Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 130

Search results for: actuators

130 Ionic Polymer Actuators with Fast Response and High Power Density Based on Sulfonated Phthalocyanine/Sulfonated Polysulfone Composite Membrane

Authors: Taehoon Kwon, Hyeongrae Cho, Dirk Henkensmeier, Youngjong Kang, Chong Min Koo


Ionic polymer actuators have been of interest in the bio-inspired artificial muscle devices. However, the relatively slow response and low power density were the obstacles for practical applications. In this study, ionic polymer actuators are fabricated with ionic polymer composite membranes based on sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) and copper(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuPCSA). CuPCSA is an organic filler with very high ion exchange capacity (IEC, 4.5 mmol H+/g) that can be homogeneously dispersed on the molecular scale into the SPAES membrane. SPAES/CuPCSA actuators show larger ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, bending deformation, exceptional faster response to electrical stimuli, and larger mechanical power density (3028 W m–3) than Nafion actuators. This outstanding actuation performance of SPAES/CuPCSA composite membrane actuators makes them attractive for next generation transducers with high power density, which are currently developed biomimetic devices such as endoscopic surgery.

Keywords: actuation performance, composite membranes, ionic polymer actuators, organic filler

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
129 Modelling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis of Polypyrrole Dual Sensing-Actuators for Precise Position Control

Authors: Johanna Schumacher, Toribio F. Otero, Victor H. Pascual


Bending dual sensing-actuators based on electroactive polymers are faradaic motors meaning the consumed charge determines the actuator’s tip position. During actuation, consumed charges during oxidation and reduction result in different tip positions showing dynamic hysteresis effects with errors up to 25%. For a precise position control of these actuators, the characterization of the hysteresis effect due to irreversible reactions is crucial. Here, the investigation and modelling of dynamic hysteresis effects of polypyrrole-dodezylbenzenesulfonate (PPyDBS) actuators under ambient working conditions are presented. The hysteresis effect is studied for charge consumption at different frequencies and a rate-dependent hysteresis model is derived. The hysteresis model is implemented as closed loop system and is verified experimentally.

Keywords: dual sensing-actuator, electroactive polymers, hysteresis, position control

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
128 Robust Diagnosis of an Electro-Mechanical Actuators, Bond Graph LFT Approach

Authors: A. Boulanoir, B. Ould Bouamama, A. Debiane, N. Achour


The paper deals with robust Fault Detection and isolation with respect to parameter uncertainties based on linear fractional transformation form (LFT) Bond graph. The innovative interest of the proposed methodology is the use only one representation for systematic generation of robust analytical redundancy relations and adaptive residual thresholds for sensibility analysis. Furthermore, the parameter uncertainties are introduced graphically in the bond graph model. The methodology applied to the nonlinear industrial Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA) used in avionic systems, has determined first the structural monitorability analysis (which component can be monitored) with given instrumentation architecture with any need of complex calculation and secondly robust fault indicators for online supervision.

Keywords: bond graph (BG), electro mechanical actuators (EMA), fault detection and isolation (FDI), linear fractional transformation (LFT), mechatronic systems, parameter uncertainties, avionic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
127 Analysis of Bending Abilities of Soft Pneumatic Actuator

Authors: Jeevan Balaji, Shreyas Chigurupati


Pneumatic gripper use compressed air to operate its actuators (fingers). Unlike the conventional metallic gripper, a soft pneumatic actuator (SPA) can be used for relocating fragile objects. An added advantage for this gripper is that the pressure exerted on the object can be varied by changing the dimensions of the air chambers and also by the number of chambers. SPAs have many benefits over conventional robots in the military, medical fields because of their compliance nature and are easily produced using the 3D printing process. In the paper, SPA is proposed to perform pick and place tasks. A design was developed for the actuators, which is convenient for gripping any fragile objects. Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is used for 3D printing the actuators. The actuator model behaves differently as the parameters such as its chamber height, number of chambers change. A detailed FEM model of the actuator is drafted for different pressure inputs using ABAQUS CAE software, and a safe loading pressure range is found.

Keywords: soft robotics, pneumatic actuator, design and modelling, bending analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
126 Characteristics of Ozone Generated from Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

Authors: R. Osada, S. Ogata, T. Segawa


Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (DBD-PAs) have been developed for active flow control devices. However, it is necessary to reduce ozone produced by DBD toward practical applications using DBD-PAs. In this study, variations of ozone concentration, flow velocity, power consumption were investigated by changing exposed electrodes of DBD-PAs. Two exposed electrode prototypes were prepared: span-type with exposed electrode width of 0.1 mm, and normal-type with width of 5 mm. It was found that span-type shows lower power consumption and higher flow velocity than that of normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-6.0 kV. Ozone concentration of span-type higher than normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-8.0 kV. In addition, it was confirmed that catalyst located in downstream from the exposed electrode can reduce ozone concentration between 18 and 42% without affecting the induced flow.

Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators, ozone diffusion, PIV measurement, power consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
125 Applied Actuator Fault Accommodation in Flight Control Systems Using Fault Reconstruction Based FDD and SMC Reconfiguration

Authors: A. Ghodbane, M. Saad, J. F. Boland, C. Thibeault


Historically, actuators’ redundancy was used to deal with faults occurring suddenly in flight systems. This technique was generally expensive, time consuming and involves increased weight and space in the system. Therefore, nowadays, the on-line fault diagnosis of actuators and accommodation plays a major role in the design of avionic systems. These approaches, known as Fault Tolerant Flight Control systems (FTFCs) are able to adapt to such sudden faults while keeping avionics systems lighter and less expensive. In this paper, a (FTFC) system based on the Geometric Approach and a Reconfigurable Flight Control (RFC) are presented. The Geometric approach is used for cosmic ray fault reconstruction, while Sliding Mode Control (SMC) based on Lyapunov stability theory is designed for the reconfiguration of the controller in order to compensate the fault effect. Matlab®/Simulink® simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control system against actuators’ faulty signal caused by cosmic rays. The results demonstrate the successful real-time implementation of the proposed FTFC system on a non-linear 6 DOF aircraft model.

Keywords: actuators’ faults, fault detection and diagnosis, fault tolerant flight control, sliding mode control, geometric approach for fault reconstruction, Lyapunov stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
124 Fault Detection and Isolation in Sensors and Actuators of Wind Turbines

Authors: Shahrokh Barati, Reza Ramezani


Due to the countries growing attention to the renewable energy producing, the demand for energy from renewable energy has gone up among the renewable energy sources; wind energy is the fastest growth in recent years. In this regard, in order to increase the availability of wind turbines, using of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system is necessary. Wind turbines include of various faults such as sensors fault, actuator faults, network connection fault, mechanical faults and faults in the generator subsystem. Although, sensors and actuators have a large number of faults in wind turbine but have discussed fewer in the literature. Therefore, in this work, we focus our attention to design a sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation algorithm and Fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS) for Wind Turbine. The aim of this research is to propose a comprehensive fault detection and isolation system for sensors and actuators of wind turbine based on data-driven approaches. To achieve this goal, the features of measurable signals in real wind turbine extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extracted features. Features are selected that led to maximum separation networks that implemented in parallel and results of classifiers fused together. In order to maximize the reliability of decision on fault, the property of fault repeatability is used.

Keywords: FDI, wind turbines, sensors and actuators faults, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
123 Flutter Control Analysis of an Aircraft Wing Using Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Timothee Gidenne, Xia Pinqi


In this paper, an investigation of the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced polymer as an actuator for an active flutter suppression to counter the flutter phenomena is conducted. The goal of this analysis is to establish a link between the behavior of the control surface and the actuators to demonstrate the veracity of using such a suppression system for the aeronautical field. A preliminary binary flutter model using simplified unsteady aerodynamics is developed to study the behavior of the wing while reaching the flutter speed and when the control system suppresses the flutter phenomena. The Timoshenko beam theory for bilayer materials is used to match the response of the control surface with the CNTs reinforced polymer (CNRP) actuators. According to Timoshenko theory, results show a good and realistic response for such a purpose. Even if the results are still preliminary, they show evidence of the potential use of CNRP for control surface actuation for the small-scale and lightweight system.

Keywords: actuators, aeroelastic, aeroservoelasticity, carbon nanotubes, flutter, flutter suppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
122 Single Chip Controller Design for Piezoelectric Actuators with Mixed Signal FPGA

Authors: Han-Bin Park, Taesam Kang, SunKi Hong, Jeong Hoi Gu


The piezoelectric material is being used widely for actuators due to its large power density with simple structure. It can generate a larger force than the conventional actuators with the same size. Furthermore, the response time of piezoelectric actuators is very short, and thus, it can be used for very fast system applications with compact size. To control the piezoelectric actuator, we need analog signal conditioning circuits as well as digital microcontrollers. Conventional microcontrollers are not equipped with analog parts and thus the control system becomes bulky compared with the small size of the piezoelectric devices. To overcome these weaknesses, we are developing one-chip micro controller that can handle analog and digital signals simultaneously using mixed signal FPGA technology. We used the SmartFusion™ FPGA device that integrates ARM®Cortex-M3, analog interface and FPGA fabric in a single chip and offering full customization. It gives more flexibility than traditional fixed-function microcontrollers with the excessive cost of soft processor cores on traditional FPGAs. In this paper we introduce the design of single chip controller using mixed signal FPGA, SmartFusion™[1] device. To demonstrate its performance, we implemented a PI controller for power driving circuit and a 5th order H-infinity controller for the system with piezoelectric actuator in the FPGA fabric. We also demonstrated the regulation of a power output and the operation speed of a 5th order H-infinity controller.

Keywords: mixed signal FPGA, PI control, piezoelectric actuator, SmartFusion™

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
121 An Analysis of Privacy and Security for Internet of Things Applications

Authors: Dhananjay Singh, M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud


The Internet of Things is a concept of a large scale ecosystem of wireless actuators. The actuators are defined as things in the IoT, those which contribute or produces some data to the ecosystem. However, ubiquitous data collection, data security, privacy preserving, large volume data processing, and intelligent analytics are some of the key challenges into the IoT technologies. In order to solve the security requirements, challenges and threats in the IoT, we have discussed a message authentication mechanism for IoT applications. Finally, we have discussed data encryption mechanism for messages authentication before propagating into IoT networks.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), message authentication, privacy, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
120 Preliminary Study on Analysis of Pinching Motion Actuated by Electro-Active Polymers

Authors: Doo W. Lee, Soo J. Lee, Bye R. Yoon, Jae Y. Jho, Kyehan Rhee


Hand exoskeletons have been developed in order to assist daily activities for disabled and elder people. A figure exoskeleton was developed using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, and the performance of it was evaluated in this study. In order to study dynamic performance of a finger dummy performing pinching motion, force generating characteristics of an IPMC actuator and pinching motion of a thumb and index finger dummy actuated by IMPC actuators were analyzed. The blocking force of 1.54 N was achieved under 4 V of DC. A thumb and index finger dummy, which has one degree of freedom at the proximal joint of each figure, was manufactured by a three dimensional rapid prototyping. Each figure was actuated by an IPMC actuator, and the maximum fingertip force was 1.18 N. Pinching motion of a dummy was analyzed by two video cameras in vertical top and horizontal left end view planes. A figure dummy powered by IPMC actuators could perform flexion and extension motion of an index figure and a thumb.

Keywords: finger exoskeleton, ionic polymer metal composite, flexion and extension, motion analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
119 Soft Pneumatic Actuators Fabricated Using Soluble Polymer Inserts and a Single-Pour System for Improved Durability

Authors: Alexander Harrison Greer, Edward King, Elijah Lee, Safa Obuz, Ruhao Sun, Aditya Sardesai, Toby Ma, Daniel Chow, Bryce Broadus, Calvin Costner, Troy Barnes, Biagio DeSimone, Yeshwin Sankuratri, Yiheng Chen, Holly Golecki


Although a relatively new field, soft robotics is experiencing a rise in applicability in the secondary school setting through The Soft Robotics Toolkit, shared fabrication resources and a design competition. Exposing students outside of university research groups to this rapidly growing field allows for development of the soft robotics industry in new and imaginative ways. Soft robotic actuators have remained difficult to implement in classrooms because of their relative cost or difficulty of fabrication. Traditionally, a two-part molding system is used; however, this configuration often results in delamination. In an effort to make soft robotics more accessible to young students, we aim to develop a simple, single-mold method of fabricating soft robotic actuators from common household materials. These actuators are made by embedding a soluble polymer insert into silicone. These inserts can be made from hand-cut polystyrene, 3D-printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), or molded sugar. The insert is then dissolved using an appropriate solvent such as water or acetone, leaving behind a negative form which can be pneumatically actuated. The resulting actuators are seamless, eliminating the instability of adhering multiple layers together. The benefit of this approach is twofold: it simplifies the process of creating a soft robotic actuator, and in turn, increases its effectiveness and durability. To quantify the increased durability of the single-mold actuator, it was tested against the traditional two-part mold. The single-mold actuator could withstand actuation at 20psi for 20 times the duration when compared to the traditional method. The ease of fabrication of these actuators makes them more accessible to hobbyists and students in classrooms. After developing these actuators, they were applied, in collaboration with a ceramics teacher at our school, to a glove used to transfer nuanced hand motions used to throw pottery from an expert artist to a novice. We quantified the improvement in the users’ pottery-making skill when wearing the glove using image analysis software. The seamless actuators proved to be robust in this dynamic environment. Seamless soft robotic actuators created by high school students show the applicability of the Soft Robotics Toolkit for secondary STEM education and outreach. Making students aware of what is possible through projects like this will inspire the next generation of innovators in materials science and robotics.

Keywords: pneumatic actuator fabrication, soft robotic glove, soluble polymers, STEM outreach

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
118 Nonlinear Structural Behavior of Micro- and Nano-Actuators Using the Galerkin Discretization Technique

Authors: Hassen M. Ouakad


In this paper, the influence of van der Waals, as well as electrostatic forces on the structural behavior of MEMS and NEMS actuators, has been investigated using of a Euler-Bernoulli beam continuous model. In the proposed nonlinear model, the electrostatic fringing-fields and the mid-plane stretching (geometric nonlinearity) effects have been considered. The nonlinear integro-differential equation governing the static structural behavior of the actuator has been derived. An original Galerkin-based reduced-order model has been developed to avoid problems arising from the nonlinearities in the differential equation. The obtained reduced-order model equations have been solved numerically using the Newton-Raphson method. The basic design parameters such as the pull-in parameters (voltage and deflection at pull-in), as well as the detachment length due to the van der Waals force of some investigated micro- and nano-actuators have been calculated. The obtained numerical results have been compared with some other existing methods (finite-elements method and finite-difference method) and the comparison showed good agreement among all assumed numerical techniques.

Keywords: MEMS, NEMS, fringing-fields, mid-plane stretching, Galerkin

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
117 Control of an Asymmetrical Design of a Pneumatically Actuated Ambidextrous Robot Hand

Authors: Emre Akyürek, Anthony Huynh, Tatiana Kalganova


The Ambidextrous Robot Hand is a robotic device with the purpose to mimic either the gestures of a right or a left hand. The symmetrical behavior of its fingers allows them to bend in one way or another keeping a compliant and anthropomorphic shape. However, in addition to gestures they can reproduce on both sides, an asymmetrical mechanical design with a three tendons routing has been engineered to reduce the number of actuators. As a consequence, control algorithms must be adapted to drive efficiently the ambidextrous fingers from one position to another and to include grasping features. These movements are controlled by pneumatic muscles, which are nonlinear actuators. As their elasticity constantly varies when they are under actuation, the length of pneumatic muscles and the force they provide may differ for a same value of pressurized air. The control algorithms introduced in this paper take both the fingers asymmetrical design and the pneumatic muscles nonlinearity into account to permit an accurate control of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand. The finger motion is achieved by combining a classic PID controller with a phase plane switching control that turns the gain constants into dynamic values. The grasping ability is made possible because of a sliding mode control that makes the fingers adapt to the shape of an object before strengthening their positions.

Keywords: ambidextrous hand, intelligent algorithms, nonlinear actuators, pneumatic muscles, robotics, sliding control

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
116 Effect of Synthetic Jet on Wind Turbine Noise

Authors: Reda Mankbadi


The current work explores the use of Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) for control of the acoustic radiation of a low-speed transitioning airfoil in a uniform stream. In the adopted numerical procedure, the actuator is modeled without its resonator cavity through imposing a simple fluctuating-velocity boundary condition at the bottom of the actuator's orifice. The orifice cavity, with the properly defined boundary condition, is then embedded into the airfoil surface. High-accuracy viscous simulations are then conducted to study the effects of the actuation on sound radiated by the airfoil. Results show that SJA can considerably suppress the radiated sound of the airfoil in uniform incoming stream.

Keywords: simulations, aeroacoustics, wind turbine noise, synthetic jet actuators (SJAs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
115 Optimal Design of Polymer Based Piezoelectric Actuator with Varying Thickness and Length Ratios

Authors: Vineet Tiwari, R. K. Dwivedi, Geetika Srivastava


Piezoelectric cantilevers are exploited for their use in sensors and actuators. In this study, a unimorph cantilever beam is considered as a study element with a piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer bonded to a substrate layer. The different substrates like polysilicon, stainless steel and silicon nitride are tried for the study. An effort has been made to optimize and study the effect of the various parameters of the device in order to achieve maximum tip deflection. The variation of the tip displacement of the cantilever with respect to the length ratio of the nonpiezoelectric layer to the piezoelectric layer has been studied. The electric response of this unimorph cantilever beam is simulated with the help of finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics.

Keywords: actuators, cantilever, piezoelectric, sensors, PVDF

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
114 Fractional Order Controller Design for Vibration Attenuation in an Airplane Wing

Authors: Birs Isabela, Muresan Cristina, Folea Silviu, Prodan Ovidiu


The wing is one of the most important parts of an airplane because it ensures stability, sustenance and maneuverability of the airplane. Because of its shape, the airplane wing can be simplified to a smart beam. Active vibration suppression is realized using piezoelectric actuators that are mounted on the surface of the beam. This work presents a tuning procedure of fractional order controllers based on a graphical approach of the frequency domain representation. The efficacy of the method is proven by practically testing the controller on a laboratory scale experimental stand.

Keywords: fractional order control, piezoelectric actuators, smart beam, vibration suppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
113 Individual Actuators of a Car-Like Robot with Back Trailer

Authors: Tarek El-Derini, Ahmed El-Shenawy


This paper presents the hardware implemented and validation for a special system to assist the unprofessional users of car with back trailers. The system consists of two platforms; the front car platform (C) and the trailer platform (T). The main objective is to control the Trailer platform using the actuators found in the front platform (c). The mobility of the platform (C) is investigated and inverse and forward kinematics model is obtained for both platforms (C) and (T). The system is simulated using Matlab M-file and the simulation examples results illustrated the system performance. The system is constructed with a hardware setup for the front and trailer platform. The hardware experimental results and the simulated examples outputs showed the validation of the hardware setup.

Keywords: kinematics, modeling, robot, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
112 Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Kazuma Okada, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara


Recently, the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for linear feedback control systems has been shown in several papers. However, the random dither quantization method has not yet been applied to nonlinear feedback control systems. The objective of this paper is to verify the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for nonlinear feedback control systems. For this purpose, we consider the attitude stabilization problem of satellites using discrete-level actuators. Namely, this paper provides a control method based on the random dither quantization method for stabilizing the attitude of satellites using discrete-level actuators.

Keywords: quantized control, nonlinear systems, random dither quantization

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
111 Design and Development of Power Sources for Plasma Actuators to Control Flow Separation

Authors: Himanshu J. Bahirat, Apoorva S. Janawlekar


Plasma actuators are essential for aerodynamic flow separation control due to their lack of mechanical parts, lightweight, and high response frequency, which have numerous applications in hypersonic or supersonic aircraft. The working of these actuators is based on the formation of a low-temperature plasma between a pair of parallel electrodes by the application of a high-voltage AC signal across the electrodes, after which air molecules from the air surrounding the electrodes are ionized and accelerated through the electric field. The high-frequency operation is required in dielectric discharge barriers to ensure plasma stability. To carry out flow separation control in a hypersonic flow, the optimal design and construction of a power supply to generate dielectric barrier discharges is carried out in this paper. In this paper, it is aspired to construct a simplified circuit topology to emulate the dielectric barrier discharge and study its various frequency responses. The power supply can generate high voltage pulses up to 20kV at the repetitive frequency range of 20-50kHz with an input power of 500W. The power supply has been designed to be short circuit proof and can endure variable plasma load conditions. Its general outline is to charge a capacitor through a half-bridge converter and then later discharge it through a step-up transformer at a high frequency in order to generate high voltage pulses. After simulating the circuit, the PCB design and, eventually, lab tests are carried out to study its effectiveness in controlling flow separation.

Keywords: aircraft propulsion, dielectric barrier discharge, flow separation control, power source

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110 A Study on the Small Biped Soft Robot with Two Insect-Like Nails

Authors: Mami Nishida


This paper presented a study on the development and control of a small biped soft robot using shape memory alloys (SMAs). Author proposed a flexible flat plate (FFP) actuators consisting of a thin polyethylene plate and SMAs. This actuator has a nail like an insect. This robot moves from the front to back and from left to right using two nails. The walking robot has two degrees of freedom and is controlled by switching the ON-OFF current signals to the SMA based FFPs. The resulting small biped soft robot weighs a mere 4.7 g (with a height of 67 mm). The small robot realizes biped walking by transferring the elastic potential energy (generated by deflections of the SMA based FFPs) to kinematic energy. Experimental results demonstrated the viability and utility of the small biped soft robot with the proposed SMA-based FFPs and the control strategy to achieve walking behavior.

Keywords: biped soft robot with nails, flexible flat plate (FFP) actuators, ON-OFF control strategy, shape memory alloys (SMA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
109 Formulation of Optimal Shifting Sequence for Multi-Speed Automatic Transmission

Authors: Sireesha Tamada, Debraj Bhattacharjee, Pranab K. Dan, Prabha Bhola


The most important component in an automotive transmission system is the gearbox which controls the speed of the vehicle. In an automatic transmission, the right positioning of actuators ensures efficient transmission mechanism embodiment, wherein the challenge lies in formulating the number of actuators associated with modelling a gearbox. Data with respect to actuation and gear shifting sequence has been retrieved from the available literature, including patent documents, and has been used in this proposed heuristics based methodology for modelling actuation sequence in a gear box. This paper presents a methodological approach in designing a gearbox for the purpose of obtaining an optimal shifting sequence. The computational model considers factors namely, the number of stages and gear teeth as input parameters since these two are the determinants of the gear ratios in an epicyclic gear train. The proposed transmission schematic or stick diagram aids in developing the gearbox layout design. The number of iterations and development time required to design a gearbox layout is reduced by using this approach.

Keywords: automatic transmission, gear-shifting, multi-stage planetary gearbox, rank ordered clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
108 Different Orientations of Shape Memory Alloy Wire in Automotive Sector Product

Authors: Srishti Bhatt, Vaibhav Bhavsar, Adil Hussain, Aashay Mhaske, S. C. Bali, T. S. Srikanth


Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are widely known for their unique shape recovery properties. SMA based actuation systems have high-force to weight ratio, light weight and also bio-compatible material. Which is why they are being used in different fields of aerospace, robotics, automotive and biomedical industries. However, in the automotive industry plenty of patents are available but commercially viable products are very few in market. This could be due to SMA material limitations like small stroke, direct dependability of lifecycle on stroke, pull load of the wire and high cycle time. In automotive sector, SMA being considered as an actuator which is required to have high stroke and constraint arises to accommodate a long length of wire (to compensate maximum 4 % strain as per better fatigue life cycle) not only increases complexity but also adds on the cost. More than 200 different types of actuators are used in an automobile, few of them whose efficiency can highly increase by replacing them with SMA based actuators which include latch lock mechanism, glove box, Head lamp leveling, side mirror and rear mirror leveling, tailgate opener and fuel lid cap actuator. To overcome the limitation of available space for required stroke of an actuator which leads to study the effect of different loading positions on SMA wires, different orientations of SMA wire by using pulleys and lever based systems to achieve maximum stroke. This investigation summarizes the loading under the V shape orientation the required stroke and carrying load capacity in more compact in comparison with straight orientation of wire. Similarly, the U shape orientation its showing higher load carrying capacity but reduced stroke which is aligned with concept of bundled wire method. Life-cycle of these orientations were also evaluated.

Keywords: actuators, automotive, nitinol, shape memory alloy, SMA wire orientations

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107 Intelligent Rainwater Reuse System for Irrigation

Authors: Maria M. S. Pires, Andre F. X. Gloria, Pedro J. A. Sebastiao


The technological advances in the area of Internet of Things have been creating more and more solutions in the area of agriculture. These solutions are quite important for life, as they lead to the saving of the most precious resource, water, being this need to save water a concern worldwide. The paper proposes the creation of an Internet of Things system based on a network of sensors and interconnected actuators that automatically monitors the quality of the rainwater that is stored inside a tank in order to be used for irrigation. The main objective is to promote sustainability by reusing rainwater for irrigation systems instead of water that is usually available for other functions, such as other productions or even domestic tasks. A mobile application was developed for Android so that the user can control and monitor his system in real time. In the application, it is possible to visualize the data that translate the quality of the water inserted in the tank, as well as perform some actions on the implemented actuators, such as start/stop the irrigation system and pour the water in case of poor water quality. The implemented system translates a simple solution with a high level of efficiency and tests and results obtained within the possible environment.

Keywords: internet of things, irrigation system, wireless sensor and actuator network, ESP32, sustainability, water reuse, water efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
106 Design and Fabrication of an Electrostatically Actuated Parallel-Plate Mirror by 3D-Printer

Authors: J. Mizuno, S. Takahashi


In this paper, design and fabrication of an actuated parallel-plate mirror based on a 3D-printer is described. The mirror and electrode layers are fabricated separately and assembled thereafter. The alignment is performed by dowel pin-hole pairs fabricated on the respective layers. The electrodes are formed on the surface of the electrode layer by Au ion sputtering using a suitable mask, which is also fabricated by a 3D-printer.For grounding the mirror layer, except the contact area with the electrode paths, all the surface is Au ion sputtered. 3D-printers are widely used for creating 3D models or mock-ups. The authors have recently proposed that these models can perform electromechanical functions such as actuators by suitably masking them followed by metallization process. Since the smallest possible fabrication size is in the order of sub-millimeters, these electromechanical devices are named by the authors as SMEMS (Sub-Milli Electro-Mechanical Systems) devices. The proposed mirror described in this paper which consists of parallel-plate electrostatic actuators is also one type of SMEMS devices. In addition, SMEMS is totally environment-clean compared to MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication processes because any hazardous chemicals or gases are utilized.

Keywords: MEMS, parallel-plate mirror, SMEMS, 3D-printer

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
105 Reconfigurable Consensus Achievement of Multi Agent Systems Subject to Actuator Faults in a Leaderless Architecture

Authors: F. Amirarfaei, K. Khorasani


In this paper, reconfigurable consensus achievement of a team of agents with marginally stable linear dynamics and single input channel has been considered. The control algorithm is based on a first order linear protocol. After occurrence of a LOE fault in one of the actuators, using the imperfect information of the effectiveness of the actuators from fault detection and identification module, the control gain is redesigned in a way to still reach consensus. The idea is based on the modeling of change in effectiveness as change of Laplacian matrix. Then as special cases of this class of systems, a team of single integrators as well as double integrators are considered and their behavior subject to a LOE fault is considered. The well-known relative measurements consensus protocol is applied to a leaderless team of single integrator as well as double integrator systems, and Gersgorin disk theorem is employed to determine whether fault occurrence has an effect on system stability and team consensus achievement or not. The analyses show that loss of effectiveness fault in actuator(s) of integrator systems affects neither system stability nor consensus achievement.

Keywords: multi-agent system, actuator fault, stability analysis, consensus achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
104 Approximate Spring Balancing for the Arm of a Humanoid Robot to Reduce Actuator Torque

Authors: Apurva Patil, Ashay Aswale, Akshay Kulkarni, Shubham Bharadiya


The potential benefit of gravity compensation of linkages in mechanisms using springs to reduce actuator requirements is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs with child–parent connections and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to the developed arm of a humanoid robot is presented here. Spring balancing is particularly important in this case because the serial chain of linkages has to work against gravity.This work involves approximate spring balancing of the open-loop chain of linkages using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Reduced actuator torque facilitates the use of lower end actuators which are generally smaller in weight and volume thereby lowering the space requirements and the total weight of the arm. This is particularly important for humanoid robots where the parent actuator has to handle the weight of the subsequent actuators as well. Actuators with lower actuation requirements are more energy efficient, thereby reduce the energy consumption of the mechanism. Lower end actuators are lower in cost and facilitate the development of low-cost devices. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free-length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached to the preceding parent link, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant arm of the humanoid robot is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this arm of the humanoid robot.

Keywords: actuator torque, child-parent connections, spring balancing, the arm of a humanoid robot

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103 Design of a Real Time Closed Loop Simulation Test Bed on a General Purpose Operating System: Practical Approaches

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Chithra V. J., Sudhakar S., Nitin K. D.


A closed-loop system comprises of a controller, a response system, and an actuating system. The controller, which is the system under test for us, excites the actuators based on feedback from the sensors in a periodic manner. The sensors should provide the feedback to the System Under Test (SUT) within a deterministic time post excitation of the actuators. Any delay or miss in the generation of response or acquisition of excitation pulses may lead to control loop controller computation errors, which can be catastrophic in certain cases. Such systems categorised as hard real-time systems that need special strategies. The real-time operating systems available in the market may be the best solutions for such kind of simulations, but they pose limitations like the availability of the X Windows system, graphical interfaces, other user tools. In this paper, we present strategies that can be used on a general purpose operating system (Bare Linux Kernel) to achieve a deterministic deadline and hence have the added advantages of a GPOS with real-time features. Techniques shall be discussed how to make the time-critical application run with the highest priority in an uninterrupted manner, reduced network latency for distributed architecture, real-time data acquisition, data storage, and retrieval, user interactions, etc.

Keywords: real time data acquisition, real time kernel preemption, scheduling, network latency

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102 Analytical Model of Locomotion of a Thin-Film Piezoelectric 2D Soft Robot Including Gravity Effects

Authors: Zhiwu Zheng, Prakhar Kumar, Sigurd Wagner, Naveen Verma, James C. Sturm


Soft robots have drawn great interest recently due to a rich range of possible shapes and motions they can take on to address new applications, compared to traditional rigid robots. Large-area electronics (LAE) provides a unique platform for creating soft robots by leveraging thin-film technology to enable the integration of a large number of actuators, sensors, and control circuits on flexible sheets. However, the rich shapes and motions possible, especially when interacting with complex environments, pose significant challenges to forming well-generalized and robust models necessary for robot design and control. In this work, we describe an analytical model for predicting the shape and locomotion of a flexible (steel-foil-based) piezoelectric-actuated 2D robot based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. It is nominally (unpowered) lying flat on the ground, and when powered, its shape is controlled by an array of piezoelectric thin-film actuators. Key features of the models are its ability to incorporate the significant effects of gravity on the shape and to precisely predict the spatial distribution of friction against the contacting surfaces, necessary for determining inchworm-type motion. We verified the model by developing a distributed discrete element representation of a continuous piezoelectric actuator and by comparing its analytical predictions to discrete-element robot simulations using PyBullet. Without gravity, predicting the shape of a sheet with a linear array of piezoelectric actuators at arbitrary voltages is straightforward. However, gravity significantly distorts the shape of the sheet, causing some segments to flatten against the ground. Our work includes the following contributions: (i) A self-consistent approach was developed to exactly determine which parts of the soft robot are lifted off the ground, and the exact shape of these sections, for an arbitrary array of piezoelectric voltages and configurations. (ii) Inchworm-type motion relies on controlling the relative friction with the ground surface in different sections of the robot. By adding torque-balance to our model and analyzing shear forces, the model can then determine the exact spatial distribution of the vertical force that the ground is exerting on the soft robot. Through this, the spatial distribution of friction forces between ground and robot can be determined. (iii) By combining this spatial friction distribution with the shape of the soft robot, in the function of time as piezoelectric actuator voltages are changed, the inchworm-type locomotion of the robot can be determined. As a practical example, we calculated the performance of a 5-actuator system on a 50-µm thick steel foil. Piezoelectric properties of commercially available thin-film piezoelectric actuators were assumed. The model predicted inchworm motion of up to 200 µm per step. For independent verification, we also modelled the system using PyBullet, a discrete-element robot simulator. To model a continuous thin-film piezoelectric actuator, we broke each actuator into multiple segments, each of which consisted of two rigid arms with appropriate mass connected with a 'motor' whose torque was set by the applied actuator voltage. Excellent agreement between our analytical model and the discrete-element simulator was shown for both for the full deformation shape and motion of the robot.

Keywords: analytical modeling, piezoelectric actuators, soft robot locomotion, thin-film technology

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101 Micromechanics Modeling of 3D Network Smart Orthotropic Structures

Authors: E. M. Hassan, A. L. Kalamkarov


Two micromechanical models for 3D smart composite with embedded periodic or nearly periodic network of generally orthotropic reinforcements and actuators are developed and applied to cubic structures with unidirectional orientation of constituents. Analytical formulas for the effective piezothermoelastic coefficients are derived using the Asymptotic Homogenization Method (AHM). Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is subsequently developed and used to examine the aforementioned periodic 3D network reinforced smart structures. The deformation responses from the FE simulations are used to extract effective coefficients. The results from both techniques are compared. This work considers piezoelectric materials that respond linearly to changes in electric field, electric displacement, mechanical stress and strain and thermal effects. This combination of electric fields and thermo-mechanical response in smart composite structures is characterized by piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients. The problem is represented by unit-cell and the models are developed using the AHM and the FEA to determine the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients. Each unit cell contains a number of orthotropic inclusions in the form of structural reinforcements and actuators. Using matrix representation of the coupled response of the unit cell, the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients are calculated and compared with results of the asymptotic homogenization method. A very good agreement is shown between these two approaches.

Keywords: asymptotic homogenization method, finite element analysis, effective piezothermoelastic coefficients, 3D smart network composite structures

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