Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: A. A. Embaby

6 An Experimental Study to Mitigate Swelling Pressure of Expansive Tabuk Shale, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. A. Embaby, A. Abu Halawa, M. Ramadan


In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are several areas where expansive soil exists in the form of variable-thicknesses layers in the developed regions. Severe distress to infrastructures can be caused by the development of heave and swelling pressure in this kind of expansive shale. Among the various techniques for expansive soil mitigation, the removal and replacement technique is very popular for lightly loaded structures and shallow foundations. This paper presents the result of an experimental study conducted for evaluating the effect of type and thickness of the cushion soils on mitigation of swelling characteristics of expanded shale. Seven undisturbed shale samples collected from Al Qadsiyah district, which is located in the Tabuk town north Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are treated with two types of cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS); sand and gravel. Each type is represented with three thicknesses, 22%, 33% and 44% in relation to the depth of the active zone. The test results indicated that the replacement of expansive shale by CCS reduces the swelling potential and pressure. It is found that the reduction in swelling depends on the type and thickness of CCS. The treatment by removing the original expansive shale and replacing it by cushion sand with 44% thickness reduced the swelling potential and pressure of about 53.29% and 62.78 %, respectively.

Keywords: cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS), expansive soil, Saudi Arabia, swelling pressure, Tabuk Shale

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5 Rare Earth Elements and Radioactivity of Granitoid Rocks at Abu Marw Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: Adel H.El-Afandy, Abd Alrahman Embaby, Mona A. El Harairey


Abu Marw area is located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Desert, about 150km south east of Aswan. Abu Marw area is mainly covered by late Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. These basement rocks are nonconformably overlain by late Cretaceous Nubian sandstones in the western and northern parts of the areas. Abu Marw granitoid batholiths comprises a co-magmatic calc alkaline I type peraluminous suite of rocks ranging in composition from tonalite, granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite. The studied tonalite and granodiorite samples have ΣREE lower than the average REE values (250ppm) of granitic rocks, while the monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali feldspar granite samples have ΣREE above the average REE values of granitic rocks. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the considered granites display a gull-wing shape, characterized by large to moderately fractionated patterns and high LREE relative to the MREE and HREE contents. Furthermore, the studied rocks have a steadily decreasing Eu/Eu* values from the tonalite to the alkali feldspar granite with simultaneous increase in the ΣREE contents. The average U contents in different granitic rocks.

Keywords: granite, rare earth element, radioactivity, Abu Marw, south eastern desert

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4 Trunk and Gluteus-Medius Muscles’ Fatigability during Occupational Standing in Clinical Instructors with Low Back Pain

Authors: Eman A. Embaby, Amira A. A. Abdallah


Background: Occupational standing is associated with low back pain (LBP) development. Yet, trunk and gluteus-medius muscles’ fatigability has not been extensively studied during occupational standing. This study examined and correlated the rectus abdominus (RA), erector-spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and gluteus-medius (GM) muscles’ fatigability on both sides while standing in a confined area for 30 min Methods: Median frequency EMG data were collected from 15 female clinical instructors with chronic LBP (group A) and 15 asymptomatic controls (group B) (mean age 29.53±2.4 vs. 29.07±2.4 years, weight 63.6±7 vs. 60±7.8 kg, and height 162.73±4 vs. 162.8±6 cm respectively) using a spectrum analysis program. Data were collected in the first and last 5min of the standing task. Results: Using Mixed three-way ANOVA, group A showed significantly (p<0.05) lower frequencies for the right and left ES, and right GM in the last 5 min and significantly higher frequencies for the left RA in the first and last 5min than group B. In addition, the left ES and right EO, ES and GM in group B showed significantly higher frequencies and the left ES in group A showed significantly lower frequencies in the last 5min compared with the first. Moreover, the right RA showed significantly higher frequencies than the left in the last 5min in group B. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) correlations among the median frequencies of the tested four muscles on the same side and between both sides in both groups. Discussion/Conclusions: Clinical instructors with LBP are more liable to have higher trunk and gluteus-medius muscle fatigue than asymptomatic individuals. Thus, endurance training for these muscles should be included in the rehabilitation of such patients.

Keywords: EMG, fatigability, gluteus-medius, LBP, standing, trunk

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3 Spino-Pelvic Alignment with SpineCor Brace Use in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

Authors: Reham H. Diab, Amira A. A. Abdallah, Eman A. Embaby


Background: The effectiveness of bracing on preventing spino-pelvic alignment deterioration in idiopathic scoliosis has been extensively studied especially in the frontal plane. Yet, there is lack of knowledge regarding the effect of soft braces on spino-pelvic alignment in the sagittal plane. Achieving harmonious sagittal plane spino-pelvic balance is critical for the preservation of physiologic posture and spinal health. Purpose: This study examined the kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination in the sagittal plane and trunk imbalance in the frontal plane before and after a six-month rehabilitation period. Methods: Nineteen patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. They were divided into two groups; experimental and control. The experimental group (group I) used the SpineCor brace in addition to a rehabilitation exercise program while the control group (group II) had the exercise program only. The mean ±SD age, weight and height were 16.89±2.15 vs. 15.3±2.5 years; 59.78±6.85 vs. 62.5±8.33 Kg and 162.78±5.76 vs. 159±5.72 cm for group I vs. group II. Data were collected using for metric Π system. Results: Mixed design MANOVA showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) decreases in all the tested variables after the six-month period compared with “before” in both groups. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the kyphotic angle in group I compared with group II after the six-month period. Interpretation and conclusion: SpineCor brace is beneficial in reducing spino-pelvic alignment deterioration in both sagittal and frontal planes.

Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, SpineCor, spino-pelvic alignment, biomechanics

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2 Application of Watershed Modeling System for Urbanization Management in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abd-Alrahman Embaby, Ayman Abu Halawa, Medhat Ramadan


The infiltrated water into the subsurface activates expansive soil in localized manner, leading to the differential heaving and destructive of the construction. The Watershed Modeling System (WMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-1) are used to delineate and identify the drainage system and basin morphometry in Tabuk area, where flash floods and accumulation of water may take place. Eight drainage basins effect on Tabuk city. Three of them are expected to be high. The flash floods and surface runoff behavior in these basins are important for any protection projects. It was found that the risky areas that contain Tabuk shale could be expanded when exposed to flash floods and/or surface runoff. The resident neighborhoods in the middle of Tabuk city and affected by surface runoff of the tributaries of the basin of Wadi Abu Nishayfah, Na'am and Atanah outlet, represent high-risk zones. These high-risk neighborhoods are Al Qadsiyah, Al Maseif, Arrwdah, Al Nakhil and Al Rajhi. It can be avoided new constructions on these districts. The low or very low-risk zones include the western and the eastern districts. The western side of the city is lying in the upstream of the small basin. It is suitable for a future urban extension. The direction of surface runoff flow or storm water drain discharge should be away from Tabuk city. The quicker the water can flow out, the better it is.

Keywords: digital elevation model (DEM), flash floods, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk City, watershed modeling system (WMS)

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1 The Effect of Relaxing Exercises in Water on Endorphin Hormone for the Beginner in Swimming

Authors: Yasmin Hussein Embaby


Introduction: Athletic Training has its essentials, rules, and methods that help individual in reaching the maximum possible athletic level during the exercised physical activity, therefore; it is important for those working in athletic field to recognize and understand what is going on inside our bodies. This will show the close relationship between physiology and athletic training as the science that explains the various changes that happen to respond to the practice of physical activities. Swimming is one of the water sports that play a major role in influencing the full compatibility of body parts and its systems during the practice of different swimming methods, which uses aqueous to move. It is the initial nucleus in swimming learning and through which the beginner gain a sense of security, safety and the ability to move in aqueous by learning basic skills. Research Methodology: The researcher used the experimental methodology by using pre and post measurement on two equal groups (experimental – control) because it is appropriate for the research. Conclusions: Through the results and information found by the researcher, and in light of the related studies, theoretical readings and the statistical treatments of data; the researcher reached the following conclusions: 1. Muscle relaxation exercises have a positive effect on performance level in crawl swimming and on endorphin hormone as it helps in increasing its normal rater in body, the improvement percentage for experimental group in the relaxation ability, level of endorphin hormone exceeds those of control group. 2. The validity of muscle relaxation exercises proposed for the application, which achieved its objectives, namely increasing the level of endorphin hormone in the body; where research results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of endorphin hormone in favor of the experimental sample.

Keywords: beginners, endorphin hormone, relaxing exercises, swimming

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