Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Saloni Pandya

14 Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils

Authors: Saloni Pandya, Nikhil Sharma, Ajanta Sachan


Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.

Keywords: differential free swell index, expansive soils, matric suction, swelling pressure

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13 Development of a BriMAIN System for Health Monitoring of Railway Bridges

Authors: Prakher Mishra, Dikshant Bodana, Saloni Desai, Sudhanshu Dixit, Sopan Agarwal, Shriraj Patel


Railways are sometimes lifeline of nations as they consist of huge network of rail lines and bridges. Reportedly many of the bridges are aging, weak, distressed and accident prone. It becomes a really challenging task for Engineers and workers to keep up a regular maintenance schedule for proper functioning which itself is quite a hard hitting job. In this paper we have come up with an innvovative wireless system of maintenance called BriMAIN. In this system we have installed two types of sensors, first one is called a force sensor which will continously analyse the readings of pressure at joints of the bridges and secondly an MPU-6050 triaxial gyroscope+accelerometer which will analyse the deflection of the deck of the bridge. Apart from this a separate database is also being made at the server room so that the data can be visualized by the engineers and a warning can be issued in case reading of the sensors goes above threshold.

Keywords: Accelerometer, B-MAIN, Gyroscope, MPU-6050

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12 Management of English Language Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Vishal D. Pandya


A great deal of perceptible change has been taking place in the way our institutions of higher learning are being managed in India today. It is believed that managers, whose intuition proves to be accurate, often tend to be the most successful, and this is what makes them almost like entrepreneurs. A certain entrepreneurial spirit is what is expected and requires a degree of insight of the manager to be successful depending upon the situational and more importantly, the heterogeneity as well as the socio-cultural aspect. Teachers in Higher Education have to play multiple roles to make sure that the Learning-Teaching process becomes effective in the real sense of the term. This paper makes an effort to take a close look at that, especially in the context of the management of English language teaching in Higher Education and, therefore, focuses on the management of English language teaching in higher education by understanding target situation analyses at the socio-cultural level.

Keywords: management, language teaching, English language teaching, higher education

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11 Neural Network Approach for Solving Integral Equations

Authors: Bhavini Pandya


This paper considers Hη: T2 → T2 the Perturbed Cerbelli-Giona map. That is a family of 2-dimensional nonlinear area-preserving transformations on the torus T2=[0,1]×[0,1]= ℝ2/ ℤ2. A single parameter η varies between 0 and 1, taking the transformation from a hyperbolic toral automorphism to the “Cerbelli-Giona” map, a system known to exhibit multifractal properties. Here we study the multifractal properties of the family of maps. We apply a box-counting method by defining a grid of boxes Bi(δ), where i is the index and δ is the size of the boxes, to quantify the distribution of stable and unstable manifolds of the map. When the parameter is in the range 0.51< η <0.58 and 0.68< η <1 the map is ergodic; i.e., the unstable and stable manifolds eventually cover the whole torus, although not in a uniform distribution. For accurate numerical results we require correspondingly accurate construction of the stable and unstable manifolds. Here we use the piecewise linearity of the map to achieve this, by computing the endpoints of line segments which define the global stable and unstable manifolds. This allows the generalized fractal dimension Dq, and spectrum of dimensions f(α), to be computed with accuracy. Finally, the intersection of the unstable and stable manifold of the map will be investigated, and compared with the distribution of periodic points of the system.

Keywords: feed forward, gradient descent, neural network, integral equation

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10 Impact of Chimerism on Y-STR DNA Determination: Sex Mismatch Analysis

Authors: Anupuma Raina, Ajay P. Balayan, Prateek Pandya, Pankaj Shrivastava, Uma Kanga, Tulika Seth


DNA fingerprinting analysis aids in personal identification for forensic purposes and has always been a driving motivation for law enforcement agencies in almost all countries since its inception. The introduction of DNA markers (Y-STR) has allowed for greater precision and higher discriminatory power in forensic testing. A criminal/ person committing crime after bone marrow transplantation is a rare situation but not an impossible one. Keeping such a situation in mind, a study was carried out to find out the best biological sample to be used for personal identification, especially in forensic situation. We choose a female patient (recipient) and a male donor. The pre transplant sample (blood) and post transplant samples (blood, buccal swab, hair roots) were collected from the recipient (patient). The same were compared with the blood sample of the donor using DNA FP technique. Post transplant samples were collected at different interval of time (15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The study was carried out using Y-STR kit at 23 loci. The results determined discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on Y-STR. Hair sample was found the most suitable sample which had no donor DNA profiling up to 90 days.

Keywords: bone marrow transplantation, chimerism, DNA profiling, Y-STR

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9 Comparative Perceptions on Gender, Leadership, and Diversity

Authors: Saloni Diwakar, Hansika Kapoor


The study undertook comparative analyses between 130 male and female managers in a power/electric company, relating to prevalent perceptions about gendered leadership, leadership efficacy, perceived organizational support, and diversity and inclusiveness. Results showed no significant difference in POS, leadership aspirations, expression, and self- and other leadership efficacy between male and female managers. However, within-groups analyses revealed that female managers reported a disparity between self and other leadership efficacy (value), to a far greater extent than male managers (value). Additionally, females reported a dip in POS during middle management, as compared to junior management, whereas men reported a steady increase in POS from junior, middle on to senior management. Descriptively, both men and women reported preferring gender neutral leadership traits, as compared to male or female centered traits, and both genders least preferred male centered leadership traits. Compared to women, male managers were found to significantly undervalue diversity and inclusion initiatives. Subjective feedback was elicited to corroborate quantitative output. Also, female participants provided subjective feedback regarding efficacy of existing D&I practices in the organization. Findings and implications are discussed relevant to existing gender inclusion agendas.

Keywords: gendered leadership, diversity, inclusivity, perceived organizational support

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8 Interpretation of Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) Traces for the Earth Fault Damage Practically Simulated on the Power Transformer Specially Developed for Performing Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Various Transformers

Authors: Akshay A. Pandya, B. R. Parekh


This paper presents how earth fault damage in the transformer can be detected by Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA). The test methods used by the authors for presenting the results are described. The power transformer of rating 10 KVA, 11000 V/440 V, 3-phase, 50 Hz, Dyn11 has been specially developed in-house for carrying out SFRA testing by practically simulated various transformer damages on it. Earth fault has been practically simulated on HV “U” phase winding and LV “W” phase winding separately. The result of these simulated faults are presented and discussed. The motivation of this presented work is to extend the guideline approach; there are ideas to organize database containing collected measurement results. Since the SFRA interpretation is based on experience, such databases are thought to be of great importance when interpreting SFRA response. The evaluation of the SFRA responses against guidelines and experience have to be performed and conclusions regarding usefulness of each simulation has been drawn and at last overall conclusion has also been drawn.

Keywords: earth fault damage, power transformer, practical simulation, SFRA traces, transformer damages

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7 Electrical Conductivity as Pedotransfer Function in the Determination of Sodium Adsorption Ratio in Soil System in Managing Micro Level Farming Practices in India: An Effective Low Cost Technology

Authors: Usha Loganathan, Haresh Pandya


Analysis and correlation of soil properties represent an important outset for precision agriculture and is currently promoted and implemented in the developed world. Establishing relationships among indices of soil salinity has always been a challenging task in salt affected soils necessitating unique approaches for their reclamation and management to sustain long term productivity of Soil. Soil salinity indices like Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) are normally used to characterize soils as either sodic or saline sodic. Currently, Determination of Soil sodium adsorption ratio is a more accepted and reliable measure of soil salinity. However, it involves arduous and protracted laboratory investigations which demand evolving new and economical methods to determine SAR based on simple soil salinity index. A linear regression model to predict soil SAR from soil electrical conductivity has been developed and presented in this paper as per which, soil SAR could very well be worked out as a pedotransfer function of soil EC. The present study was carried out in Orathupalayam (11.09-11.11 N latitude and 74.54-77.59 E longitude) in the vicinity of Orathupalayam Reservoir of Noyyal River Basin, India, over a period of 3 consecutive years from September 2013 through February 2016 in different locations chosen randomly through different seasons. The research findings are discussed in the light of micro level farming practices in India and recommend determination of SAR as a low cost technology aiding in the effective management of salt affected agricultural land.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, orathupalayam, pedotranfer function, sodium adsorption ratio

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6 Analysis of Gender Budgeting in Healthcare Sector: A Case of Gujarat State of India

Authors: Juhi Pandya, Elekes Zsuzsanna


Health is related to every aspect of human being. Even a quintal change leads to ill-health of an individual. Gender plays an eminent role in determining an individual health exposure. Political implications on health have implicit effects on the individual, societal and economical. The inclusion of gender perspective into policies have plunged enormous attention globally, nationally and locally to detract inequalities and achieve economic growth. Simultaneously, there is an initiation of policies with gender perspective which are named differently but hold similar meaning or objective. They are named gender mainstreaming policies or gender sensitization policies. Gender budgeting acts as a tool for the application of gender mainstreaming policies. It incorporates gender perspective into the budgetary process by restricting the revenues and expenditures at all level of the budget. The current study takes into account the analysis of Gender Budgeting reports in terms of healthcare from the 2014-16 year of Gujarat State, India. The expenditures and literature under the heading of gender budgeting reports named “Health and Family Welfare Department” are discussed in the paper. The data analytics is done with the help of reports published by the Gujarat government on Gender Budgeting. The results discuss upon the expenditure and initiation of new policies as a roadmap for the promotion of gender equality from the path of gender budgeting. It states with the escalation of the budgetary numbers for the health expenditure. Additionally, the paper raises the questions on the hypothetical loopholes pertaining to the gender budgeting in Gujarat. The budget reports do not show a specify explanation to the expenditure use of budget for the schemes mentioned in healthcare. It also does not clarify that how many beneficiaries are benefited through gender budget. The explanation just provides an overlook of theory for healthcare Schemes/Yojana or Abhiyan.

Keywords: gender, gender budgeting, gender equality, healthcare

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5 Information Technology: Assessing Indian Realities Vis-à-Vis World Trade Organisation Disciplines

Authors: Saloni Khanderia


The World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Information Technology Agreement (ITA), was concluded at the Singapore Ministerial Conference in 1996. The ITA is considered to be one of the biggest tariff-cutting deals because it eliminates all customs-related duties on the exportation of specific categories of information technology products to the territory of any other signatory to the Agreement. Over time, innovations in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector mandated the consideration of expanding the list of products covered by the ITA, which took place in the form of ITA-II negotiations during the WTO’s Nairobi Ministerial Conference. India, which was an original Member of the ITA-I, however, decided to opt-out of the negotiations to expand the list of products covered by the agreement. Instead, it preferred to give priority to its national policy initiative, namely the ‘Make-in-India’ programme [the MiI programme], which embarks upon fostering the domestic production of, inter alia, the ICT sector. India claims to have abstained from the ITA-II negotiations by stating that the zero-tariff regime created by the ITA-I debilitated its electronics-manufacturing sectors and on the contrary resulted in an over-reliance on imported electronic inputs. The author undertakes doctrinal research to examine India’s decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations, against the backdrop of the MiI Programme, which endeavours to improve productivity across-the-board. This paper accordingly scrutinises the tariff-cutting strategies of India to weigh the better alternative for India. Apropos, it examines whether initiatives like the MiI programme could plausibly resuscitate the ailing domestic electronics-manufacturing sector. The author opines that the country’s present decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations should be perceived as a welcome step. Thus, market-oriented reforms such as the MiI Programme, which focuses on indigenous innovation to improve domestic manufacturing in the ICT sector, should instead, in the present circumstances gain priority. Consequently, the MiI Programme would aid in moulding the country’s current tariff policy in a manner that will concurrently assist the promotion and sustenance of domestic manufacturing in the IT sector.

Keywords: electronics-manufacturing sector, information technology agreement, make in india programme, world trade organisation

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4 Gender Equality: A Constitutional Myth When Featured with Domestic Violence

Authors: Suja S. Nayar, Mayuri Pandya


The foundation of legal system of any nation is its constitution and the strive to achieve equality amongst different classes prevailing in the social system. The most traditional form of inequality that is prevailing in the society is the gender inequality. The existence of inequality on the basis of gender prevails since the ancient era which has with the passing time merely continued and aggravated to a great extent. The founding fathers of our constitution were well aware of the then prevailing situation and being concerned about the future if this inequality continued to prevail, and in such view, the provisions of Article 14, 15, 38 and 44 of our Constitution were enacted with specific intent for the upliftment of women. The strive for equality is the rule of law embodied with the principle of foreseeability which is necessitated in the stability of justice system of any nation, and when it comes to equality, the first form of equality we need to achieve is gender equality. Time and again various initiatives have been announced and attempted to achieve the objective of gender equality, but analysis of the ground reality always have yielded disappointing results. The research that is proposed to be undertaken intends to cover all the above issues concerning the failures ineffective implementation of the gender-specific laws especially the provisions concerning the protection provided under Domestic Violence Act. The researchers will analyze the judgment of last five years' judgments of Supreme Court of India. In Hiral P. Harsora and ors. v Kusum Narottamdas Harsora and Ors. the Hon'ble Supreme Court recently deleting the words 'adult male' from the definition of respondent disclosed it is intent and understanding that domestic violence is being caused by a female on female also and not only restricted to males on females only. The procedure as prescribed under the act for claiming reliefs though is as per the criminal mandate, but the reliefs are of civil nature and so same needs to deal emphatically which now makes it a lengthier process. The pros and cons of such pronouncements are being weighed on the balance of constitution and social equality that is strived by the entire women fraternity.

Keywords: domestic, violence, constitution, gender, equality, women

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3 Management of Pressure Ulcer with a Locally Constructed Negative Pressure Device (NPD) in Traumatic Paraplegia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Mukesh K. Dwivedi, Rajeshwar N. Srivastava, Amit K. Bhagat, Saloni Raj


Introduction: Management of Pressure Ulcer (PU) is an ongoing clinical challenge particularly in traumatic paraplegia patients in developing countries where socio economic conditions often dictate treatment modalities. When negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was introduced, there were a series of devices (V.A.C., KCI, San Antonio, TX) manufactured. These devices for NPWT are costly and hard to afford by patients in developing countries like India. Considering this limitation, this study was planned to design an RCT to compare NPWT by an indigenized locally constructed NPD and conventional gauze dressing for the treatment of PU. Material and Methods: This RCT (CTRI/2014/09/0050) was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at King George’s Medical University (KGMU), India. Thirty-four (34) subjects of traumatic paraplegia having PU of stage 3 or 4, were enrolled and randomized in two treatment groups (NPWT Group & Conventional dressing group). The outcome measures of this study were surface area and depth of PU, exudates, microorganisms and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) during 0 to 9 weeks follow-ups. Levels of MMP-8 were analyzed in the tissues of PU at week 0, 3, 6 and week 9 by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Significantly reduced length of PU in NPWT group was observed at week 6 (p=0.04) which further reduced at week 9 (p=0.001) as compared to conventionally treated group. Similarly significant reduction of width and depth of PU was observed in NPWT at week 9 (p<0.05). The exudate became significantly (p=0.001) lower in NPWT group as compared with conventionally treated group from 6th to 9th week. Clearance and conversion of slough into red granulation tissue was significantly higher in NPWT group (p=0.001). At week 9, the wound culture was negative in all the subjects of NPWT group, while it was positive in 10 (41⋅6%) subjects of conventional group. Significantly lower level of MMP-8 was observed in subjects of NPWT group at week 6 (0.006**), and continually more reduction was observed at week 9 (<0.0001**) as compared to the conventional group. Conclusion: NPWT by locally constructed NPD is better wound care procedure for management of PU. Our device gave similar results as commercially available devices. Reduction of level of MMP-8 and increased rate of healing was achieved by negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as compared to conventional dressing.

Keywords: NPWT, NPD, MMP8, ELISA

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2 Retrieving Iconometric Proportions of South Indian Sculptures Based on Statistical Analysis

Authors: M. Bagavandas


Introduction: South Indian stone sculptures are known for their elegance and history. They are available in large numbers in different monuments situated different parts of South India. These art pieces have been studied using iconography details, but this pioneering study introduces a novel method known as iconometry which is a quantitative study that deals with measurements of different parts of icons to find answers for important unanswered questions. The main aim of this paper is to compare iconometric measurements of the sculptures with canonical proportion to determine whether the sculptors of the past had followed any of the canonical proportions prescribed in the ancient text. If not, this study recovers the proportions used for carving sculptures which is not available to us now. Also, it will be interesting to see how these sculptural proportions of different monuments belonging to different dynasties differ from one another in terms these proportions. Methods and Materials: As Indian sculptures are depicted in different postures, one way of making measurements independent of size, is to decode on a suitable measurement and convert the other measurements as proportions with respect to the chosen measurement. Since in all canonical texts of Indian art, all different measurements are given in terms of face length, it is chosen as the required measurement for standardizing the measurements. In order to compare these facial measurements with measurements prescribed in Indian canons of Iconography, the ten facial measurements like face length, morphological face length, nose length, nose-to-chin length, eye length, lip length, face breadth, nose breadth, eye breadth and lip breadth were standardized using the face length and the number of measurements reduced to nine. Each measurement was divided by the corresponding face length and multiplied by twelve and given in angula unit used in the canonical texts. The reason for multiplying by twelve is that the face length is given as twelve angulas in the canonical texts for all figures. Clustering techniques were used to determine whether the sculptors of the past had followed any of the proportions prescribed in the canonical texts of the past to carve sculptures and also to compare the proportions of sculptures of different monuments. About one hundred twenty-seven stone sculptures from four monuments belonging to the Pallava, the Chola, the Pandya and the Vijayanagar dynasties were taken up for this study. These art pieces belong to a period ranging from the eighth to the sixteenth century A.D. and all of them adorning different monuments situated in different parts of Tamil Nadu State, South India. Anthropometric instruments were used for taking measurements and the author himself had measured all the sample pieces of this study. Result: Statistical analysis of sculptures of different centers of art from different dynasties shows a considerable difference in facial proportions and many of these proportions differ widely from the canonical proportions. The retrieved different facial proportions indicate that the definition of beauty has been changing from period to period and region to region.

Keywords: iconometry, proportions, sculptures, statistics

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1 Strategies for Conserving Ecosystem Functions of the Aravalli Range to Combat Land Degradation: Case of Kishangarh and Tijara Tehsil in Rajasthan, India

Authors: Saloni Khandelwal


The Aravalli hills are one of the oldest and most distinctive mountain chains of peninsular India spanning in around 692 Km. More than 60% of it falls in the state of Rajasthan and influences ecological equilibrium in about 30% of the state. Because of natural and human-induced activities, physical gaps in the Aravallis are increasing, new gaps are coming up, and its physical structure is changing. There are no strict regulations to protect and monitor the Aravallis and no comprehensive research and study has been done for the enhancement of ecosystem functions of these ranges. Through this study, various factors leading to Aravalli’s degradation are identified and its impacts on selected areas are analyzed. A literature study is done to identify factors responsible for the degradation. To understand the severity of the problem at the lowest level, two tehsils from different districts in Rajasthan, which are the most affected due to illegal mining and increasing physical gaps are selected for the study. Case-1 of three-gram panchayats in Kishangarh Tehsil of Ajmer district focuses on the expanding physical gaps in the Aravalli range, and case-2 of three-gram panchayats in Tijara Tehsil of Alwar district focuses on increasing illegal mining in the Aravalli range. For measuring the degradation, physical, biological and social indicators are identified through literature review and for both the cases analysis is done on the basis of these indicators. Primary survey and focus group discussions are done with villagers, mining owners, illegal miners, and various government officials to understand dependency of people on the Aravalli and its importance to them along with the impact of degradation on their livelihood and environment. From the analysis, it has been found that green cover is continuously decreasing in both cases, dense forest areas do not exist now, the groundwater table is depleting at a very fast rate, soil is losing its moisture resulting in low yield and shift in agriculture. Wild animals which were easily seen earlier are now extinct. Cattles of villagers are dependent on the forest area in the Aravalli range for food, but with a decrease in fodder, their cattle numbers are decreasing. There is a decrease in agricultural land and an increase in scrub and salt-affected land. Analysis of various national and state programmes, acts which were passed to conserve biodiversity has been done showing that none of them is helping much to protect the Aravalli. For conserving the Aravalli and its forest areas, regional level and local level initiatives are required and are proposed in this study. This study is an attempt to formulate conservation and management strategies for the Aravalli range. These strategies will help in improving biodiversity which can lead to the revival of its ecosystem functions. It will also help in curbing the pollution at the regional and local level. All this will lead to the sustainable development of the region.

Keywords: Aravalli, ecosystem, LULC, Rajasthan

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