.

Keywords: expansive soil, hydraulic conductivity, lime, shredded waste tyre, soaked california bearing ratio

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3509 Wetting-Drying Cycles Effect on Piles Embedded in a Very High Expansive Soil

Authors: Bushra Suhail, Laith Kadim


The behavior of model piles embedded in a very high expansive soil was investigated, a specially manufactured saturation-drying tank was used to apply three cycles of wetting and drying to the expansive soil surrounding the model straight shaft and under reamed piles, the relative movement of the piles with respect to the soil surface was recorded with time, also the exerted uplift pressure of the piles due to soil swelling was recorded. The behavior of unloaded straight shaft and under reamed piles was investigated. Two design charts were presented for straight shaft and under reamed piles one for the required pile depth for zero upward movement due to soil swelling, the other for the required pile depth to exert zero uplift pressure when the soil swells. Under reamed piles showed a decrease in upward movement of 20% to 40%, and an uplift pressure decrease of 10% to 30%.

Keywords: expansive soil, piles, under reamed, structural and geotechnical engineering

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3508 A Critical Appraisal of CO₂ Entrance Pressure with Heat

Authors: Abrar Al-Mutairi, Talal Al-Bazali


In this study, changes in capillary entry pressure of shale, as it interacts with CO₂, under different temperatures (25 °C to 250 °C) have been investigated. The combined impact of temperature and petrophysical properties (water content, water activity, permeability and porosity) of shale was also addressed. Results showed that the capillary entry pressure of shale when it interacted with CO₂ was highly affected by temperature. In general, increasing the temperature decreased capillary entry pressure of shale. We believe that pore dilation, where pore throat size expands due to the application of heat, may have caused this decrease in capillary entry pressure of shale. However, in some cases we found that at higher temperature some shale samples showed that the temperature activated clay swelling may have caused an apparent decrease in pore throat radii of shale which translates into higher capillary entry pressure of shale. Also, our results showed that there is no distinct relationship between shale’s water content, water activity, permeability, and porosity on the capillary entry pressure of shale samples as it interacted with CO₂ at different temperatures.

Keywords: heat, threshold pressure, CO₂ sequestration, shale

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3507 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke


The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

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3506 The Effect of Treated Waste-Water on Compaction and Compression of Fine Soil

Authors: M. Attom, F. Abed, M. Elemam, M. Nazal, N. ElMessalami


—The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of treated waste-water (TWW) on the compaction and compressibility properties of fine soil. Two types of fine soils (clayey soils) were selected for this study and classified as CH soil and Cl type of soil. Compaction and compressibility properties such as optimum water content, maximum dry unit weight, consolidation index and swell index, maximum past pressure and volume change were evaluated using both tap and treated waste water. It was found that the use of treated waste water affects all of these properties. The maximum dry unit weight increased for both soils and the optimum water content decreased as much as 13.6% for highly plastic soil. The significant effect was observed in swell index and swelling pressure of the soils. The swell indexed decreased by as much as 42% and 33% for highly plastic and low plastic soils, respectively, when TWW is used. Additionally, the swelling pressure decreased by as much as 16% for both soil types. The result of this research pointed out that the use of treated waste water has a positive effect on compaction and compression properties of clay soil and promise for potential use of this water in engineering applications. Keywords—Consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change.

Keywords: consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change

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3505 Detection of Muscle Swelling Using the Cnts-Based Poc Wearable Strain Sensor

Authors: Nadeem Qaiser, Sherjeel Munsif Khan, Muhammad Mustafa Hussian, Vincent Tung


One of the emerging fields in the detection of chronic diseases is based on the point-of-care (POC) early monitoring of the symptoms and thus provides a state-of-the-art personalized healthcare system. Nowadays, wearable and flexible sensors are being used for analyzing sweat, glucose, blood pressure, and other skin conditions. However, localized jaw-bone swelling called parotid-swelling caused by some viruses has never been tracked before. To track physical motion or deformations, strain sensors, especially piezoresistive ones, are widely used. This work, for the first time, reports carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based piezoresistive sensing patch that is highly flexible and stretchable and can record muscle deformations in real-time. The developed patch offers an excellent gauge factor for in-plane stretching and spatial expansion with low hysteresis. To calibrate the volumetric muscle expansion, we fabricated the pneumatic actuator that experienced volumetric expansion and thus redefined the gauge factor. Moreover, we employ a Bluetooth-low-energy system that can send information about muscle activity in real-time to a smartphone app. We utilized COMSOL calculations to reveal the mechanical robustness of the patch. The experiments showed the sensing patch's greater cyclability, making it a patch for personal healthcare and an excellent choice for monitoring the real-time POC monitoring of the human muscle swelling.

Keywords: piezoresistive strain sensor, FEM simulations, CNTs sensor, flexible

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3504 Improving Swelling Performance Using Industrial Waste Products

Authors: Mohieldin Elmashad, Salwa Yassin


Expansive soils regarded as one of the most problematic unsaturated formations in the Egyptian arid zones and present a great challenge in civil engineering, in general, and geotechnical engineering, in particular. Severe geotechnical complications and consequent structural damages have been arising due to an excessive and differential volumetric change upon wetting and change in water content. Different studies have been carried out concerning the swelling performance of the expansive soils using different additives including phospho-gypsum as an industrial waste product. However, this paper describes the results of a comprehensive testing programme that was carried out to investigate the effect of phospho-gypsum (PG) and sodium chloride (NaCl), as an additive mixture, on the swelling performance of constituent samples of swelling soils. The constituent samples comprise commercial bentonite collected from a natural site, mixed with different percentages of PG-NaCl mixture. The testing programme had been scoped to cover the physical and chemical properties of the constituent samples. In addition, a mineralogical study using x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on the collected bentonite and the mixed bentonite with PG-NaCl mixture samples. The obtained results of this study showed significant improvement in the swelling performance of the tested samples with the increase of the proposed PG-NaCl mixture content.

Keywords: expansive soils, industrial waste, mineralogical study, swelling performance, X-ray diffraction

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3503 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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3502 Improving the Dimensional Stability of Bamboo Woven Strand Board

Authors: Gulelat Gatew


Bamboo Woven Strand Board (WSB) products are manufactured from Ethiopia highland bamboo (Yushania alpina) as a multiple layer mat structure for enhanced mechanical performance. Hence, it shows similar mechanical properties as tropical hardwood products. WSB, therefore, constitutes a sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood products. The resin and wax ratio had a great influence on the determinants properties of the product quality such as internal bonding, water absorption, thickness swelling, bending and stiffness properties. Among these properties, because of the hygroscopic nature of the bamboo, thickness swelling and water absorption are important performances of WSB for using in construction and outdoor facilities. When WSB is exposed to water or moist environment, they tend to swell and absorb water in all directions. The degree of swelling and water absorption depends on the type of resin used, resin formulation, resin ratio, wax type and ratio. The objective of this research is investigating effects of phenol formaldehyde and wax on thickness swelling and water absorption behavior on bamboo WSB for construction and outdoor facilities. The experiments were conducted to measure the effects of wax and phenol-formaldehyde resin content on WSB thickness swelling and water absorption which leads to investigate its effect on dimension stability and mechanical properties. Both experiments were performed with 2–hour and 24-hour water immersion test and a significant set of data regarding the influence of such method parameters is also presented. The addition of up to 2% wax with 10% of phenol formaldehyde significantly reduced thickness swelling and water absorption of WSB which resulted in making it more hydrophobic and less susceptible to the influences of moisture in high humidity conditions compared to the panels without wax.

Keywords: woven strand board (WSB), water absorption, thickness swelling, phenol formaldehyde resin

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3501 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung


A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

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3500 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana


Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

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3499 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina


Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling

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3498 Conductive Clay Nanocomposite Using Smectite and Poly(O-Anisidine)

Authors: M. Şahi̇n, E. Erdem, M. Saçak


In this study, Na-smectite crystals purificated of bentonite were used after being swelling with benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTBAB) as alkyl ammonium salt. Swelling process was carried out using 0.2 g of BTBAB for smectite of 0.8 g with 4 h of mixing time after investigated conditions such as mixing time, the swelling agent amount. Then, the conductive poly(o-anisidine) (POA)/smectite nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of swollen Na-smectite using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. The POA content and conductivity of the prepared nanocomposite were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as the treatment time of swollen smectite in monomer solution and o-anisidine/APS mol ratio. POA/smectite nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques and was compared separately with components of composite.

Keywords: clay, composite, conducting polymer, poly(o-anisidine)

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3497 Thermo-Elastic and Self-Healing Polyacrylamide: 2D Polymer Composite Hydrogels for Water Shutoff Treatment

Authors: Edreese H. Alsharaeh, Feven Mattews Michael, Ayman Almohsin


Self-healing hydrogels have many advantages since they can resist various types of stresses, including tension, compression, and shear, making them attractive for various applications. In this study, thermo-elastic and self-healing polymer composite hydrogels were prepared from polyacrylamide (PAM) and 2D fillers using in-situ method. In addition, the PAM and fillers were prepared in presence of organic crosslinkers, i.e., hydroquinone (HQ) and hexamethylenediamine (HMT). The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was studied by hydrating the dried hydrogels. The thermal and rheological properties of the prepared hydrogels were evaluated before and after swelling study using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric technique and dynamic mechanical analysis. From the results obtained, incorporating fillers into the PAM matrix enhanced the swelling degree of the hydrogels with satisfactory mechanical properties, attaining up to 77% self-healing efficiency compared to the neat-PAM (i.e., 29%). This, in turn, indicates addition of 2D fillers improved self-healing properties of the polymer hydrogel, thus, making the prepared hydrogels applicable for water shutoff treatments under high temperature.

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, 2D fillers, elastic self-healing hydrogels, water shutoff, swelling properties

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3496 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi


A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

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3495 Challenges in Experimental Testing of a Stiff, Overconsolidated Clay

Authors: Maria Konstadinou, Etienne Alderlieste, Anderson Peccin da Silva, Ben Arntz, Leonard van der Bijl, Wouter Verschueren


The shear strength and compression properties of stiff Boom clay from Belgium at the depth of about 30 m has been investigated by means of cone penetration and laboratory testing. The latter consisted of index classification, constant rate of strain, direct, simple shear, and unconfined compression tests. The Boom clay samples exhibited strong swelling tendencies. The suction pressure was measured via different procedures and has been compared to the expected in-situ stress. The undrained shear strength and OCR profile determined from CPTs is not compatible with the experimental measurements, which gave significantly lower values. The observed response can be attributed to the presence of pre-existing discontinuities, as shown in microscale CT scans of the samples. The results of this study demonstrate that the microstructure of the clay prior to testing has an impact on the mechanical behaviour and can cause inconsistencies in the comparison of the laboratory test results with in-situ data.

Keywords: boom clay, laboratory testing, overconsolidation ratio, stress-strain response, swelling, undrained shear strength

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3494 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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3493 Effect of Different Parameters on the Swelling Behaviour of Thermo-Responsive Elastomers in a Nematogenic Solvent

Authors: Nouria Bouchikhi, Soufiane Bedjaoui, C. Tewfik Bouchaour, Lamia Alachaher Bedjaoui, Ulrich Maschke


Swelling properties and phase diagrams of binary systems composed of liquid crystalline networks and a low molecular mass liquid crystal (LMWLC) have been investigated. The networks were prepared by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of reactive mixtures including a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a photo-initiator. These networks were prepared using two cross-linking agents: 1,6 hexanedioldiacrylate (HDDA) and a mesogenic acrylic acid 6-(4’-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-yl oxy) hexyl ester (AHBH). The obtained dry networks were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, and immersed in an excess of a LMWLC solvent 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), forming polymer gels. A detailed study by polarized optical microscopy allowed to determine the swelling degree of the gels and to follow the phase behavior of the solvent inside the polymer matrix in a wide range of temperature. It has been found that the gels undergo a sharp decrease of their swelling degree in response to an infinitesimal change of temperature. This finding adds new and interesting aspects on the actuators applications. We have subsequently explored the effect of different parameters on volume phase transition of these liquid crystalline materials. Such as the cross-linking density (CD), a nature of cross-linking agent and the photo initiator concentration.

Keywords: cross-linking density, liquid crystalline elastomers, phase diagrams, swelling

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3492 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig


In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

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3491 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt


Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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3490 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.


Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

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3489 Pilomatrixoma of the Left Infra-Orbital Region in a 9 Year Old

Authors: Zainab Shaikh, Yusuf Miyanji


Pilomatrixoma is a benign neoplasm of the hair follicle matrix that is not commonly diagnosed in general practice. This is a case report of a 9-year-old boy who presented with a one-year history of a 19mm x 11 mm swelling in the left infra-orbital region. This was previously undiagnosed in Spain, where the patient resided at the time of initial presentation, due to the language barrier the patient’s family encountered. An ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging gave useful information regarding surrounding structures for complete tumor excision and indicated that the risk of facial nerve palsy is low. The lesion was surgically excised and a definitive diagnosis was made after histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, although not rare in its occurrence, is rarely this large at the time of excision due to early presentation. This case highlights the importance of including pilomatrixoma in the differential diagnosis of dermal and subcutaneous lesions in the head and neck region, as it is often misdiagnosed due to the lack of awareness of its clinical presentation.

Keywords: pilomatrixoma, swelling, infra-orbital, facial swelling

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3488 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

Procedia PDF Downloads 260