Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Ajanta Sachan

14 Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils

Authors: Saloni Pandya, Nikhil Sharma, Ajanta Sachan


Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.

Keywords: differential free swell index, expansive soils, matric suction, swelling pressure

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13 Impact of Urbanization on the Performance of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Chandan Jha, Amit Sachan, Arnab Adhikari, Sayantan Kundu


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of India and examine the impact of urbanization on the performance of HEIs. In this study, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been used, and the authors have collected the required data related to performance measures from the National Institutional Ranking Framework web portal. In this study, the authors have evaluated the performance of HEIs by using two different DEA models. In the first model, geographic locations of the institutes have been categorized into two categories, i.e., Urban Vs. Non-Urban. However, in the second model, these geographic locations have been classified into three categories, i.e., Urban, Semi-Urban, Non-Urban. The findings of this study provide several insights related to the degree of urbanization and the performance of HEIs.

Keywords: DEA, higher education, performance evaluation, urbanization

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12 Carbon Dioxide Capture, Utilization, and Storage: Sequestration

Authors: Ankur Sachan


Carbon dioxide being the most anthropogenic greenhouse gas,it needs to be isolated from entering into atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage is process that captures CO2 emitted from various sources, separates it from other gases and stores it in a safe place preferably in underground geological formations for large period of time. It is then purified and monitored so that can be made to reuse. Monoethanolamine, zeolitic imidazolate framework, microalgae, membranes etc are utilized to capture CO2. Post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion along with chemical looping combustion are technologies for scrubbing CO2. The properties of CO2 being easily miscible and readily dissolving in oil with impurities makes it capable for numerous applications such as in producing oil by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Bio CCS Algal Synthesis etc. CO2-EOR operation is capable to produce million barrels of oil and extend the field's lifetime as in case of Weyburn Oil Field in Canada. The physical storage of CO2 is technically the most feasible direction provided that the associated safety and sustainability issues can be met and new materials for CCUS process at low cost are urgently found so that so that fossil based systems with carbon capture are cost competitive.

Keywords: carbon capture, CCUS, sustainability, oil

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11 The Role of Intermediaries in E-Government Adoption in India: Bridging the Digital Divide

Authors: Rajiv Kumar, Amit Sachan, Arindam Mukherjee


Despite the transparency and benefits of e-government, and its potential to serve citizens better, there is low diffusion and adoption of e-government services in India. Limited access to computer and internet, lack of computer and internet skills, low trust in technology, and risk associated in using e-government services are major hindrances in e-government adoption in India. Despite a large number of citizens belonging to the non-adopter category, the government has made some services mandatory to be accessed online where citizens have no other choice. Also despite the digital divide, a large number of citizens prefer online access to government services. In such cases intermediaries like common service centers, internet café and services agents’ roles are significant for accessing e-government services. Hence research is needed to explore this. The study aims to investigate the role of intermediaries in online access to public services by citizens. Qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interview was used. The results show that intermediaries play an important role in bridging the digital divide. The study also highlights on what circumstances citizens are taking help of these intermediaries. The study then highlights its limitations and discusses scope for future study.

Keywords: adoption, digital divide, e-government, India, intermediaries

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10 Uncertainty and Optimization Analysis Using PETREL RE

Authors: Ankur Sachan


The ability to make quick yet intelligent and value-added decisions to develop new fields has always been of great significance. In situations where the capital expenses and subsurface risk are high, carefully analyzing the inherent uncertainties in the reservoir and how they impact the predicted hydrocarbon accumulation and production becomes a daunting task. The problem is compounded in offshore environments, especially in the presence of heavy oils and disconnected sands where the margin for error is small. Uncertainty refers to the degree to which the data set may be in error or stray from the predicted values. To understand and quantify the uncertainties in reservoir model is important when estimating the reserves. Uncertainty parameters can be geophysical, geological, petrophysical etc. Identification of these parameters is necessary to carry out the uncertainty analysis. With so many uncertainties working at different scales, it becomes essential to have a consistent and efficient way of incorporating them into our analysis. Ranking the uncertainties based on their impact on reserves helps to prioritize/ guide future data gathering and uncertainty reduction efforts. Assigning probabilistic ranges to key uncertainties also enables the computation of probabilistic reserves. With this in mind, this paper, with the help the uncertainty and optimization process in petrel RE shows how the most influential uncertainties can be determined efficiently and how much impact so they have on the reservoir model thus helping in determining a cost effective and accurate model of the reservoir.

Keywords: uncertainty, reservoir model, parameters, optimization analysis

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9 Future Projection of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods Hazard: A Hydrodynamic Study of the Highest Lake in the Dhauliganga Basin, Uttarakhand

Authors: Ashim Sattar, Ajanta Goswami, Anil V. Kulkarni


Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) highly contributes to mountain hazards in the Himalaya. Over the past decade, high altitude lakes in the Himalaya has been showing notable growth in their size and number. The key reason is rapid retreat of its glacier front. Hydrodynamic modeling GLOF using shallow water equations (SWE) would result in understanding its impact in the downstream region. The present study incorporates remote sensing based ice thickness modeling to determine the future extent of the Dhauliganga Lake to map the over deepening extent around the highest lake in the Dhauliganga basin. The maximum future volume of the lake calculated using area-volume scaling is used to model a GLOF event. The GLOF hydrograph is routed along the channel using one dimensional and two dimensional model to understand the flood wave propagation till it reaches the 1st hydropower station located 72 km downstream of the lake. The present extent of the lake calculated using SENTINEL 2 images is 0.13 km². The maximum future extent of the lake, mapped by investigating the glacier bed has a calculated scaled volume of 3.48 x 106 m³. The GLOF modeling releasing the future volume of the lake resulted in a breach hydrograph with a peak flood of 4995 m³/s at just downstream of the lake. Hydraulic routing

Keywords: GLOF, glacial lake outburst floods, mountain hazard, Central Himalaya, future projection

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8 Concrete Mix Design Using Neural Network

Authors: Rama Shanker, Anil Kumar Sachan


Basic ingredients of concrete are cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. To produce a concrete of certain specific properties, optimum proportion of these ingredients are mixed. The important factors which govern the mix design are grade of concrete, type of cement and size, shape and grading of aggregates. Concrete mix design method is based on experimentally evolved empirical relationship between the factors in the choice of mix design. Basic draw backs of this method are that it does not produce desired strength, calculations are cumbersome and a number of tables are to be referred for arriving at trial mix proportion moreover, the variation in attainment of desired strength is uncertain below the target strength and may even fail. To solve this problem, a lot of cubes of standard grades were prepared and attained 28 days strength determined for different combination of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. An artificial neural network (ANN) was prepared using these data. The input of ANN were grade of concrete, type of cement, size, shape and grading of aggregates and output were proportions of various ingredients. With the help of these inputs and outputs, ANN was trained using feed forward back proportion model. Finally trained ANN was validated, it was seen that it gave the result with/ error of maximum 4 to 5%. Hence, specific type of concrete can be prepared from given material properties and proportions of these materials can be quickly evaluated using the proposed ANN.

Keywords: aggregate proportions, artificial neural network, concrete grade, concrete mix design

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7 Stereoselective Glycosylation and Functionalization of Unbiased Site of Sweet System via Dual-Catalytic Transition Metal Systems/Wittig Reaction

Authors: Mukul R. Gupta, Rajkumar Gandhi, Rajitha Sachan, Naveen K. Khare


The field of glycoscience has burgeoned in the last several decades, leading to the identification of many glycosides which could serve critical roles in a wide range of biological processes. This has prompted a resurgence in synthetic interest, with a particular focus on new approaches to construct the selective glycosidic bond. Despite the numerous elegant strategies and methods developed for the formation of glycosidic bonds, stereoselective construction of glycosides remains challenging. Here, we have recently developed the novel Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) catalyzed stereoselective glycosylation methods by using KDN imidate glycosyl donor and a variety of alcohols in excellent yield. This method is broadly applicable to a wide range of substrates and with excellent selectivity of glycoside. Also, herein we are reporting the functionalization of the unbiased side of newly formed glycosides by dual-catalytic transition metal systems (Ru- or Fe-). We are using the innovative Reverse & Catalyst strategy, i.e., a reversible activation reaction by one catalyst with a functionalization reaction by another catalyst, together with enabling functionalization of substrates at their inherently unreactive sites. As well, we are targeting the diSia derivative synthesis by Wittig reaction. This synthetic method is applicable in mild conditions, functional group tolerance of the dual-catalytic systems and also highlights the potential of the multicatalytic approach to address challenging transformations to avoid multistep procedures in carbohydrate synthesis.

Keywords: KDN, stereoselective glycosylation, dual-catalytic functionalization, Wittig reaction

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6 Influencing Factors to Mandatory versus Non-Mandatory E-Government Services Adoption in India: An Empirical Study

Authors: Rajiv Kumar, Amit Sachan, Arindam Mukherjee


Government agencies around the world, including India, are incorporating digital technologies and processes into their day-to-day operations to become more efficient. Despite low internet penetration (around 34.8% of total population) in India, Government of India has made some public services mandatory to access online (e.g. passport, tax filing).This is insisting citizens to access mandatory public services online. However, due to digital divide, all citizens do not have equal access to internet. In light of this, it is an interesting topic to explore how citizens are able to access mandatory online public services. It is important to understand how citizens are adopting these mandatory e-government services and how the adoption behavior of these mandatory e-government services is different or similar to adoption behavior of non-mandatory e-government services. The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors that influence adoption of mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services in India. A quantitative technique is employed in this study. A conceptual model has been proposed by integrating the influencing factors to adopt e-government services from previous studies. The proposed conceptual model highlights a comprehensive set of potential factors influencing the adoption of e-government services. The proposed model has been validated by keeping in view the local context of Indian society. Online and paper based survey was administered, collected data was analyzed and results have been discussed. A total of 463 valid responses were received and further the responses were analyzed. The research reveals that the influencing factors to adopt e-government services are not same for both mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services. There are some factors that influence adoption of both mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services but there are some which are relevant for either of mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services. The research findings may help government or concerned agencies in successfully implementing e-government services.

Keywords: adoption, e-government, India, mandatory, non-mandatory

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5 Mapping of Geological Structures Using Aerial Photography

Authors: Ankit Sharma, Mudit Sachan, Anurag Prakash


Rapid growth in data acquisition technologies through drones, have led to advances and interests in collecting high-resolution images of geological fields. Being advantageous in capturing high volume of data in short flights, a number of challenges have to overcome for efficient analysis of this data, especially while data acquisition, image interpretation and processing. We introduce a method that allows effective mapping of geological fields using photogrammetric data of surfaces, drainage area, water bodies etc, which will be captured by airborne vehicles like UAVs, we are not taking satellite images because of problems in adequate resolution, time when it is captured may be 1 yr back, availability problem, difficult to capture exact image, then night vision etc. This method includes advanced automated image interpretation technology and human data interaction to model structures and. First Geological structures will be detected from the primary photographic dataset and the equivalent three dimensional structures would then be identified by digital elevation model. We can calculate dip and its direction by using the above information. The structural map will be generated by adopting a specified methodology starting from choosing the appropriate camera, camera’s mounting system, UAVs design ( based on the area and application), Challenge in air borne systems like Errors in image orientation, payload problem, mosaicing and geo referencing and registering of different images to applying DEM. The paper shows the potential of using our method for accurate and efficient modeling of geological structures, capture particularly from remote, of inaccessible and hazardous sites.

Keywords: digital elevation model, mapping, photogrammetric data analysis, geological structures

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4 Effect of Preoperative Single Dose Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Post-Operative Quality of Recovery and Pain Relief after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Authors: Gurjeet Khurana, Surender Singh, Poonam Arora, Praveendra K. Sachan


Introduction: Post-operative quality of recovery is the key outcome in the perspective of anesthesiologist. It is directly related to patient satisfaction. This is unsurprising, considering most aspects of a poor quality recovery after surgery will impair satisfaction with care. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate effects of Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Quality of Recovery using QoR- 40 questionnaire and compare their effects. Material and methods: After obtaining the ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 67 patients of 18-60 years, ASA grade I and II scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I of 34 patients received 2mg/kg lignocaine diluted to 10ml with normal saline. Group 2 of 33 patients received 0.1 mg/kg I/V Dexamethasone diluted to 10ml with normal saline. QoR-40 was assessed on pre-operative day, and again QoR-40 was assessed at 24 hr post-operative day-1. Postoperative pain scores, nausea and vomiting and shoulder pain were secondary outcomes. Results: The Global QoR-40 was more than 180 at 24 hr in both the groups. The Dexamethasone group had higher Global QoR-40 than lignocaine group 187.94 v/s 182.85. Amongst dimensions of QoR-40 Dexamethasone had statistically better physical comfort, physical independence, and pain relief as compared to Lignocaine. Positive items had excellent responses in Dexamethasone group. Headache, backache and sore throat were also less severe in Dexamethasone group as compared to Lignocaine group. Dexamethasone group had lower VAS compared to lignocaine group. Similarly, there was less fentanyl consumption in dexamethasone group (364.08 ± 127.31) in postoperative period when compared to the lignocaine group (412.31 ± 147.8). Group receiving dexamethasone had 36% increase in appetite compared to lignocaine group (17.6%), which facilitated early oral feeding. Frequency of PONV was less in group-2 at different time interval as compared to group 1. Total episode of PONV were 18 in group 1 and 7 in group 2. Statistically significant difference was seen among two groups (p value= 0.007). Use of antiemetic was more in group 1 as compared to group 2 at all the times, though it was not statistically significant at different time intervals. Antiemetics were administered to 18 patients in group 1 as compared to 5 patients in group 2 postoperatively. Statistically significant difference (p value= 0.011) was seen in total antiemetic consumption. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that pre-operative administration of a single dose of dexamethasone enhanced the quality of recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to Lignocaine bolus dose.

Keywords: dexamethasone, lignocaine, QoR-40 questionnaire, quality of recovery

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3 Modern Pilgrimage Narratives and India’s Heterogeneity

Authors: Alan Johnson


This paper focuses on modern pilgrimage narratives about sites affiliated with Indian religious expressions located both within and outside India. The paper uses a multidisciplinary approach to examine poetry, personal essays, and online attestations of pilgrimage to illustrate how non-religious ideas coexist with outwardly religious ones, exemplifying a characteristically Indian form of syncretism that pre-dates Western ideas of pluralism. The paper argues that the syncretism on display in these modern creative works refutes the current exclusionary vision of India as a primordially Hindu-nationalist realm. A crucial premise of this argument is that the narrative’s intrinsic heteroglossia, so evident in India’s historically rich variety of stories and symbols, belies this reactionary version of Hindu nationalism. Equally important to this argument, therefore, is the vibrancy of Hindu sites outside India, such as the Batu Caves temple complex in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The literary texts examined in this paper include, first, Arun Kolatkar’s famous 1976 collection of poems, titled Jejuri, about a visit to the pilgrimage site of the same name in Maharashtra. Here, the modern, secularized visitor from Bombay (Mumbai) contemplates the effect of the temple complex on himself and on the other, more worshipful visitors. Kolatkar’s modernist poems reflect the narrator’s typically modern-Indian ambivalence for holy ruins, for although they do not evoke a conventionally religious feeling in him, they nevertheless possess an aura of timelessness that questions the narrator’s time-conscious sensibility. The paper bookends Kolatkar’s Jejuri with considerations of an early-twentieth-century text, online accounts by visitors to the Batu Caves, and a recent, more conventional Hindu account of pilgrimage. For example, the pioneering graphic artist Mukul Chandra Dey published in 1917, My Pilgrimages to Ajanta and Bagh, in which he devotes an entire chapter to the life of the Buddha as a means of illustrating the layering of stories that is a characteristic feature of sacred sites in India. In a different but still syncretic register, Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, and a committed secularist proffers India’s ancient pilgrimage network as a template for national unity in his classic 1946 autobiography The Discovery of India. Narrative is the perfect vehicle for highlighting this layering of sensibilities, for a single text can juxtapose the pilgrim-narrator’s description with that of a far older pilgrimage, a juxtaposition that establishes an imaginative connection between otherwise distanced actors, and between them and the reader.

Keywords: India, literature, narrative, syncretism

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2 Understanding Feminization of Indian Agriculture and the Dynamics of Intrahousehold Bargaining Power at a Household Level

Authors: Arpit Sachan, Nilanshu Kumar


This paper tries to understand the nuances of feminisation of agriculture in the Indian context and how that is associated with better intrahousehold bargaining power for women. The economic survey of India indicates a constant increase in the share of the female workforce in Indian agriculture in the past few decades. This can be accounted for by many factors like the migration of male workers to urban areas and, therefore, the complete burden of agriculture shifting on the female counterparts. Therefore this study is an attempt to study that how this increase in the female workforce corresponds to a better decision-making ability for women in rural farm households. This paper is an attempt to carefully evaluate this aspect of the feminisation of Indian agriculture. The paper tries to study how various factors that improve the status of women in agriculture change with things like resource ownership. This paper uses both the macro-level and micro-level data to study the dynamics of the proportion of the workforce in agriculture across different states in India and how that has translated into better indicators for women in rural areas. The fall in India’s rank in the global gender wage gap index is alarming in such a context, and this creates a puzzle with increasing female workforce participation. The paper will consider if the condition of women improved over time with the increased share of employment or not? Using field survey data, this paper tries to understand if there exists any digression for some of the indicators both at the macro and micro level. The paper also tries to integrate the economic understanding of gender aspects of the workforce and the sociological stance prevailing in the existing literature. Therefore, this paper takes a mixed-method approach to better understand the role that social structure plays in the improved status of women within and across various households. Therefore, this paper will finally help us understanding if at all there is a feminisation of Indian agriculture or it's just exploitation of a different kind. This study intends to create a distinction between the gendered labour force in Indian agriculture and the complete democratization of Indian agriculture. The study is primarily focused on areas where the exodus of male migrants pushes women to work on agricultural farms. The question posits is whether it is the willingness of women to work in agriculture or is it urbanisation and development-induced conditions that make women work in agriculture as farm labourers? The motive is to understand if factors like resource ownership and the ability to autonomous decision-making are interlinked with an increased proportion of the female workforce or not? Based on this framework, we finally provide a brief comment on policy implications of government intervention in improving Indian agriculture and the gender aspects associated with it.

Keywords: feminisation, intrahousehold bargaining, farm households, migration, agriculture, decision-making

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1 A Comparative Assessment of Information Value, Fuzzy Expert System Models for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping of Dharamshala and Surrounding, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Kumari Sweta, Ajanta Goswami, Abhilasha Dixit


Landslide is a geomorphic process that plays an essential role in the evolution of the hill-slope and long-term landscape evolution. But its abrupt nature and the associated catastrophic forces of the process can have undesirable socio-economic impacts, like substantial economic losses, fatalities, ecosystem, geomorphologic and infrastructure disturbances. The estimated fatality rate is approximately 1person /100 sq. Km and the average economic loss is more than 550 crores/year in the Himalayan belt due to landslides. This study presents a comparative performance of a statistical bivariate method and a machine learning technique for landslide susceptibility mapping in and around Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh. The final produced landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) with better accuracy could be used for land-use planning to prevent future losses. Dharamshala, a part of North-western Himalaya, is one of the fastest-growing tourism hubs with a total population of 30,764 according to the 2011 census and is amongst one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM’s Smart Cities Mission. A total of 209 landslide locations were identified in using high-resolution linear imaging self-scanning (LISS IV) data. The thematic maps of parameters influencing landslide occurrence were generated using remote sensing and other ancillary data in the GIS environment. The landslide causative parameters used in the study are slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, curvature, topographic wetness index, relative relief, distance from lineaments, land use land cover, and geology. LSMs were prepared using information value (Info Val), and Fuzzy Expert System (FES) models. Info Val is a statistical bivariate method, in which information values were calculated as the ratio of the landslide pixels per factor class (Si/Ni) to the total landslide pixel per parameter (S/N). Using this information values all parameters were reclassified and then summed in GIS to obtain the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) map. The FES method is a machine learning technique based on ‘mean and neighbour’ strategy for the construction of fuzzifier (input) and defuzzifier (output) membership function (MF) structure, and the FR method is used for formulating if-then rules. Two types of membership structures were utilized for membership function Bell-Gaussian (BG) and Trapezoidal-Triangular (TT). LSI for BG and TT were obtained applying membership function and if-then rules in MATLAB. The final LSMs were spatially and statistically validated. The validation results showed that in terms of accuracy, Info Val (83.4%) is better than BG (83.0%) and TT (82.6%), whereas, in terms of spatial distribution, BG is best. Hence, considering both statistical and spatial accuracy, BG is the most accurate one.

Keywords: bivariate statistical techniques, BG and TT membership structure, fuzzy expert system, information value method, machine learning technique

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