Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1039

Search results for: calcium chloride

1039 The Impact of Foliar Application of the Calcium-Containing Compounds in Increasing Resistance to Blue Mold on Apples

Authors: Masoud Baghalian, Musa Arshad

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride on the resistance of fruits such as Red and Golden Lebanese apple varieties to blue mold, a split plot experiment in time and space, based on accidental blocks, with three replications under foliar application were done (Control, one in a thousand, two in thousands) and the results of the variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the levels of foliar and variety at 5% level and between time, there is significant difference in interaction of variety × time and three way interaction of foliar×variety×time, at 1% level. The highest resistance to the blue mold disease in foliar application was observed at two in thousands calcium (calcium chloride) level.

Keywords: apple, blue mold, foliar calcium, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1038 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel by Calcium Gluconate in Magnesium Chloride Solution

Authors: Olaitan Akanji, Cleophas Loto, Patricia Popoola, Andrei Kolesnikov

Abstract:

Studies involving performance of corrosion inhibitors had been identified as one of the critical research needs for improving the durability of mild steel used in various industrial applications. This paper investigates the inhibiting effect of calcium gluconate against the corrosion of mild steel in 2.5M magnesium chloride using weight loss method and linear polarization technique, calculated corrosion rates from the obtained weight loss data, potentiodynamic polarization measurements are in good agreement. Results revealed calcium gluconate has strong inhibitory effects with inhibitor efficiency increasing with increase in inhibitor concentration at ambient temperature, the efficiency of the inhibitor increased in the following order of concentrations 2%g/vol,1.5%g/vol,1%g/vol,0.5%g/vol. Further results obtained from potentiodynamics experiments had good correlation with those of the gravimetric methods, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface from the chloride has been found to obey Langmuir, Frumkin and Freudlich adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed the existence of an absorbed protective film on the metal surface.

Keywords: calcium gluconate, corrosion, magnesium chloride, mild steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1037 Improving the Performance of Road Salt on Anti-Icing

Authors: Mohsen Abotalebi Esfahani, Amin Rahimi

Abstract:

Maintenance and management of route and roads infrastructure is one of the most important and the most fundamental principles of the countries. Several methods have been under investigation as preventive proceedings for the maintenance of asphalt pavements for many years. Using a mixture of salt, sand and gravel is the most common method of deicing, which could have numerous harmful consequences. Icy or snow-covered road is one of the major reasons of accidents in rainy seasons, which causes substantial damages such as loss of time and energy, environmental pollution, destruction of buildings, traffic congestion and rising possibility of accidents. Regarding this, every year the government incurred enormous costs to secure traverses. In this study, asphalt pavements have been cured, in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength and resilient modulus of asphalt samples, under the influence of Magnesium Chloride, Calcium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, Urea and pure water; and showed that de-icing with the calcium chloride solution and urea have the minimum negative effect and de-icing with pure water has most negative effect on laboratory specimens. Hence some simple techniques and new equipment and less use of sand and salt, can reduce significantly the risks and harmful effects of excessive use of salt, sand and gravel and at the same time use the safer roads.

Keywords: maintenance, sodium chloride, icyroad, calcium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1036 Chemical Amelioration of Expansive Soils

Authors: B. R. Phanikumar, Sana Suri

Abstract:

Expansive soils swell when they absorb water and shrink when water evaporates from them. Hence, lightly loaded civil engineering structures found in these soils are subjected to severe distress. Therefore, there is a need to ameliorate or improve these swelling soils through some innovative methods. This paper discusses chemical stabilisation of expansive soils, a technique in which chemical reagents such as lime and calcium chloride are added to expansive soils to reduce the volumetric changes occurring in expansive soils and also to improve their engineering behaviour.

Keywords: expansive soils, swelling, shrinkage, amelioration, lime, calcium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1035 Laboratory Investigation of Expansive Soil Stabilized with Calcium Chloride

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Khalid A. Eltayeb

Abstract:

Chemical stabilization is a technique commonly used to improve the expansive soil properties. In this regard, an attempt has been made to evaluate the influence of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) stabilizer on the engineering properties of expansive soil. A series of laboratory experiments including consistency limits, free swell, compaction, and shear strength tests were performed to investigate the effect of CaCl2 additive with various percentages 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% for improving expansive soil. The results obtained shows that the increase in the percentage of CaCl2 decreased the liquid limit and plasticity index leading to significant reduction in the free swell index. This, in turn, increased the maximum dry density and decreased the optimum moisture content which results in greater strength. The unconfined compressive strength of soil stabilized with 5% CaCl2 increased approximately by 50% as compared to virgin soil. It can be concluded that CaCl2 had shown promising influence on the strength and swelling properties of expansive soil, thereby giving an advantage in improving problematic expansive soil.

Keywords: calcium chloride, chemical stabilization, expansive soil, improving

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1034 Study of Some Physiochemical Properties of Ain Kaam Water Lagoon and Assessing Their Suitability for Human Use and Irrigation

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela

Abstract:

In this research some physiochemical properties represented by temperature, pH, total hardness (TH), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride and hardness of calcium (Ca-H) and magnesium (Mg-H) were measured in the water of Ain Kaam Zliten in Libya (South side of the lagoon). A comparison of water quality with the values adopted internationally was accomplished to demonstrate the suitability for human and irrigation use. The experimental results showed that the values of pH and EC of the studied for water samples did not exceed the allowed range for drinking water. While TDS, TH, (Mg-H) and chloride values have exceeded the acceptable limit for drinking water internationally, calcium (Ca-H) results have shown a decrease in values of all samples except the first sample which record a marginal increase.

Keywords: physiochemical properties, Ain Kaam lagoon, Zliten, Libya

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1033 Comparison of the Hydration Products of Commercial and Experimental Calcium Silicate Cement: The Preliminary Observational Study

Authors: Seok Woo Chang

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the hydration products of commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement. Materials and Methods: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply) and experimental calcium silicate cement (n=10) were mixed with distilled water (water/powder ratio = 20 w/w) and stirred at room temperature for 10 hours. These mixtures were dispersed on wafer and dried for 12 hours at room temperature. Thereafter, the dried specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) was also carried out. Results: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) and experimental calcium silicate cement both showed precipitation of rod-like and globule-like crystals. Based on EDS analysis, these precipitates were supposed to be calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrates. The degree of formation of these precipitates was higher in commercial MTA. Conclusions: Based on the results, both commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement had ability to produce calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrate precipitates.

Keywords: calcium silicate cement, ProRoot MTA, precipitation, calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1032 Chloride Transport in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Radka Pernicova

Abstract:

Chloride resistance in Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is determined in this paper. This work deals with the one dimension chloride transport, which can be potentially dangerous particularly for the durability of concrete structures. Risk of reinforcement corrosion due to exposure to the concrete surface to direct the action of chloride ions (mainly in the form de-icing salts or groundwater) is dangerously increases. The measured data are investigated depending on the depth of penetration of chloride ions into the concrete structure. Comparative measurements with normal strength concrete are done as well. The experimental results showed that UHCP have improved resistance of chlorides penetration than NSC and also chloride diffusion depth is significantly lower in UHCP.

Keywords: chloride, one dimensional diffusion, transport, salinity, UHPC

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1031 Can Bone Resorption Reduce with Nanocalcium Particles in Astronauts?

Authors: Ravi Teja Mandapaka, Prasanna Kumar Kukkamalla

Abstract:

Poor absorption of calcium, elevated levels in serum and loss of bone are major problems of astronauts during space travel. Supplementation of calcium could not reveal this problem. In normal condition only 33% of calcium is absorbed from dietary sources. In this paper effect of space environment on calcium metabolism was discussed. Many surprising study findings were found during literature survey. Clinical trials on ovariectomized mice showed that reduction of calcium particles to nano level make them more absorbable and bioavailable. Control of bone loss in astronauts in critical important In Fortification of milk with nana calcium particles showed reduces urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline levels. Dietary calcium and supplementation do not show much retention of calcium in zero gravity environment where absorption is limited. So, the fortification of foods with nano calcium particles seemed beneficial for astronauts during and after space travel in their speedy recovery.

Keywords: nano calcium, astronauts, fortification, supplementation

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1030 Numerical Model to Study Calcium and Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Dynamics in a Myocyte Cell

Authors: Nisha Singh, Neeru Adlakha

Abstract:

Calcium signalling is one of the most important intracellular signalling mechanisms. A lot of approaches and investigators have been made in the study of calcium signalling in various cells to understand its mechanisms over recent decades. However, most of existing investigators have mainly focussed on the study of calcium signalling in various cells without paying attention to the dependence of calcium signalling on other chemical ions like inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate ions, etc. Some models for the independent study of calcium signalling and inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate signalling in various cells are present but very little attention has been paid by the researchers to study the interdependence of these two signalling processes in a cell. In this paper, we propose a coupled mathematical model to understand the interdependence of inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate dynamics and calcium dynamics in a myocyte cell. Such studies will provide the deeper understanding of various factors involved in calcium signalling in myocytes, which may be of great use to biomedical scientists for various medical applications.

Keywords: calcium signalling, coupling, finite difference method, inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1029 Study of Corrosion in Structures due to Chloride Infiltration

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai, Akku Aby Mathews

Abstract:

Corrosion in reinforcing steel is the leading cause for deterioration in concrete structures. It is an electrochemical process which leads to volumetric change in concrete and causes cracking, delamination and spalling. The objective of the study is to provide a rational method to estimate the probable chloride concentration at the reinforcement level for a known surface chloride concentration. The paper derives the formulation of design charts to aid engineers for quick calculation of the chloride concentration. Furthermore, the paper focuses on comparison of durability design against corrosion with American, European and Indian design standards.

Keywords: chloride infiltration, concrete, corrosion, design charts

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1028 Recovery of Boron from Industrial Wastewater by Chemical Oxo-Precipitation

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Ming-Chun Yen, Jui-Yen Lin, Yu-Jen Shih

Abstract:

This work investigated the reclamation of boron in industrial wastewaters by a chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) technique at room temperature. In COP, the boric acid was pretreated with H₂O₂, yielding various perborate anions. Afterwards, calcium chloride was used to efficiently remove boron through precipitation of calcium perborate. The important factors included reacted pH and the molar ratio of [Ca]/[B]. Under conditions of pH 11 and [Ca]/[B] of 1, the boron concentration could be reduced immediately from 600 ppm to 50 ppm in 10 minutes. The boron removal was enhanced with a higher [Ca]/[B], which further reduced boron to 20 ppm in 10 minutes. Nevertheless, the dissolution of carbon dioxide potentially affected the efficacy of COP and increased the boron concentration after 10 minutes.

Keywords: chemical oxo-precipitation, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide

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1027 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, nutritional combinations, synergistic

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1026 Study of Pipes Scaling of Purified Wastewater Intended for the Irrigation of Agadir Golf Grass

Authors: A. Driouiche, S. Mohareb, A. Hadfi

Abstract:

In Morocco’s Agadir region, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green spaces has faced the problem of scaling of the pipes of these waters. This research paper aims at studying the phenomenon of scaling caused by the treated wastewater from the Mzar sewage treatment plant. These waters are used in the irrigation of golf turf for the Ocean Golf Resort. Ocean Golf, located about 10 km from the center of the city of Agadir, is one of the most important recreation centers in Morocco. The course is a Belt Collins design with 27 holes, and is quite open with deep challenging bunkers. The formation of solid deposits in the irrigation systems has led to a decrease in their lifetime and, consequently, a loss of load and performance. Thus, the sprinklers used in golf turf irrigation are plugged in the first weeks of operation. To study this phenomenon, the wastewater used for the irrigation of the golf turf was taken and analyzed at various points, and also samples of scale formed in the circuits of the passage of these waters were characterized. This characterization of the scale was performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the physicochemical analysis of the waters show that they are full of bicarbonates (653 mg/L), chloride (478 mg/L), nitrate (412 mg/L), sodium (425 mg/L) and calcium (199mg/L). Their pH is slightly alkaline. The analysis of the scale reveals that it is rich in calcium and phosphorus. It is formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), silica (SiO₂), calcium silicate (Ca₂SiO₄), hydroxylapatite (Ca₁₀P₆O₂₆), calcium carbonate and phosphate (Ca₁₀(PO₄) 6CO₃) and silicate calcium and magnesium (Ca₅MgSi₃O₁₂).

Keywords: Agadir, irrigation, scaling water, wastewater

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1025 Effectiveness of Crystallization Coating Materials on Chloride Ions Ingress in Concrete

Authors: Mona Elsalamawy, Ashraf Ragab Mohamed, Abdellatif Elsayed Abosen

Abstract:

This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different crystalline coating materials concerning of chloride ions penetration. The concrete ages at the coating installation and its moisture conditions were addressed; where, these two factors may play a dominant role for the effectiveness of the used materials. Rapid chloride ions penetration test (RCPT) was conducted at different ages and moisture conditions according to the relevant standard. In addition, the contaminated area and the penetration depth of the chloride ions were investigated immediately after the RCPT test using chemical identifier, 0.1 M silver nitrate AgNO3 solution. Results have shown that, the very low chloride ions penetrability, for the studied crystallization materials, were investigated only with the old age concrete (G1). The significant reduction in chloride ions’ penetrability was illustrated after 7 days of installing the crystalline coating layers. Using imageJ is more reliable to describe the contaminated area of chloride ions, where the distribution of aggregate and heterogeneous of cement mortar was considered in the images analysis.

Keywords: chloride permeability, contaminated area, crystalline waterproofing materials, RCPT, XRD

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1024 Formation of Microcapsules in Microchannel through Droplet Merging

Authors: Md. Danish Eqbal, Venkat Gundabala

Abstract:

Microparticles and microcapsules are basically used as a carrier for cells, tissues, drugs, and chemicals. Due to its biocompatibility, non-toxicity and biodegradability, alginate based microparticles have numerous applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, organ repair and transplantation, etc. The production of uniform monodispersed microparticles was a challenge for the past few decades. However, emergence of microfluidics has provided controlled methods for the generation of the uniform monodispersed microparticles. In this work, we present a successful method for the generation of both microparticles and microcapsules (single and double core) using merging approach of two droplets, completely inside the microfluidic device. We have fabricated hybrid glass- PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device which has coflow geometry as well as the T junction channel. Coflow is used to generate the single as well as double oil-alginate emulsion in oil and T junction helps to form the calcium chloride droplets in oil. The basic idea is to match the frequency of the alginate droplets and calcium chloride droplets perfectly for controlled generation. Using the merging of droplets technique, we have successfully generated the microparticles and the microcapsules having single core as well as double and multiple cores. The cores in the microcapsules are very stable, well separated from each other and very intact as seen through cross-sectional confocal images. The size and the number of the cores along with the thickness of the shell can be easily controlled by controlling the flowrate of the liquids.

Keywords: double-core, droplets, microcapsules, microparticles

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1023 Effect of Flux Salts on the Recovery Extent and Quality of Metal Values from Spent Rechargeable Lead Batteries

Authors: Mahmoud A Rabah, Sabah M. Abelbasir

Abstract:

Lead-calcium alloy containing up to 0.10% calcium was recovered from spent rechargeable sealed acid lead batteries. Two techniques were investigated to explore the effect of flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered alloy, pyro-metallurgical and electrochemical methods. About 10 kg of the spent batteries were collected for testing. The sample was washed with hot water and dried. The plastic cases of the batteries were mechanically cut, and the contents were dismantled manually, the plastic containers were shredded for recycling. The electrode plates were freed from the loose powder and placed in SiC crucible and covered with alkali chloride salts. The loaded crucible was heated in an electronically controlled chamber furnace type Nabertherm C3 at temperatures up to 800 °C. The obtained metals were analyzed. The effect of temperature, rate of heating, atmospheric conditions, composition of the flux salts on the extent and quality of the recovered products were studied. Results revealed that the spent rechargeable batteries contain 6 blocks of 6 plates of Pb-Ca alloy each. Direct heating of these plates in a silicon carbide crucible under ambient conditions produces lead metal poor in calcium content ( < 0.07%) due to partial oxidation of the alloying calcium element. Rate of temperature increase has a considerable effect on the yield of the lead alloy extraction. Flux salts composition benefits the recovery process. Sodium salts are more powerful as compared to potassium salts. Lead calcium alloy meeting the standard specification was successfully recovered from the spent rechargeable acid lead batteries with a very competitive cost to the same alloy prepared from primary resources.

Keywords: rechargeable lead batteries, lead-calcium alloy, waste recovery, flux salts, thermal recovery

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1022 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz

Abstract:

In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature

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1021 Efficiency of Different Types of Addition onto the Hydration Kinetics of Portland Cement

Authors: Marine Regnier, Pascal Bost, Matthieu Horgnies

Abstract:

Some of the problems to be solved for the concrete industry are linked to the use of low-reactivity cement, the hardening of concrete under cold-weather and the manufacture of pre-casted concrete without costly heating step. The development of these applications needs to accelerate the hydration kinetics, in order to decrease the setting time and to obtain significant compressive strengths as soon as possible. The mechanisms enhancing the hydration kinetics of alite or Portland cement (e.g. the creation of nucleation sites) were already studied in literature (e.g. by using distinct additions such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles, calcium carbonate fillers, water-soluble polymers, C-S-H, etc.). However, the goal of this study was to establish a clear ranking of the efficiency of several types of additions by using a robust and reproducible methodology based on isothermal calorimetry (performed at 20°C). The cement was a CEM I 52.5N PM-ES (Blaine fineness of 455 m²/kg). To ensure the reproducibility of the experiments and avoid any decrease of the reactivity before use, the cement was stored in waterproof and sealed bags to avoid any contact with moisture and carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed on Portland cement pastes by using a water-to-cement ratio of 0.45, and incorporating different compounds (industrially available or laboratory-synthesized) that were selected according to their main composition and their specific surface area (SSA, calculated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) model and nitrogen adsorption isotherms performed at 77K). The intrinsic effects of (i) dry powders (e.g. fumed silica, activated charcoal, nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, afwillite germs, nanoparticles of iron and iron oxides , etc.), and (ii) aqueous solutions (e.g. containing calcium chloride, hydrated Portland cement or Master X-SEED 100, etc.) were investigated. The influence of the amount of addition, calculated relatively to the dry extract of each addition compared to cement (and by conserving the same water-to-cement ratio) was also studied. The results demonstrated that the X-SEED®, the hydrated calcium nitrate, the calcium chloride (and, at a minor level, a solution of hydrated Portland cement) were able to accelerate the hydration kinetics of Portland cement, even at low concentration (e.g. 1%wt. of dry extract compared to cement). By using higher rates of additions, the fumed silica, the precipitated calcium carbonate and the titanium dioxide can also accelerate the hydration. In the case of the nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, a correlation was established between the SSA and the accelerating effect. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of iron or iron oxides, the activated charcoal and the dried crystallised hydrates did not show any accelerating effect. Future experiments will be scheduled to establish the ranking of these additions, in terms of accelerating effect, by using low-reactivity cements and other water to cement ratios.

Keywords: acceleration, hydration kinetics, isothermal calorimetry, Portland cement

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1020 Resistance to Chloride Penetration of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes: Pumice and Zeolite Effect

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi

Abstract:

This paper aims to contribute to the characterization and the understanding of fresh state, compressive strength and chloride penetration tendency of high strength self-compacting concretes (HSSCCs) where Portland cement type II is partially substituted by 10% and 15% of natural pumice and zeolite. First, five concrete mixtures with a control mixture without any pozzolan are prepared and tested in both fresh and hardened states. Then, resistance to chloride penetration for all formulation is investigated in non-steady state and steady state by measurement of chloride penetration and diffusion coefficient. In non-steady state, the correlation between initial current and chloride penetration with diffusion coefficient is studied. Moreover, the relationship between diffusion coefficient in non-steady state and electrical resistivity is determined. The concentration of free chloride ions is also measured in steady state. Finally, chloride penetration for all formulation is studied in immersion and tidal condition. The result shows that, the resistance to chloride penetration for HSSCC in immersion and tidal condition increases by incorporating pumice and zeolite. However, concrete with zeolite displays a better resistance. This paper shows that the HSSCC with 15% pumice and 10% zeolite is suitable in fresh, hardened, and durability characteristics.

Keywords: Chloride penetration, immersion, pumice, HSSCC, tidal, zeolite

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1019 Combined Effect of High Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Migration in Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Elkedrouci Lotfi, Diao Bo, Pang Sen, Li Yi

Abstract:

Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0mm).

Keywords: crack width, high curing temperature, rapid chloride migration, reinforced concrete beam

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1018 Stochastic Modeling of Secretion Dynamics in Inner Hair Cells of the Auditory Pathway

Authors: Jessica A. Soto-Bear, Virginia González-Vélez, Norma Castañeda-Villa, Amparo Gil

Abstract:

Glutamate release of the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse is a fundamental step in transferring sound information in the auditory pathway. Otoferlin is the calcium sensor in the IHC and its activity has been related to many auditory disorders. In order to simulate secretion dynamics occurring in the IHC in a few milliseconds timescale and with high spatial resolution, we proposed an active-zone model solved with Monte Carlo algorithms. We included models for calcium buffered diffusion, calcium-binding schemes for vesicle fusion, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that calcium influx and calcium binding is managing IHC secretion as a function of voltage depolarization, which in turn mean that IHC response depends on sound intensity.

Keywords: inner hair cells, Monte Carlo algorithm, Otoferlin, secretion

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1017 The Effect of Molybdate on Corrosion Behaviour of AISI 316Ti Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Viera Zatkalíková, Lenka Markovičová, Aneta Tor-Swiatek

Abstract:

The effect of molybdate addition to chloride environment on resistance of AISI 316Ti stainless steel to pitting corrosion was studied. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests were performed in 1 M and 0.1 M chloride acidified solutions with various additions of sodium molybdate at room temperature. The presented results compare the effect of molybdate anions on quality of passive film (expressed by the pitting potential) in both chloride solutions. The pitting potential increases with the increase inhibitor concentration. The inhibitive effect of molybdate ions is stronger in chloride solution of lower aggressiveness (0.1M).

Keywords: AISI 316Ti steel, molybdate inhibitor, pitting corrosion, pitting potential, potentiodynamic polarisation

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1016 Two Dimensional Finite Element Model to Study Calcium Dynamics in Fibroblast Cell with Excess Buffer Approximation Involving ER Flux and SERCA Pump

Authors: Mansha Kotwani

Abstract:

The specific spatio-temporal calcium concentration patterns are required by the fibroblasts to maintain its structure and functions. Thus, calcium concentration is regulated in cell at different levels in various activities of the cell. The variations in cytosolic calcium concentration largely depend on the buffers present in cytosol and influx of calcium into cytosol from ER through IP3Rs or Raynodine receptors followed by reuptake of calcium into ER through sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum ATPs (SERCA) pump. In order to understand the mechanisms of wound repair, tissue remodeling and growth performed by fibroblasts, it is of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms of calcium concentration regulation in fibroblasts. In this paper, a model has been developed to study calcium distribution in NRK fibroblast in the presence of buffers and ER flux with SERCA pump. The model has been developed for two dimensional unsteady state case. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions have been framed along with physiology of the cell. Finite element technique has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers, ER flux and source amplitude on calcium distribution in fibroblast cell.

Keywords: buffers, IP3R, ER flux, SERCA pump, source amplitude

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1015 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas

Abstract:

Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, slurry infiltrated fiber concrete

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1014 Modification of Toothpaste Formula Using Pineapple Cobs and Eggshell Waste as a Way to Decrease Dental Caries

Authors: Achmad Buhori, Reza Imam Pratama, Tissa Wiraatmaja, Wanti Megawati

Abstract:

Data from many countries indicates that there is a marked increase of dental caries. The increases in caries appear to occur in lower socioeconomic groups. It is possible that the benefits of prevention of dental caries are not reaching these groups. However, there is a way to decrease dental caries by adding 5% of bromelain and calcium as an active agent in toothpaste. Bromelain can break glutamine-alanine bond and arginine-alanine bond which is a constituent of amino acid that causes dental plague which is one of the factors of dental caries. Calcium help rebuilds the teeth by strengthening and repairing enamel. Bromelain can be found from the extraction of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cobs (88.86-94.22 % of bromelain recovery during extraction based on the enzyme unit) and calcium can be taken from eggshell (95% of dry eggshell consist of calcium). The aim of this experiment is to make a toothpaste which contains bromelain and calcium as an effective, cheap, and healthy way to decrease dental caries around the world.

Keywords: bromelain, calcium, dental caries, dental plague, toothpaste

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1013 Physicochemical Parameters of Tap-Water in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Ahmed Abdi Hassana, Bassam Tawabini

Abstract:

In this study, the physicochemical parameters of Dhahran tap water were assessed to determine its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 45 water samples were collected from different locations. The results indicate temperature ranges of (19.76 to 22.86 °C), pH (6.5 to 8.23), dissolved oxygen (4.21 to 8.32 mg/L, conductivity (232 to 2586 uS/cm), turbidity (0.17 to 0.37 NTU), total dissolved solids (93 to 1671 mg/L), total alkalinity (4.11 to 24.04 mg/L), calcium (0.02 to 164 mg/L), magnesium (0.6 to 77.9 mg/L), chloride (32.7 to 568.7 mg/L), nitrate (0.02 to 3 mg/L), fluoride (0.001 to 0.591 mg/L), sodium (18.4 to 232 mg/L), potassium (0.5 to 26.4 mg/L), and sulphate (2.39 to 258 mg/L). The results were compared with the drinking water standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The study determined that though the levels of most of the physicochemical parameters comply with the standards, however, slight deviations exist. This is evident in the physical parameters (conductivity and total dissolved solids) and the chemical parameters (sulphate, chloride, and sodium) values recorded at a few sample sites.

Keywords: physicochemical parameters, tap-water, water quality, Dhahran

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1012 Evaluation of Re-mineralization Ability of Nanohydroxyapatite and Coral Calcium with Different Concentrations on Initial Enamel Carious Lesions

Authors: Ali Abdelnabi, Nermeen Hamza

Abstract:

Coral calcium is a boasting natural product and dietary supplement which is considered a source of alkaline calcium carbonate, this study is a comparative study, comparing the remineralization effect of the new product of coral calcium with that of nano-hydroxyapatite. Methodology: a total of 35 extracted molars were collected, examined and sectioned to obtain 70 sound enamel discs, all discs were numbered and examined by scanning electron microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays(EDAX) for mineral content, subjected to artificial caries, and mineral content was re-measured, discs were divided into seven groups according to the remineralizing agent used, where groups 1 to 3 used 10%, 20%, 30% nanohydroxyapatite gel respectively, groups 4 to 6 used 10%, 20%, 30% coral calcium gel and group 7 with no remineralizing agent (control group). All groups were re-examined by EDAX after remineralization; data were calculated and tabulated. Results: All groups showed a statistically significant drop in calcium level after artificial caries; all groups showed a statistically significant rise in calcium content after remineralization except for the control group; groups 1 and 5 showed the highest increase in calcium level after remineralization. Conclusion: coral calcium can be considered a comparative product to nano-hydroxyapatite regarding the remineralization of enamel initial carious lesions.

Keywords: artificial caries, coral calcium, nanohydroxyapatite, re-mineralization

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1011 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, protein, titanium

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1010 Analytical Performance of Cobas C 8000 Analyzer Based on Sigma Metrics

Authors: Sairi Satari

Abstract:

Introduction: Six-sigma is a metric that quantifies the performance of processes as a rate of Defects-Per-Million Opportunities. Sigma methodology can be applied in chemical pathology laboratory for evaluating process performance with evidence for process improvement in quality assurance program. In the laboratory, these methods have been used to improve the timeliness of troubleshooting, reduce the cost and frequency of quality control and minimize pre and post-analytical errors. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the sigma values of the Cobas 8000 analyzer based on the minimum requirement of the specification. Methodology: Twenty-one analytes were chosen in this study. The analytes were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Amylase, aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, creatinine kinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), magnesium, potassium, protein, sodium, triglyceride, uric acid and urea. Total error was obtained from Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The Bias was calculated from end cycle report of Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) cycle from July to December 2016 and coefficient variation (CV) from six-month internal quality control (IQC). The sigma was calculated based on the formula :Sigma = (Total Error - Bias) / CV. The analytical performance was evaluated based on the sigma, sigma > 6 is world class, sigma > 5 is excellent, sigma > 4 is good and sigma < 4 is satisfactory and sigma < 3 is poor performance. Results: Based on the calculation, we found that, 96% are world class (ALT, albumin, ALP, amylase, AST, total bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, creatinine kinase, glucose, LDH, magnesium, potassium, triglyceride and uric acid. 14% are excellent (calcium, protein and urea), and 10% ( chloride and sodium) require more frequent IQC performed per day. Conclusion: Based on this study, we found that IQC should be performed frequently for only Chloride and Sodium to ensure accurate and reliable analysis for patient management.

Keywords: sigma matrics, analytical performance, total error, bias

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