Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Waheed A. Al Masry

39 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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38 Practical Simulation Model of Floating-Gate MOS Transistor in Sub 100 nm Technologies

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry


As CMOS technology scaling down, Silicon oxide thickness (SiO2) become very thin (few Nano meters). When SiO2 is less than 3nm, gate direct tunneling (DT) leakage current becomes a dormant problem that impacts the transistor performance. Floating gate MOSFET (FGMOSFET) has been used in many low-voltage and low-power applications. Most of the available simulation models of FGMOSFET for analog circuit design does not account for gate DT current and there is no accurate analysis for the gate DT. It is a crucial to use an accurate mode in order to get a realistic simulation result that account for that DT impact on FGMOSFET performance effectively.

Keywords: CMOS transistor, direct-tunneling current, floating-gate, gate-leakage current, simulation model

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37 A Comparison of Three Protocols Weight-Loss Interventions for Obese Females

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia El-Banna, Mohamed S. El Hussieny


There are several different modalities for treatment of obesity. Common intervention methods for obesity include low-calorie diet, exercise. Also acupuncture has shown good therapeutic results in the treatment of obesity. A recent clinical observation showed that laser acupuncture could reduce body weight and body mass index in obese persons. So, the aim of this research is focused on body composition changes as related to type of intervention, before and after intentional weight loss in overweight and obesity. 76 subjects were included in the study analysis. The present study recommended that every obese female must do lipid profile and fasting blood sugar analysis before weight-loss intervention to take the decision of which method should be used.

Keywords: obesity, weight-loss, body composition, modalities

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36 The Development of Private Housing Schemes to Address the Housing Problem: A Case Study of Islamabad

Authors: Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Abdul Waheed


The Capital Development Authority (CDA) Ordinance 1960 requires CDA to acquire land for the provision of housing in Islamabad. However, the pace of residential development was slow and the demand for housing was increasing rapidly. To resolve the growing housing problem, CDA involved the private sector in the development of housing schemes. Detailed bye-laws for regulation of private housing schemes were prepared and these bylaws were called “Modalities & Procedures”. This paper explains how the Modalities and Procedures of CDA have been successful in regulating the development of private housing schemes in Islamabad.

Keywords: housing schemes, master plan, development works, zoning regulations

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35 Analysis and Design of Simultaneous Dual Band Harvesting System with Enhanced Efficiency

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry, Jean-François Bousquet


This paper presents an enhanced efficiency simultaneous dual band energy harvesting system for wireless body area network. A bulk biasing is used to enhance the efficiency of the adapted rectifier design to reduce Vth of MOSFET. The presented circuit harvests the radio frequency (RF) energy from two frequency bands: 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. It is designed with TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology and high quality factor dual matching network to boost the input voltage. Full circuit analysis and modeling is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate a harvester with an efficiency of 23% at 1 GHz and 46% at 2.4 GHz at an input power as low as -30 dBm.

Keywords: energy harvester, simultaneous, dual band, CMOS, differential rectifier, voltage boosting, TSMC 65nm

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34 Exponential Spline Solution for Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems with an Uncertain-But-Bounded Parameter

Authors: Waheed Zahra, Mohamed El-Beltagy, Ashraf El Mhlawy, Reda Elkhadrawy


In this paper, we consider singular perturbation reaction-diffusion boundary value problems, which contain a small uncertain perturbation parameter. To solve these problems, we propose a numerical method which is based on an exponential spline and Shishkin mesh discretization. While interval analysis principle is used to deal with the uncertain parameter, sensitivity analysis has been conducted using different methods. Numerical results are provided to show the applicability and efficiency of our method, which is ε-uniform convergence of almost second order.

Keywords: singular perturbation problem, shishkin mesh, two small parameters, exponential spline, interval analysis, sensitivity analysis

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33 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil


An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

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32 Management of Intellectual Property Rights: Strategic Patenting

Authors: Waheed Oseni


This article reviews emergent global trends in intellectual property protection and identifies patenting as a strategic initiative. Recent developments in software and method of doing business patenting are fast transforming the e‐business landscape. The article discusses the emergent global regulatory framework concerning intellectual property rights and the strategic value of patenting. Important features of a corporate patenting portfolio are described. Superficially, the e‐commerce landscape appears to be dominated by dotcom start-ups or the “dotcomization” of existing brick and mortar companies. But, in reality, at its very bedrock is intellectual property (IP). In this connection, the recent avalanche of patenting of software and method‐of‐doing‐business (MDB) in the USA is a very significant development with regard to rules governing IP rights and, therefore, e‐commerce. Together with the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) IP rules, there is an emerging global regulatory framework for IP rights, an understanding of which is necessary for designing effective e‐commerce strategies.

Keywords: intellectual property, patents, methods, computer software

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31 FEM and Experimental Studies on the Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura


Steel/concrete composite bridge with the concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) was proposed, and the bending and shear strength was studied by experiments and FEM analysis. The area surrounded by the upper and lower flanges and the web is filled with concrete in CFIG, which is used at the intermediate support of a continuous girder. The bending and shear tests of the CFIG were carried out, showing that the bending strength of CFIG was 2.8 times of the conventional steel I-girder and the shear strength was 3.0 times of the steel I-girder. Finite element models were established to clarify bending and shear behaviors and the load transfer mechanism of CFIG. FEM result agreed very well with the test results. The FEM model was also applied to simulate the shear tests of the CFIG specimens. A trail design was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and the design method was established.

Keywords: bending strength, concrete filled steel I-girder, steel I-girder, FEM, limit states design and shear strength

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30 Developing Norms for Sit and Reach Test in the Local Environment of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Hazratullah Khattak, Abdul Waheed Mughal, Inamullah Khattak


This study is envisaged as vital contribution as it intends to develop norms for the Sit and Reach Test in the Local Environment of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, for the age group between 12-14 years which will be used to measure the flexibility level of early adolescents (12-14 years). Sit and Reach test was applied on 2000 volunteers, 400 subjects from each selected district (Five (5) Districts, Peshawar, Nowshera, Karak, Dera Ismail Khan and Swat (20% percent of the total 25 districts) using convenient sampling technique. The population for this study is comprised of all the early adolescents aging 12-14 years (Age Mean 13 + 0.63, Height 154 + 046, Weight 46 + 7.17, BMI 19 + 1.45) representing various public and private sectors educational institutions of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. As for as the norms developed for Sit and Reach test, the score below 6.8 inches comes in the category of poor, 6.9 to 9.6 inches (below Average), 9.7 to 10.8 inches (Average), 10.9 to 13 inches (Above average) and above 13 inches score is considered as Excellent.

Keywords: fitness, flexibility, norms, sit and reach

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29 Numerical Simulation of Kangimi Reservoir Sedimentation, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdurrasheed Sa'id, Abubakar Isma'il, Waheed Alayande


This study focused on carrying out numerical simulations of Kangimi reservoir sedimentation by reviewing different numerical sediment transport models, and GSTARS3 was selected. The model was developed using the 1977 data. It was calibrated by simulating the 2012 profile and sediment deposition and compared with 2012 hydrographic survey results of NWRI. The model was validated by simulating the 2016 deposition and compared the results with NWRI estimates. Also, the performance of the proposed model was tested using statistical parameters such as MSE (Mean Square Error), MAPE (Mean Average Percentage Error) and R2 (Coefficient of determination) with values of 1.32m, 0.17% and 0.914 respectively which shows strong agreement. After the calibration, validation and performance testing the model was used to simulate the 2032 and 2062 profiles and deposition. The results showed that by 2032 the reservoir will be silted by 25.34MCM or 43.3% of the design capacity and 60.7% of the capacity by the year 2062. A number of sedimentation mitigation measures were recommended.

Keywords: NWRI- national water resources institute, sedimentation, GSTARS3, model

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28 Biodiversity and Distribution of Tettigonioidea, Ensifera of Pakistan

Authors: Riffat Sultana Pathan, Waheed Ali Panhwar, Muhammad Saeed Wagan


Tettigonioidea are phytophagous insects damaging agricultural crops, forest, fruit orchards, berry shrubs, and grasses. The material was collected from different agricultural fields of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize surrounding by different grasses. Beside this, forest, hilly areas, semi-desert and desert regions were also inspected time to time. All material was captured, killed and stored by using the standard entomological method. As a result of extensive survey fair numbers were captured from the different climatic zone of country. Seven sub-families of Tettigonioidea viz: Pseudophyllinae, Phaneropterinae, Conocephalinae, Tettigoniinae, Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Decticinae came in collection. This fauna contributes 29 new records to Pakistan and 5 new species to science. Beside this, a brief description of each supra-generic category of Tettigonioidea along with photographs and synonymy is also documented. In addition to this, detailed list of host plants from Pakistan was also composed. This study provides important data for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Tettigonioidea biodiversity conservation and grassland restoration in Pakistan.

Keywords: agriculture, conocephalinae, pest, phaneropterinae, tettigoniidae

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27 Prediction of Welding Induced Distortion in Thin Metal Plates Using Temperature Dependent Material Properties and FEA

Authors: Rehan Waheed, Abdul Shakoor


Distortion produced during welding of thin metal plates is a problem in many industries. The purpose of this research was to study distortion produced during welding in 2mm Mild Steel plate by simulating the welding process using Finite Element Analysis. Simulation of welding process requires a couple field transient analyses. At first a transient thermal analysis is performed and the temperature obtained from thermal analysis is used as input in structural analysis to find distortion. An actual weld sample is prepared and the weld distortion produced is measured. The simulated and actual results were in quite agreement with each other and it has been found that there is profound deflection at center of plate. Temperature dependent material properties play significant role in prediction of weld distortion. The results of this research can be used for prediction and control of weld distortion in large steel structures by changing different weld parameters.

Keywords: welding simulation, FEA, welding distortion, temperature dependent mechanical properties

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26 Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Political Movies: A Case Study of 'People at the Top Ahl Al Kemma' Movie

Authors: Mariam Waheed Mekheimar


Nascent research is conducted to the advancement of discourse analysis to include different modes as images, sound, and text. The focus of this study will be to elucidate how images are embedded with texts in an audio-visual medium as cinema to send political messages; it also seeks to broaden our understanding of politics beyond a relatively narrow conceptualization of the 'political' through studying non-traditional discourses as the cinematic discourse. The aim herein is to develop a systematic approach to film analysis to capture political meanings in films. The method adopted in this research is Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) focusing on embedding visuals with texts. As today's era is the era of images and that necessitates analyzing images. Drawing on the writings of O'Halloran, Kress and Van Leuween, John Bateman and Janina Wildfeuer, different modalities will be studied to understand how those modes interact in the cinematic discourse. 'People at the top movie' is selected as an example to unravel the political meanings throughout film tackling the cinematic representation of the notion of social justice.

Keywords: Egyptian cinema, multimodal discourse analysis, people at the top, social justice

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25 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed


The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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24 Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Children with Familial Mediterranean Fever

Authors: S. Salah, S. A. El-Masry, H. F. Sheba, R. A. El-Banna, W. Saad


Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) has episodic or subclinical inflammation that may lead to a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). Objective: To assess BMD in Egyptian children with FMF on genetic basis. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study included 45 FMF patients and 25 control children of both sexes, with age range between 3-16 years old. The patients were reclassified into 2 groups: Group I (A) 23 cases used colchicines for 1 month or less, and Group I (B) 22 cases used colchicines for more than 6 months. For both patients and control, MEFV mutations were defined using molecular genetics technique and BMD was measured by DXA at 2 sites: proximal femur and the lumber spines. Results: four frequent gene mutations were found in the patient group: E148Q (35.6%), V726A (33.3%), M680I (28.9.0%) and M694V (2.2%). There were also 4 heterozygous gene mutations in 40% of control children. Patients received colchicines treatment for less than 1 month had highly significant lower values of BMD at femur and lumber spines than control children (p<0.05). Patients received colchicines treatment for more than 6 months had improved values of BMD at femur compared to control, but there were still significant differences between them at lumbar spine (p>0.05). There are insignificant effect of type of gene mutation on BMD and the risk of osteopenia among the patients. Conclusion: FMF had significant effect on BMD. However, regular use of colchicines treatment improves this effect mainly at femur.

Keywords: familial mediterranean fever, bone mineral density, genes, children

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23 Evaluating Antifungal Potential of Respiratory Inhibitors against Phyto-Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar


Discovery and development of new compounds require intense studies in chemistry, biochemistry. Numerous experiments under laboratory-, greenhouse- and field conditions can be performed to select suitable candidates and to understand their full potential. Novel fungicides are fundamental to combat plant diseases. Fusarium solani is important plant pathogen. New broad spectrum foliar fungicides against complex II were designed in this study. Complex II, namely succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), or succinate quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a multi-subunit enzyme at the crossroads of TCA and ETC at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The need for new and innovative fungicides is driven by resistance management, regulatory hurdles and increasing customer expectations amongst others. Fungicidal activity was assessed for the effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of the fungi using fungicide amended media assay. In mycelial growth assay compounds C10 and C6 were highly active against all the isolates. The compounds C1 and C10 were found most potent in spore germination test. It fully proved that the SDHIs designed in this paper displayed as good inhibitory effects against Fusarium solani.

Keywords: Wilt, Fusarium, SDH, antifungal

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
22 Circulating Oxidized LDL and Insulin Resistance among Obese School Students

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Mones M. Abu Shady, Rokia A. El Banna, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar


Circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adults. Little is known about relations in children. Aim: To assess association of ox-LDL with fat distribution and insulin resistance in a group of obese Egyptian children. Methods: Study is cross-sectional consisting of 68 obese children, with a mean age of 9.96 ± 1.32. Each underwent a complete physical examination; blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI; waist, hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio), biochemical tests of fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin levels; lipid profile (TC, LDL,HDL, TG) and ox-LDL; calculated HOMA. Sample was classified according to waist/hip ratio into: group I with and group II without central obesity. Results: ox-LDL showed significant positive correlation with LDL and TC in all groups of obesity. After adjustment for age and sex, significant positive correlation was detected between ox-LDL with SBP, DBP, TC, LDL, insulin, and HOMA in group II and with TC and FBS in group I. Insignificant association was detected between ox-LDL and other anthropometric parameters including BMI in any group of obese children (p > 0.05). Conclusions: ox-LDL, as a marker of oxidative stress is not correlated with BMI among all studied obese children (aged 6-12 years). Increased oxidative stress has causal effects on insulin resistance in obese children without central obesity and on fasting blood sugar in those with central obesity. These findings emphasize the importance of obesity during childhood and suggest that the metabolic complications of obesity and body fat distribution are detectable early in life.

Keywords: ox-LDL, obesity, insulin resistance, children

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21 Predictive Value of Coagulopathy in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort of Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Waqas, Shahan Waheed, Mohsin Qadeer, Ehsan Bari, Salman Ahmed, Iqra Patoli


Objective: To determine the value of aPTT, platelets and INR as the predictor of unfavorable outcomes in patients with blunt isolated traumatic brain injury. Methods: This was an observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012. All the patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of injury were included in the study. Coagulation parameters at presentation were recorded and Glasgow Outcome Scale calculated on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Relationship of coagulopathy with GOS and unfavorable outcomes was calculated using Spearman`s correlation and area under curve ROC analysis. Results: 121 patients were included in the study. The incidence of coagulopathy was found to be 6 %. aPTT was found to a significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes with an AUC = 0.702 (95%CI = 0.602-0.802). Predictive value of platelets and INR was not found to be significant. Conclusion: Incidence of coagulopathy was found to be low in current population compared to data from the West. aPTT was found to be a good predictor of unfavorable outcomes compared with other parameters of coagulation.

Keywords: aPTT, coagulopathy, unfavorable outcomes, parameters

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20 25-Hydroxy Vit D, Adiponectin Levels and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Sample of Obese Children

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia A. El Banna, Mones M. Abu Shady, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Manal Mouhamed Ali, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar


Association between vitamin D, adiponectin and obesity is a matter of debate, as they play important role in linking obesity with different cardiometabolic risk factors. Objectives: Evaluation of the association between metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D among obese Egyptian children. Subjects and Methods: This case-control cross-sectional study consisted of 65 obese and 30 healthy children, aged 8-11 years. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D) level, serum adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. Results: The mean 25(OH) D levels in the obese and control groups were 29.9± 10.3 and 39.7 ± 12.7 ng/mL respectively (P < 0.001). The mean 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels in the obese were lower than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). 25(OH) D were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), while adiponectin level were inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and positively correlated with HDL-C. However, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels among obese children and total sample. Conclusion: In spite of strong association between vitamin D and adiponectin levels with metabolic risk factors and obesity, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels. In obese children, there are significant negative correlations between 25(OH) D with lipid profile, and between adiponectin levels with blood pressure. At certain adiponectin level, the relation between it and BMI disappears.

Keywords: 25-hydroxy vitamin D, adiponectin, lipid profile, blood pressure, children

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19 Comparative Study of Concrete Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge with Conventional Type of Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura, Abdul Habib Ghaforzai


Steel and concrete composite bridge with concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) was proposed and FEM and laboratory tests were conducted to analysis bending and shear behavior. The proposed form of structural steel I-section is mainly used at the intermediate support zone by placing infilled concrete into the top and bottom flanges of steel I-section to resist negative bending moment. The bending and shear tests were carried out to find out the significance of CFIG section. The result for test showing that the bending and shear capacity of proposed CFIG is at least 3 times and 2 times greater than conventional steel I-section (IG) respectively. Finite element study was also carried out to ensure the result for laboratory tests due to bending and shear behavior and load transfer behavior of proposed structural form. Finite element result result agreed the test result. A design example was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and design method was established.

Keywords: bending strength, concrete filled steel I-girder, steel I-girder, FEM, limit states design and shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
18 Modeling and Analysis of Solar Assisted Adsorption Cooling System Using TRNSYS

Authors: M. Wajahat, M. Shoaib, A. Waheed


As a result of increase in world energy demand as well as the demand for heating, refrigeration and air conditioning, energy engineers are now more inclined towards the renewable energy especially solar based thermal driven refrigeration and air conditioning systems. This research is emphasized on solar assisted adsorption refrigeration system to provide comfort conditions for a building in Islamabad. The adsorption chiller can be driven by low grade heat at low temperature range (50 -80 °C) which is lower than that required for generator in absorption refrigeration system which may be furnished with the help of common flat plate solar collectors (FPC). The aim is to offset the total energy required for building’s heating and cooling demand by using FPC’s thus reducing dependency on primary energy source hence saving energy. TRNSYS is a dynamic modeling and simulation tool which can be utilized to simulate the working of a complete solar based adsorption chiller to meet the desired cooling and heating demand during summer and winter seasons, respectively. Modeling and detailed parametric analysis of the whole system is to be carried out to determine the optimal system configuration keeping in view various design constraints. Main focus of the study is on solar thermal loop of the adsorption chiller to reduce the contribution from the auxiliary devices.

Keywords: flat plate collector, energy saving, solar assisted adsorption chiller, TRNSYS

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17 Impact of Islamic Hr Practices on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study of Banking Sector in Pakistan

Authors: Naheed Malik, Waheed Akhtar


An introduction to the Islamic move towards the managing human resource is a preliminary attempt to provide managers with a useful way of managing and accepting employees. This knowledge would be helpful to even non-Muslim managers. Muslim managers are required not to know only the Islamic HR but also it is expected from them to apply the Islamic approach in managing the employees. Human resource is considered the most substantial asset of organizations. Studies have recommended that successful human resource management (HRM) leads to positive attitudes and behaviors at the workplace. On the contrary, unproductive use of human resources results in negative penalty in the form of lower job satisfaction, lower commitment, or even high employee turnover and even poor workforce quality.The study examined the Impact of Islamic HR practices on job satisfaction. Islamic HR variables encompass the aspects of performance appraisal, training and development, selection and recruitment. Data was obtained via self –administered questionnaires distributed among the employees of Banks in Pakistan which are practicing Islamic Banking. The sampling method employed was purposive sampling.Based on 240 responses obtained ,the study revealed that Islamic HRM deliberates the 40per cent of the variances in Job satisfaction .All variables excluding recruitment were found to be substantially pertinent to the dependent variable. The study also meditated the implications for future studies.

Keywords: islamic HRM, job satisfaction, islamic and conventional banks, Pakistan

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16 Impact of Nutritional Status on the Pubertal Transition in a Sample of Egyptian School Girls

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Salah Mostafa, Hamed Elkhayat, Kalled Hassan Sewidan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Manal Mouhamed Ali, Mones M. Abu Shady


Pubertal growth is influenced by many factors including environmental and nutritional factors. Objective: To assess impact of nutritional status on pubertal staging, ovarian and uterine volumes among school girls. Method: Study was cross sectional and carried out on 1000 healthy school girls, aged 8-18 years selected randomly. They were categorized according to their ages into three groups: 8-12 years, 13-15 years and 16-18 years ±6 months, then according to their body mass index percentile to normal weight: (≥15-<85.), overweight (≥85-<95) and obese (≥95). All girls were subjected for physical, anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index), nutritional markers WAZ (weight/age Z score), HAZ (height/age Z score) and BMI-Z (body mass index Z score), pubertal assessment (Tanner stage) and pelvic transabdominal sonography (uterine and ovarian volumes). Results: Highly significant differences in ovarian and uterine volumes and nutritional markers (WAZ, HAZ and BMI-Z score) were detected among different grades of puberty in the two age groups (8-12 years, 13-15 years) coming in advance of obese girls (with increase of BMI); except HAZ in the second age group. Girls aged 16-18 years reached to final volume for the uterus and ovary with insignificant differences. Pubertal stage, ovarian and uterine sizes were highly significantly correlated with nutritional markers. Mean ages of onset: of puberty, menarche and complete puberty were, 11.65 + 1.84, 14.79 + 1.75 and 15.02 + 1.68 years respectively. Conclusion: Nutritional status has a crucial role in determining pubertal stage, ovarian and uterine volumes among Egyptian girls during the pubertal process.

Keywords: pubertal stage, nutritional markers, girls, ovarian and uterine volumes

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15 Low-Voltage and Low-Power Bulk-Driven Continuous-Time Current-Mode Differentiator Filters

Authors: Ravi Kiran Jaladi, Ezz I. El-Masry


Emerging technologies such as ultra-wide band wireless access technology that operate at ultra-low power present several challenges due to their inherent design that limits the use of voltage-mode filters. Therefore, Continuous-time current-mode (CTCM) filters have become very popular in recent times due to the fact they have a wider dynamic range, improved linearity, and extended bandwidth compared to their voltage-mode counterparts. The goal of this research is to develop analog filters which are suitable for the current scaling CMOS technologies. Bulk-driven MOSFET is one of the most popular low power design technique for the existing challenges, while other techniques have obvious shortcomings. In this work, a CTCM Gate-driven (GD) differentiator has been presented with a frequency range from dc to 100MHz which operates at very low supply voltage of 0.7 volts. A novel CTCM Bulk-driven (BD) differentiator has been designed for the first time which reduces the power consumption multiple times that of GD differentiator. These GD and BD differentiator has been simulated using CADENCE TSMC 65nm technology for all the bilinear and biquadratic band-pass frequency responses. These basic building blocks can be used to implement the higher order filters. A 6th order cascade CTCM Chebyshev band-pass filter has been designed using the GD and BD techniques. As a conclusion, a low power GD and BD 6th order chebyshev stagger-tuned band-pass filter was simulated and all the parameters obtained from all the resulting realizations are analyzed and compared. Monte Carlo analysis is performed for both the 6th order filters and the results of sensitivity analysis are presented.

Keywords: bulk-driven (BD), continuous-time current-mode filters (CTCM), gate-driven (GD)

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14 Investigation of Effects of Geomagnetic Storms Produced by Different Solar Sources on the Total Electron Content (TEC)

Authors: P. K. Purohit, Azad A. Mansoori, Parvaiz A. Khan, Purushottam Bhawre, Sharad C. Tripathi, A. M. Aslam, Malik A. Waheed, Shivangi Bhardwaj, A. K. Gwal


The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind-magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as the trigger ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For the present investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998-2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by sheath driven magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was the strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR.

Keywords: GPS, TEC, geomagnetic storm, sheath driven magnetic cloud

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13 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider


Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: clove, essential oils, fennel, potato

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12 Competing Risks Modeling Using within Node Homogeneity Classification Tree

Authors: Kazeem Adesina Dauda, Waheed Babatunde Yahya


To design a tree that maximizes within-node homogeneity, there is a need for a homogeneity measure that is appropriate for event history data with multiple risks. We consider the use of Deviance and Modified Cox-Snell residuals as a measure of impurity in Classification Regression Tree (CART) and compare our results with the results of Fiona (2008) in which homogeneity measures were based on Martingale Residual. Data structure approach was used to validate the performance of our proposed techniques via simulation and real life data. The results of univariate competing risk revealed that: using Deviance and Cox-Snell residuals as a response in within node homogeneity classification tree perform better than using other residuals irrespective of performance techniques. Bone marrow transplant data and double-blinded randomized clinical trial, conducted in other to compare two treatments for patients with prostate cancer were used to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method vis-à-vis the existing ones. Results from empirical studies of the bone marrow transplant data showed that the proposed model with Cox-Snell residual (Deviance=16.6498) performs better than both the Martingale residual (deviance=160.3592) and Deviance residual (Deviance=556.8822) in both event of interest and competing risks. Additionally, results from prostate cancer also reveal the performance of proposed model over the existing one in both causes, interestingly, Cox-Snell residual (MSE=0.01783563) outfit both the Martingale residual (MSE=0.1853148) and Deviance residual (MSE=0.8043366). Moreover, these results validate those obtained from the Monte-Carlo studies.

Keywords: within-node homogeneity, Martingale residual, modified Cox-Snell residual, classification and regression tree

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11 Reliability of Dissimilar Metal Soldered Joint in Fabrication of Electromagnetic Interference Shielded Door Frame

Authors: Rehan Waheed, Hasan Aftab Saeed, Wasim Tarar, Khalid Mahmood, Sajid Ullah Butt


Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielded doors made from brass extruded channels need to be welded with shielded enclosures to attain optimum shielding performance. Control of welding induced distortion is a problem in welding dissimilar metals like steel and brass. In this research, soldering of the steel-brass joint has been proposed to avoid weld distortion. The material used for brass channel is UNS C36000. The thickness of brass is defined by the manufacturing process, i.e. extrusion. The thickness of shielded enclosure material (ASTM A36) can be varied to produce joint between the dissimilar metals. Steel sections of different gauges are soldered using (91% tin, 9% zinc) solder to the brass, and strength of joint is measured by standard test procedures. It is observed that thin steel sheets produce a stronger bond with brass. The steel sections further require to be welded with shielded enclosure steel sheets through TIG welding process. Stresses and deformation in the vicinity of soldered portion is calculated through FE simulation. Crack formation in soldered area is also studied through experimental work. It has been found that in thin sheets deformation produced due to applied force is localized and has no effect on soldered joint area whereas in thick sheets profound cracks have been observed in soldered joint. The shielding effectiveness of EMI shielded door is compromised due to these cracks. The shielding effectiveness of the specimens is tested and results are compared.

Keywords: dissimilar metal, EMI shielding, joint strength, soldering

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10 Artificial Intelligence Based Online Monitoring System for Cardiac Patient

Authors: Syed Qasim Gilani, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Noman, Syed Bilawal Shah, Aqib Abbasi, Muhammad Waheed


Cardiovascular Diseases(CVD's) are the major cause of death in the world. The main reason for these deaths is the unavailability of first aid for heart failure. In many cases, patients die before reaching the hospital. We in this paper are presenting innovative online health service for Cardiac Patients. The proposed online health system has two ends. Users through device developed by us can communicate with their doctor through a mobile application. This interface provides them with first aid.Also by using this service, they have an easy interface with their doctors for attaining medical advice. According to the proposed system, we developed a device called Cardiac Care. Cardiac Care is a portable device which a patient can use at their home for monitoring heart condition. When a patient checks his/her heart condition, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Blood Pressure(BP), Temperature are sent to the central database. The severity of patients condition is checked using Artificial Intelligence Algorithm at the database. If the patient is suffering from the minor problem, our algorithm will suggest a prescription for patients. But if patient's condition is severe, patients record is sent to doctor through the mobile Android application. Doctor after reviewing patients condition suggests next step. If a doctor identifies the patient condition as critical, then the message is sent to the central database for sending an ambulance for the patient. Ambulance starts moving towards patient for bringing him/her to hospital. We have implemented this model at prototype level. This model will be life-saving for millions of people around the globe. According to this proposed model patients will be in contact with their doctors all the time.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, classification, electrocardiogram, blood pressure

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