Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: E. Erdem

24 Organizational Mortality of Insurance Organizations under the Conditions of Environmental Changes

Authors: Erdem Kirkbesoglu, A. Bugra Soylu, E. Deniz Kahraman

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of some variables on organizational mortality of the Turkish insurance industry and calculate the carrying capacities of Turkish insurance industry according to cities and regions. In the study, organizational mortality was tested with the level of reaching the population's carrying capacity. The findings of this study show that the insurance sales potentials can be calculated according to the provinces and regions of Turkey. It has also been proven that the organizations that feed on the same source will have a carrying capacity in the evolutionary process.

Keywords: insurance, carrying capacity, organizational mortality, organization

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23 Conductive Clay Nanocomposite Using Smectite and Poly(O-Anisidine)

Authors: M. Şahi̇n, E. Erdem, M. Saçak

Abstract:

In this study, Na-smectite crystals purificated of bentonite were used after being swelling with benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTBAB) as alkyl ammonium salt. Swelling process was carried out using 0.2 g of BTBAB for smectite of 0.8 g with 4 h of mixing time after investigated conditions such as mixing time, the swelling agent amount. Then, the conductive poly(o-anisidine) (POA)/smectite nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of swollen Na-smectite using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. The POA content and conductivity of the prepared nanocomposite were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as the treatment time of swollen smectite in monomer solution and o-anisidine/APS mol ratio. POA/smectite nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques and was compared separately with components of composite.

Keywords: clay, composite, conducting polymer, poly(o-anisidine)

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22 Machinability Study of A201-T7 Alloy

Authors: Onan Kilicaslan, Anil Kabaklarli, Levent Subasi, Erdem Bektas, Rifat Yilmaz

Abstract:

The Aluminum-Copper casting alloys are well known for their high mechanical strength, especially when compared to more commonly used Aluminum-Silicon alloys. A201 is one of the best in terms of strength vs. weight ratio among other aluminum alloys, which makes it suitable for premium quality casting applications in aerospace and automotive industries. It is reported that A201 has low castability, but it is easy to machine. However, there is a need to specifically determine the process window for feasible machining. This research investigates the machinability of A201 alloy after T7 heat treatment in terms of chip/burr formation, surface roughness, hardness, and microstructure. The samples are cast with low-pressure sand casting method and milling experiments are performed with uncoated carbide tools using different cutting speeds and feeds. Statistical analysis is used to correlate the machining parameters to surface integrity. It is found that there is a strong dependence of the cutting conditions on machinability and a process window is determined.

Keywords: A201-T7, machinability, milling, surface integrity

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21 Evaluation of Satellite and Radar Rainfall Product over Seyhan Plain

Authors: Kazım Kaba, Erdem Erdi, M. Akif Erdoğan, H. Mustafa Kandırmaz

Abstract:

Rainfall is crucial data source for very different discipline such as agriculture, hydrology and climate. Therefore rain rate should be known well both spatial and temporal for any area. Rainfall is measured by using rain-gauge at meteorological ground stations traditionally for many years. At the present time, rainfall products are acquired from radar and satellite images with a temporal and spatial continuity. In this study, we investigated the accuracy of these rainfall data according to rain-gauge data. For this purpose, we used Adana-Hatay radar hourly total precipitation product (RN1) and Meteosat convective rainfall rate (CRR) product over Seyhan plain. We calculated daily rainfall values from RN1 and CRR hourly precipitation products. We used the data of rainy days of four stations located within range of the radar from October 2013 to November 2015. In the study, we examined two rainfall data over Seyhan plain and the correlation between the rain-gauge data and two raster rainfall data was observed lowly.

Keywords: meteosat, radar, rainfall, rain-gauge, Turkey

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20 Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat

Authors: Ekrem Erdem, Can Tansel Tugcu

Abstract:

Improved resource efficiency of production is a key requirement for sustainable growth, worldwide. In this regards, by considering the energy and tourism as the extra inputs to the classical Coub-Douglas production function, this study aims at investigating the efficiency changes in the North African countries. To this end, the study uses panel data for the period 1995-2010 and adopts the Malmquist index based on the data envelopment analysis. Results show that tourism increases technical and scale efficiencies, while it decreases technological and total factor productivity changes. On the other hand, when the production function is augmented by the energy input, technical efficiency change decreases, while the technological change, scale efficiency change and total factor productivity change increase. Thus, in order to satisfy the needs for sustainable growth, North African governments should take some measures for increasing the contribution that the tourism makes to economic growth and some others for efficient use of resources in the energy sector.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, economic efficiency, North African countries, sustainable growth

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19 Role of Sodium Concentration, Waiting Time and Constituents’ Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: Muhammet M. Erdem, Erdoğan Özbay, Ibrahim H. Durmuş, Mustafa Erdemir, Murat Bikçe, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı

Abstract:

In this paper, rheological behavior of alkali activated slag concretes were investigated depending on the sodium concentration (SC), waiting time (WT) after production, and constituents’ temperature (CT) parameters. For this purpose, an experimental program was conducted with four different SCs of 1.85, 3.0, 4.15, and 5.30%, three different WT of 0 (just after production), 15, and 30 minutes and three different CT of 18, 30, and 40 °C. Solid precursors are activated by water glass and sodium hydroxide solutions with silicate modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 1. Slag content and (water + activator solution)/slag ratio were kept constant in all mixtures. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values were defined for each mixture by using the ICAR rheometer. Test results were demonstrated that all of the three studied parameters have tremendous effect on the yield stress and plastic viscosity values of the alkali activated slag concretes. Increasing the SC, WT, and CT drastically augmented the rheological parameters. At the 15 and 30 minutes WT after production, most of the alkali activated slag concretes were set instantaneously, and rheological measurements were not performed.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rheology, yield stress, plastic viscosity

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18 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu

Abstract:

Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: cell culture, keratin, nanofibers, UV-reactive electrospinning

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17 The Preparation and Characterization of Conductive Poly(O-Toluidine)/Smectite Clay Nanocomposite

Authors: E. Erdem, M. Şahin, M. Saçak

Abstract:

Smectite is a layered silicate and modified with alkyl ammonium salts to make both the hydrophilic silicate surfaces organophilic, and to expand the clay layers. Thus, a nanocomposite structure can be formed enabling to enter various types of polymers between the layers. In this study, Na-smectite crystals were prepared by purification of bentonite. Benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTBAB) was used as a swelling agent. The mixing time and additive concentration were changed during the swelling process. It was determined that the 4 h of mixing time and 0.2 g of BTBAB were sufficient and the usage of higher amounts of salt did not increase the interlayer space between the clay layers. Then, the conductive poly(o-toluidine) (POT)/smectite nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of swollen Na-smectite using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. The POT content and conductivity of the prepared nanocomposite were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as the treatment time of swollen smectite in monomer solution and o-toluidine/APS mol ratio. The POT content and conductivity of nanocomposite increased with increasing monomer/oxidant mol ratio up to 1 and did not change at higher ratios. The maximum polymer yield and the highest conductivity value of the composite were 26.0% and 4.0×10-5 S/cm, respectively. The structural and morphological analyses of the POT/smectite nanocomposite were carried out by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques, respectively.

Keywords: clay, composite, conducting polymer, poly(o-anisidine)

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16 Evaluation of Heavy Metal Concentrations of Stem and Seed of Juncus acutus for Grazing Animals and Birds in Kızılırmak Delta

Authors: N. Cetinkaya, F. Erdem

Abstract:

Juncus acutus (Juncaceae) is a perennial wetland plant and it is commonly known as spiny rush or sharp rush. It is the most abundant plant in Kizilirmak grassland, Samsun, Turkey. Heavy metals are significant environmental contaminants in delta and their toxicity is an increasing problem for animals whose natural habitat is delta. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal concentrations mainly As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg in stem and seed of Juncus acutus for grazing animals and birds in delta. The Juncus acutus stem and seed samples were collected from Kizilirmak Delta in July, August and September. Heavy metal concentrations of collected samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The obtained mean values of three months for As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg of stem and seed samples of Juncus acutus were 0.11 and 0.23 mg/kg; 0.07 and 0.11 mg/kg; 0.02 and 0.02 mg/kg; 5.26 and 1.75 mg/kg; 0.05 and not detectable in July respectively. Hg was not detected in both stem and seed of Juncus acutus, Pb concentration was determined only in stem of Juncus acutus but not in seed. There were no significant differences between the values of three months for As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg of stem and seed samples of Juncus acutus. The obtained As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg results of stem and seed of Juncus acutus show that seed and stem of Juncus acutus may be safely consumed for grazing animals and birds regarding to heavy metals contamination in Kizilirmak Delta.

Keywords: heavy metals, Juncus acutus, Kizilirmak Delta, wetland

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15 Synthesising Highly Luminescent CdTe Quantum Dots Using Cannula Hot Injection Method

Authors: Erdem Elibol, Musa Cadırcı, Nedim Tutkun

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Recently, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have drawn increasing attention due to their unique size tunability, which makes them potential candidates for numerous applications including photovoltaic, LEDs, and imaging. However, the main challenge to exploit CQDs properly is that there has not been an effective method to produce them with highly crystalline form and narrow size dispersion. Hot injection method is one of the widely used techniques to produce high-quality nanoparticles. In this method, the key parameter is to reduce the time for injection of the precursors into each other, which yields fast and constant nucleation rate and hence to highly monodisperse QDs. In conventional hot injection method, the injection of precursors is carried out using standard lab syringes with long needles. However, this technique is relatively slow and thus will result in poor optical properties in QDs. In this work, highly luminescent CdTe QDs were synthesised by transferring hot precursors into each other using cannula method. Unlike regular syringe technique, with the help of high pressure difference between two precursors’ flasks and wide cross-section of cannula, the hot cannulation process is too short which yields narrow size distribution and high quantum yield of CdTe QDs. Here QDs with full width half maximum (FWHM) of 28 nm was achieved. In addition, the photoluminescence quantum yield of our samples was measured to be about 21 ± 0.9 which is at least twice the previous record values for CdTe QDs wherein syringe was used to transfer precursors.

Keywords: CdTe, hot injection method, luminescent, quantum dots

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14 Polymer Patterning by Dip Pen Nanolithography

Authors: Ayse Cagil Kandemir, Derya Erdem, Markus Niederberger, Ralph Spolenak

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Dip Pen nanolithography (DPN), which is a tip based method, serves a novel approach to produce nano and micro-scaled patterns due to its high resolution and pattern flexibility. It is introduced as a new constructive scanning probe lithography (SPL) technique. DPN delivers materials in the form of an ink by using the tip of a cantilever as pen and substrate as paper in order to form surface architectures. First studies rely on delivery of small organic molecules on gold substrate in ambient conditions. As time passes different inks such as; polymers, colloidal particles, oligonucleotides, metallic salts were examined on a variety of surfaces. Discovery of DPN also enabled patterning with multiple inks by using multiple cantilevers for the first time in SPL history. Specifically, polymer inks, which constitute a flexible matrix for various materials, can have a potential in MEMS, NEMS and drug delivery applications. In our study, it is aimed to construct polymer patterns using DPN by studying wetting behavior of polymer on semiconductor, metal and polymer surfaces. The optimum viscosity range of polymer and effect of environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature are examined. It is observed that there is an inverse relation with ink viscosity and depletion time. This study also yields the optimal writing conditions to produce consistent patterns with DPN. It is shown that written dot sizes increase with dwell time, indicating that the examined writing conditions yield repeatable patterns.

Keywords: dip pen nanolithography, polymer, surface patterning, surface science

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13 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Ramazan F. Akkoc, Elif Erdem, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, D. Özlem Dabak, Enver Ozan

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Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, bone, morphometry, rat, tobacco smoke

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12 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Liver Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Mehmet Ali Kisacam, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan

Abstract:

Tobacco smokers continuously inhale thousands of carcinogens and free radicals. It is estimated that about 1017 oxidant molecules are present in each puff of tobacco smoke. It is known that smoking has adverse effects on the structure and functions of the liver. Ellagic acid (EA) has antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective effect of ellagic acid against tobacco smoke-mediated oxidative stress in the rat liver. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated, and liver tissues were removed. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Sinusoidal dilatation, inflammatory cell infiltration in portal area, increased Kuppfer cells were examined in tobacco smoke group and tobacco smoke+ corn oil groups. The results, observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke+corn oil groups, were found significantly decreased in tobacco smoke+EA group. Group-II and group-III MDA levels were significantly higher, and GSH activities were not different than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV MDA level was decreased, and GSH activities was increased significantly. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the liver tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: ellagic acid, liver, rat, tobacco smoke

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11 Microbiota Effect with Cytokine in Hl and NHL Patient Group

Authors: Ekin Ece Gürer, Tarık Onur Tiryaki, Sevgi Kalayoğlu Beşışık, Fatma Savran Oğuz, Uğur Sezerman, Fatma Erdem, Gülşen Günel, Dürdane Serap Kuruca, Zerrin Aktaş, Oral Öncül

Abstract:

Aim: Chemotherapytreatment in HodgkinLymphomaandNon-HodgkinLymphoma (NHL) diseasescausesgastrointestinalepithelialdamage, disruptstheintestinalmicrobiotabalanceandcausesdysbiosis. Inourstudy, it wasaimedtoshowtheeffect of thedamagecausedbychemotherapy on themicrobiotaandtheeffect of thechangingmicrobiota flora on thecourse of thedisease. Materials And Methods: Seven adult HL and seven adult HL patients to be treatedwithchemotherapywereincluded in the study. Stoolsamplesweretakentwice, beforechemotherapytreatmentandafterthe 3th course of treatment. SamplesweresequencedusingNextGenerationSequencing (NGS) methodafternucleicacidisolation. OTU tableswerepreparedusing NCBI blastnversion 2.0.12 accordingtothe NCBI general 16S bacterialtaxonomyreferencedated 10.08.2021. Thegenerated OTU tableswerecalculatedwith R Statistical Computer Language version 4.04 (readr, phyloseq, microbiome, vegan, descrand ggplot2 packages) to calculate Alpha diversityandtheirgraphicswerecreated. Statistical analyzeswerealsoperformedusing R Statistical Computer Language version 4.0.4 and studio IDE 1.4 (tidyverse, readr, xlsxand ggplot2 packages). Expression of IL-12 and IL-17 cytokineswasperformedbyrtPCRtwice, beforeandaftertreatment. Results: InHL patients, a significantdecreasewasobserved in themicrobiota flora of Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 genus (p:0.036) andUndefined Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 species (p:0.036) comparedtopre-treatment. When the post-treatment of HL patientswerecomparedwithhealthycontrols, a significantdecreasewasfound in themicrobiota of Prevotella_7 genus (p:0.049) andButyricimonas (p:0.006) in the post-treatmentmicrobiota of HL patients. InNHL patients, a significantdecreasewasobserved in themicrobiota flora of Coprococccus_3 genus (p:0.015) andUndefined Ruminoclostridium_5 (p:0.046) speciescomparedtopre-treatment. When post-treatment of NHL patientswerecomparedwithhealthycontrols, a significantabundance in theBacilliclass (p:0.029) and a significantdecrease in theUndefinedAlistipesspecies (p:0.047) wereobserved in the post-treatmentmicrobiota of NHL patients. While a decreasewasobserved in IL-12 cytokineexpressionuntilbeforetreatment, an increase in IL-17 cytokineexpressionwasdetected. Discussion: Intestinal flora monitoringafterchemotherapytreatmentshowsthat it can be a guide in thetreatment of thedisease. It is thoughtthatincreasingthediversity of commensalbacteria can alsopositivelyaffecttheprognosis of thedisease.

Keywords: hodgkin lymphoma, non-hodgkin, microbiota, cytokines

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10 Demographic Characteristics and Factors Affecting Mortality in Pediatric Trauma Patients Who Are Admitted to Emergency Service

Authors: Latif Duran, Erdem Aydin, Ahmet Baydin, Ali Kemal Erenler, Iskender Aksoy

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Aim: In this retrospective study, we aim to contribute to the literature by presenting the proposals for taking measures to reduce the mortality by examining the demographic characteristics of the pediatric age group patients presenting with trauma and the factors that may cause mortality Material and Method: This study has been performed by retrospectively investigating the data obtained from the patient files and the hospital automation registration system of the pediatric trauma patients who applied to the Adult Emergency Department of the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. Results: 289 of 415 patients involved in our study, were males. The median age was 11.3 years. The most common trauma mechanism was falling from the high. A significant statistical difference was found on the association between trauma mechanisms and gender. An increase in the number of trauma cases was found especially in the summer months. The study showed that thoracic and abdominal trauma was relevant to the increased mortality. Computerized tomography was the most common diagnostic imaging modality. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage has increased the risk of mortality by 62.3 fold. Eight of the patients (1.9%) died. Scoring systems were statistically significant to predict mortality. Conclusion: Children are vulnerable to trauma because of their unique anatomical and physiological differences compared to adult patient groups. It will be more successful in the mortality rate and in the post-traumatic healing process by administering the patient triage fast and most appropriate trauma centers in the prehospital period, management of the critical patients with the scoring systems and management with standard treatment protocols

Keywords: emergency service, pediatric patients, scoring systems, trauma, age groups

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9 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Heart Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, D. Ozlem Dabak, Gonca Ozan, Elif Erdem, Enver Ozan

Abstract:

One of the common causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is smoking. Moreover, tobacco smoke decreases the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry and increases the tendency for blood clots. Ellagic acid is a powerful antioxidant found especially in red fruits. It was shown to block atherosclerotic process suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on heart tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Heart tissues and blood samples were taken. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion, hyperemic areas, inflammatory cell infiltration and increased connective tissue in the perivascular area were observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke + corn oil groups. Increased connective tissue in the perivascular area, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration were decreased in tobacco smoke + EA group. Group-II GSH level was not changed (significantly), CAT, SOD, GPx activities were significantly higher than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx activities were increased, and MDA level was decreased significantly. Group-II and Group-III levels were similar. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the heart tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: ellagic acid, heart, rat, tobacco smoke

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8 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can

Abstract:

It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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7 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Lungs Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, Elif Erdem, Neriman Colakoglu, Enver Ozan

Abstract:

The toxic effects of tobacco smoke exposure have been detected in numerous studies. Ellagic acid (EA), (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy [1]-benzopyranol [5,4,3-cde] benzopyran 5,10-dione), a natural phenolic lactone compound, is found in various plant species including pomegranate, grape, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries. Similar to the other effective antioxidants, EA can safely interact with the free radicals and reduces oxidative stress through the phenolic ring and hydroxyl components in its structure. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on lung tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. Equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Lung tissues and blood samples were taken. The lung slides were stained by H&E and Masson’s Trichrome methods. Also, galactin-3 stain was applied. Biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration in pulmonary interstitium, thickness in interalveolar septum, cytoplasmic vacuolation in some macrophages and galactin-3 positive cells were observed in histological examination of tobacco smoke group. In addition to these findings, hemorrhage in pulmonary interstitium and bronchial lumen was detected in tobacco smoke + corn oil group. Reduced vascular congestion and hemorrhage in pulmoner interstitium and rarely thickness in interalveolar septum were shown in tobacco smoke + EA group. Compared to group-I, group-II GSH level was decreased and MDA level was increased significantly. Nevertheless group-IV GSH level was higher and MDA level was lower than group-II. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the lung tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: ellagic acid, lung, rat, tobacco smoke

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6 Modelling the Behavior of Commercial and Test Textiles against Laundering Process by Statistical Assessment of Their Performance

Authors: M. H. Arslan, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, I. Gocek, I. Erdem

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Various exterior factors have perpetual effects on textile materials during wear, use and laundering in everyday life. In accordance with their frequency of use, textile materials are required to be laundered at certain intervals. The medium in which the laundering process takes place have inevitable detrimental physical and chemical effects on textile materials caused by the unique parameters of the process inherently existing. Connatural structures of various textile materials result in many different physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Because of their specific structures, these materials have different behaviors against several exterior factors. By modeling the behavior of commercial and test textiles as group-wise against laundering process, it is possible to disclose the relation in between these two groups of materials, which will lead to better understanding of their behaviors in terms of similarities and differences against the washing parameters of the laundering. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine the behavior of two groups of textile materials as commercial textiles and as test textiles towards the main washing machine parameters during laundering process such as temperature, load quantity, mechanical action and level of water amount by concentrating on shrinkage, pilling, sewing defects, collar abrasion, the other defects other than sewing, whitening and overall properties of textiles. In this study, cotton fabrics were preferred as commercial textiles due to the fact that garments made of cotton are the most demanded products in the market by the textile consumers in daily life. Full factorial experimental set-up was used to design the experimental procedure. All profiles always including all of the commercial and the test textiles were laundered for 20 cycles by commercial home laundering machine to investigate the effects of the chosen parameters. For the laundering process, a modified version of ‘‘IEC 60456 Test Method’’ was utilized. The amount of detergent was altered as 0.5% gram per liter depending on varying load quantity levels. Datacolor 650®, EMPA Photographic Standards for Pilling Test and visual examination were utilized to test and characterize the textiles. Furthermore, in the current study the relation in between commercial and test textiles in terms of their performance was deeply investigated by the help of statistical analysis performed by MINITAB® package program modeling their behavior against the parameters of the laundering process. In the experimental work, the behaviors of both groups of textiles towards washing machine parameters were visually and quantitatively assessed in dry state.

Keywords: behavior against washing machine parameters, performance evaluation of textiles, statistical analysis, commercial and test textiles

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5 Effects of Learner-Content Interaction Activities on the Context of Verbal Learning Outcomes in Interactive Courses

Authors: Alper Tolga Kumtepe, Erdem Erdogdu, M. Recep Okur, Eda Kaypak, Ozlem Kaya, Serap Ugur, Deniz Dincer, Hakan Yildirim

Abstract:

Interaction is one of the most important components of open and distance learning. According to Moore, who proposed one of the keystones on interaction types, there are three basic types of interaction: learner-teacher, learner-content, and learner-learner. From these interaction types, learner-content interaction, without doubt, can be identified as the most fundamental one on which all education is based. Efficacy, efficiency, and attraction of open and distance learning systems can be achieved by the practice of effective learner-content interaction. With the development of new technologies, interactive e-learning materials have been commonly used as a resource in open and distance learning, along with the printed books. The intellectual engagement of the learners with the content that is course materials may also affect their satisfaction for the open and distance learning practices in general. Learner satisfaction holds an important place in open and distance learning since it will eventually contribute to the achievement of learning outcomes. Using the learner-content interaction activities in course materials, Anadolu University, by its Open Education system, tries to involve learners in deep and meaningful learning practices. Especially, during the e-learning material design and production processes, identifying appropriate learner-content interaction activities within the context of learning outcomes holds a big importance. Considering the lack of studies adopting this approach, as well as its being a study on the use of e-learning materials in Open Education system, this research holds a big value in open and distance learning literature. In this respect, the present study aimed to investigate a) which learner-content interaction activities included in interactive courses are the most effective in learners’ achievement of verbal information learning outcomes and b) to what extent distance learners are satisfied with these learner-content interaction activities. For this study, the quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The 120 participants of the study were from Anadolu University Open Education Faculty students living in Eskişehir. The students were divided into 6 groups randomly. While 5 of these groups received different learner-content interaction activities as a part of the experiment, the other group served as the control group. The data were collected mainly through two instruments: pre-test and post-test. In addition to those tests, learners’ perceived learning was assessed with an item at the end of the program. The data collected from pre-test and post-test were analyzed by ANOVA, and in the light of the findings of this approximately 24-month study, suggestions for the further design of e-learning materials within the context of learner-content interaction activities will be provided at the conference. The current study is planned to be an antecedent for the following studies that will examine the effects of activities on other learning domains.

Keywords: interaction, distance education, interactivity, online courses

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4 The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates

Authors: Ceren Ince, Berkay Zafer Erdem, Shahram Derogar, Nabi Yuzer

Abstract:

Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper first of all investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as capillary absorption, sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total heat of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of capillary absorption and sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower permeability compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.

Keywords: diatomite, fibre, strength, supplementary cementing material

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3 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Air Distribution System of Larder Type Refrigerator

Authors: Funda Erdem Şahnali, Ş. Özgür Atayılmaz, Tolga N. Aynur

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Almost all of the domestic refrigerators operate on the principle of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle and removal of heat from the refrigerator cabinets is done via one of the two methods: natural convection or forced convection. In this study, airflow and temperature distributions inside a 375L no-frost type larder cabinet, in which cooling is provided by forced convection, are evaluated both experimentally and numerically. Airflow rate, compressor capacity and temperature distribution in the cooling chamber are known to be some of the most important factors that affect the cooling performance and energy consumption of a refrigerator. The objective of this study is to evaluate the original temperature distribution in the larder cabinet, and investigate for better temperature distribution solutions throughout the refrigerator domain via system optimizations that could provide uniform temperature distribution. The flow visualization and airflow velocity measurements inside the original refrigerator are performed via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). In addition, airflow and temperature distributions are investigated numerically with Ansys Fluent. In order to study the heat transfer inside the aforementioned refrigerator, forced convection theories covering the following cases are applied: closed rectangular cavity representing heat transfer inside the refrigerating compartment. The cavity volume has been represented with finite volume elements and is solved computationally with appropriate momentum and energy equations (Navier-Stokes equations). The 3D model is analyzed as transient, with k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling for turbulent flow situation. The results obtained with the 3D numerical simulations are in quite good agreement with the experimental airflow measurements using the SPIV technique. After Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the baseline case, the effects of three parameters: compressor capacity, fan rotational speed and type of shelf (glass or wire) are studied on the energy consumption; pull down time, temperature distributions in the cabinet. For each case, energy consumption based on experimental results is calculated. After the analysis, the main effective parameters for temperature distribution inside a cabin and energy consumption based on CFD simulation are determined and simulation results are supplied for Design of Experiments (DOE) as input data for optimization. The best configuration with minimum energy consumption that provides minimum temperature difference between the shelves inside the cabinet is determined.

Keywords: air distribution, CFD, DOE, energy consumption, experimental, larder cabinet, refrigeration, uniform temperature

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2 The Investigation of Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid against Damage on Neonatal Rat Lung to Maternal Tobacco Smoke Exposure

Authors: Elif Erdem, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, Durrin Ozlem Dabak, Enver Ozan

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the histological and biochemical changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes. In our study, 24 six-week old Spraque-Dawley female rats weighing 160 ± 10 g were used (n:7). Rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid) and group IV (alpha lipoic acid). Rats in the group II, group III were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group III. Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group IV. Once after the delivery, all administrations were stopped. On the 7 and 21th days, the seven pups of all groups were decapitated. A portion of the lung was taken and stained with HE, PAS and Masson. In addition to immunohistochemical staining of surfactant protein A, vascular endothelial growth factor, caspase-3, TUNEL method was also used to determine apoptosis. Biochemical analyzes were performed with some part of the lung tissue specimens. In the histological evaluations performed under light microscopy, inflammatory cell increase, hemorrhagic areas, edema, interalveolar septal thickening, alveolar numbers decrease, degeneration of some bronchi and bronchial epithelium, epithelial cells that were fallen into the lumen and hyaline membrane formation were observed in tobacco smoke group. These findings were ameliorated in tobacco smoke + ALA group. Hyaline membrane formation was not detected in this group. The TUNEL positive cell numbers a significant increase was detected in the tobacco smoke group, whereas a significant decrease was detected in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In terms of the immunoreactivity of both SP-A and VEGF, a significant decrease was observed in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant increase was observed in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. Regarding the immunoreactivity of caspase-3, there was a significant increase in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke + ALA. The malondialdehyde levels were determined to be significantly increased in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant decreased in the tobacco smoke + ALA. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities showed a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant increase in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In conclusion, we suggest that the exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy leads to morphological, histopathological and functional changes on lung development by causing oxidative damage in lung tissues of neonatal rats and the maternal use of alpha lipoic acid can provide a protective effect on the neonatal lung development against this oxidative stress originating from tobacco smoke.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, lung, neonate, tobacco smoke, pregnancy

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1 Regulating the Ottomans on Turkish Television and the Making of Good Citizens

Authors: Chien Yang Erdem

Abstract:

This paper takes up the proliferating historical dramas and children’s programs featuring the Ottoman-Islamic legacy on Turkish television as a locus where the processes of subjectification take place. A critical analysis of this emergent cultural phenomenon reveals an alliance of neoliberal and neoconservative political rationalities based on which the Turkish media is restructured to transform society. The existing debates have focused on how the Ottoman historical dramas manifest the Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi) neo-Ottomanist ideology and foreign policy. However, this approach tends to overlook the more complex relationship between the media, government, and society. Employing Michel Foucault’s notion of 'technologies of the self,' this paper aims to examine the governing practices that are deployed to regulate the media and to transform individual citizens into governable subjects in contemporary Turkey. First, through a brief discussion of recent development of the Turkish media towards an authoritarian model, the paper suggests that the relation between the Ottoman television drama and the political subject in question cannot be adequately examined without taking into account the force of the market. Second, by focusing on the managerial restructuring of the Turkish Television and Radio Corporation (Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), the paper aims to illustrate the rationale and process through which the Turkish media sector is transformed into an integral part of the free market where the government becomes a key actor. The paper contends that this new sphere of free market is organized in a way that enables direct interference of the government and divides media practitioners and consumers into opposing categories through their own participation in the media market. On the one hand, a 'free subject' is constituted based on the premise that the market is a sphere where individuals are obliged to exercise their right to freedom (of choice, lifestyle, and expression). On the other hand, this 'free subject' is increasingly subjugated to such disciplinary practices as censorship for being on the wrong side of the government. Finally, the paper examines the relation between the restructured Turkish media market and the proliferation of Ottoman television drama in the 2010s. The study maintains that the reorganization of the media market has produced a condition where private sector is encouraged to take an active role in reviving Turkey’s Ottoman-Islamic cultural heritage and promulgating moral-religious values. Paying specific attention to the controversial case of Magnificent Century (Muhteşem Yüzyıl) in contrast with TRT’s Ottoman historical drama and children’s programs, the paper aims to identify the ways in which individual citizens are directed to conduct themselves as a virtuous citizenry. It is through the double movement between the governing practices associated with the media market and those concerning the making of a 'conservative generation' that a subject of citizenry of new Turkey is constituted.

Keywords: neoconservatism, neoliberalism, ottoman historical drama, technologies of the self, Turkish television

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