Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 546

Search results for: phenol formaldehyde resin

546 Improving the Dimensional Stability of Bamboo Woven Strand Board

Authors: Gulelat Gatew

Abstract:

Bamboo Woven Strand Board (WSB) products are manufactured from Ethiopia highland bamboo (Yushania alpina) as a multiple layer mat structure for enhanced mechanical performance. Hence, it shows similar mechanical properties as tropical hardwood products. WSB, therefore, constitutes a sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood products. The resin and wax ratio had a great influence on the determinants properties of the product quality such as internal bonding, water absorption, thickness swelling, bending and stiffness properties. Among these properties, because of the hygroscopic nature of the bamboo, thickness swelling and water absorption are important performances of WSB for using in construction and outdoor facilities. When WSB is exposed to water or moist environment, they tend to swell and absorb water in all directions. The degree of swelling and water absorption depends on the type of resin used, resin formulation, resin ratio, wax type and ratio. The objective of this research is investigating effects of phenol formaldehyde and wax on thickness swelling and water absorption behavior on bamboo WSB for construction and outdoor facilities. The experiments were conducted to measure the effects of wax and phenol-formaldehyde resin content on WSB thickness swelling and water absorption which leads to investigate its effect on dimension stability and mechanical properties. Both experiments were performed with 2–hour and 24-hour water immersion test and a significant set of data regarding the influence of such method parameters is also presented. The addition of up to 2% wax with 10% of phenol formaldehyde significantly reduced thickness swelling and water absorption of WSB which resulted in making it more hydrophobic and less susceptible to the influences of moisture in high humidity conditions compared to the panels without wax.

Keywords: woven strand board (WSB), water absorption, thickness swelling, phenol formaldehyde resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
545 Properties of Bio-Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Filled with Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

Authors: Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Umar Adli Amran, Rasidi Roslan, Chia Chin Hua, Sarani Zakaria

Abstract:

Bio-composites derived from plant fiber and bio-derived polymer, are likely more ecofriendly and demonstrate competitive performance with petroleum based. In this research, the green phenolic resin was used as a matrix and oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) was used as filler. The matrix was synthesized from soda lignin, phenol and hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. The phenolic resin was synthesized via liquefaction and condensation to enhance the combination of phenol during the process. Later, the phenolic resin was mixed with EFB by using mechanical stirrer and was molded with hot press at 180 oC. In this research, the composites were prepared with EFB content of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The samples that viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the EFB filler remained embedded in the resin. From impact and hardness testing, samples 10% of EFB showed the optimum properties meanwhile sample 15% showed the optimum properties for flexural testing. Thermal stability of the composites was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and found that the weight loss and the activation energy (Ea) of the composites samples were decreased as the filler content increased.

Keywords: EFB, liquefaction, phenol formaldehyde, lignin

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
544 Lignin Phenol Formaldehyde Resole Resin: Synthesis and Characteristics

Authors: Masoumeh Ghorbania, Falk Liebnerb, Hendrikus W.G. van Herwijnenc, Johannes Konnertha

Abstract:

Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins are widely used as wood adhesives for variety of industrial products such as plywood, laminated veneer lumber and others. Lignin as a main constituent of wood has become well-known as a potential substitute for phenol in PF adhesives because of their structural similarity. During the last decades numerous research approaches have been carried out to substitute phenol with pulping-derived lignin, whereby the lower reactivity of resins synthesized with shares of lignin seem to be one of the major challenges. This work reports about a systematic screening of different types of lignin (plant origin and pulping process) for their suitability to replace phenol in phenolic resins. Lignin from different plant sources (softwood, hardwood and grass) were used, as these should differ significantly in their reactivity towards formaldehyde of their reactive phenolic core units. Additionally a possible influence of the pulping process was addressed by using the different types of lignin from soda, kraft, and organosolv process and various lignosulfonates (sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium). To determine the influence of lignin on the adhesive performance beside others the rate of viscosity development, bond strength development of varying hot pressing time and other thermal properties were investigated. To evaluate the performance of the cured end product, a few selected properties were studied at the example of solid wood-adhesive bond joints, compact panels and plywood. As main results it was found that lignin significantly accelerates the viscosity development in adhesive synthesis. Bonding strength development during curing of adhesives decelerated for all lignin types, while this trend was least for pine kraft lignin and spruce sodium lignosulfonate. However, the overall performance of the products prepared with the latter adhesives was able to fulfill main standard requirements, even after exposing the products to harsh environmental conditions. Thus, a potential application can be considered for processes where reactivity is less critical but adhesive cost and product performance is essential.

Keywords: phenol formaldehyde resin, lignin phenol formaldehyde resin, ABES, DSC

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
543 Effect of Nanoparticle Addition in the Urea-Formaldehyde Resin on the Formaldehyde Emission from MDF

Authors: Sezen Gurdag, Ayse Ebru Akin

Abstract:

There is a growing concern all over the world on the health effect of the formaldehyde emission coming from the adhesive used in the MDF production. In this research, we investigated the effect of nanoparticle addition such as nanoclay and halloysite into urea-formadehyde resin on the total emitted formaldehyde from MDF plates produced using the resin modified as such. First, the curing behavior of the resin was studied by monitoring the pH, curing time, solid content, density and viscosity of the modified resin in comparison to the reference resin with no added nanoparticle. The dosing of the nanoparticle in the dry resin was kept at 1wt%, 3wt% or 5wt%. Consecutively, the resin was used in the production of 50X50 cm MDF samples using laboratory scale press line with full automation system. Modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bonding strength, water absorption were also measured in addition to the main interested parameter formaldehyde emission levels which is determined via spectrometric technique following an extraction procedure. Threshold values for nanoparticle dosing levels were determined to be 5wt% for both nanoparticles. However, the reinforcing behavior was observed to be occurring at different levels in comparison to the reference plates with each nanoparticle such that the level of reinforcement with nanoclay was shown to be more favorable than the addition of halloysite due to higher surface area available with the former. In relation, formaldehyde emission levels were observed to be following a similar trend where addition of 5wt% nanoclay into the urea-formaldehyde adhesive helped decrease the formaldehyde emission up to 40% whereas addition of halloysite at its threshold level demonstrated as the same level, i.e., 5wt%, produced an improvement of 18% only.

Keywords: halloysite, nanoclay, fiberboard, urea-formaldehyde adhesive

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
542 Date Palm Compreg: A High Quality Bio-Composite of Date Palm Wood

Authors: Mojtaba Soltani, Edi Suhaimi Bakar, Hamid Reza Naji

Abstract:

Date Palm Wood (D.P.W) specimens were impregnated with Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at 15% level, using vacuum/pressure method. Three levels of moisture content (MC) (50%, 60%, and 70% ) before pressing stage and three hot pressing times (15, 20, and 30 minutes) were the variables. The boards were prepared at 20% compression rate. The physical properties of specimens such as spring back, thickness swelling and water absorption, and mechanical properties including MOR, MOE were studied and compared between variables. The results indicated that the percentage of MC levels before compression set was the main factor on the properties of the Date Palm Compreg. Also, the results showed that this compregnation method can be used as a good method for making high-quality bio-composite from Date Palm Wood.

Keywords: Date palm, phenol formaldehyde resin, high-quality bio-composite, physical and mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
541 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

Abstract:

In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
540 Mimosa Tannin – Starch - Sugar Based Wood Adhesive

Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgün Kizilcan, Başak Bengü

Abstract:

At present, formaldehyde based adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), melamine – urea formaldehyde (MUF), etc. are mostly used in wood based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility, and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde based wood adhesives are produced from non- renewable resources. Hence, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives in order to meet wood based panel industry requirements. In this study, as formaldehyde free adhesive, Mimosa tannin, starch, sugar based wood adhesivewas synthesized. Citric acid and tartaric acid were used as hardener for the resin system. Solid content, viscosity, and gel time analyzes of the prepared adhesive were performed in order to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR characterization technique was used to elucidate the chemical structures of the cured adhesivesamples. In order to evaluate the performance of the prepared bio-based resin formulation, particleboards were produced in a laboratory scale, and mechanical, physical properties of the boards were investigated. Besides, the formaldehyde contents of the boards were determined by using the perforator method. The obtained results revealed that the developed bio-based wood adhesive formulation can be a good potential candidate to use wood based panel industry with some developments.

Keywords: bio-based wood adhesives, mimosa tannin, corn starch, sugar, polycarboxyclic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
539 Choosing the Right Lignin for Phenolic Adhesive Application

Authors: Somayyeh Kalami, Mojgan Nejad

Abstract:

Based on the source (softwood, hardwood or annual crop) and isolation method (kraft, organosolv, sulfite or pre-enzymatic treatment), there are significant variations in lignin structure and properties. The first step in using lignin as biobased feedstock is to make sure that specific lignin is suitable for intended application. Complete characterization of lignin and measuring its chemical, physical and thermal properties can help to predict its suitability. To replace 100% phenol portion of phenolic adhesive, lignin should have high reactivity toward formaldehyde. Theoretically, lignins with closer backbone structure to phenol should be better candidate for this application. In this study, a number of different lignins were characterized and used to formulate phenolic adhesive. One of the main findings was that lignin sample with higher percentage of hydroxyl-phenyl units was better candidate than lignin with more syringyl units. This could be explained by the fact that hydroxyl-phenyl lignin units have two available ortho positions for reaction with formaldehyde while in syringyl units all ortho and para positions are occupied, and there is no available site in lignin structure to react with formaldehyde.

Keywords: lignin, phenolic adhesive, biobased, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
538 Production Process for Diesel Fuel Components Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers from Methanol and Formaldehyde Solution

Authors: Xiangjun Li, Huaiyuan Tian, Wujie Zhang, Dianhua Liu

Abstract:

Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) as clean diesel additive can improve the combustion efficiency and quality of diesel fuel and alleviate the problem of atmospheric pollution. Considering synthetic routes, PODE production from methanol and formaldehyde is regarded as the most economical and promising synthetic route. However, methanol used for synthesizing PODE can produce water, which causes the loss of active center of catalyst and hydrolysis of PODEn in the production process. Macroporous strong acidic cation exchange resin catalyst was prepared, which has comparative advantages over other common solid acid catalysts in terms of stability and catalytic efficiency for synthesizing PODE. Catalytic reactions were carried out under 353 K, 1 MPa and 3mL·gcat-1·h-1 in a fixed bed reactor. Methanol conversion and PODE3-6 selectivity reached 49.91% and 23.43%, respectively. Catalyst lifetime evaluation showed that resin catalyst retained its catalytic activity for 20 days without significant changes and catalytic activity of completely deactivated resin catalyst can basically return to previous level by simple acid regeneration. The acid exchange capacities of original and deactivated catalyst were 2.5191 and 0.0979 mmol·g-1, respectively, while regenerated catalyst reached 2.0430 mmol·g-1, indicating that the main reason for resin catalyst deactivation is that Brønsted acid sites of original resin catalyst were temporarily replaced by non-hydrogen ion cations. A separation process consisting of extraction and distillation for PODE3-6 product was designed for separation of water and unreacted formaldehyde from reactive mixture and purification of PODE3-6, respectively. The concentration of PODE3-6 in final product can reach up to 97%. These results indicate that the scale-up production of PODE3-6 from methanol and formaldehyde solution is feasible.

Keywords: inactivation, polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, separation process, sulfonic cation exchange resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
537 Structural and Ion Exchange Studies of Terpolymer Resin Derived from 4, 4'-Biphenol-4,4'-Oxydianiline-Formaldehyde

Authors: Pawan P. Kalbende, Anil B. Zade

Abstract:

A novel terpolymer resin has been synthesized by condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4’-biphenol and 4,4’-oxydianiline with formaldehyde in presence of 2M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. Composition of resin was determined on the basis of their elemental analysis and further characterized by UV-Visible, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to confine the most probable structure of synthesized terpolymer. Newly synthesized terpolymer was proved to be a selective chelating ion-exchanger for certain metal ions and were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions using their metal nitrate solutions. A batch equilibrium method was employed to study the selectivity of metal ions uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the terpolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range, shaking time and in media of different electrolytes at different ionic strengths. Distribution ratios of metal ions were found to be increased by rising pH of the solutions. Hence, it can be used to recover certain metal ions from waste water for the purpose of purification of water and removal of iron from boiler water.

Keywords: terpolymers, ion-exchangers, distribution ratio, metal ion uptake

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536 Preconcentration and Determination of Lead Ion in Environmental Samples by Poly Urea-Formaldehyde

Authors: Elham Moniri, Parvane Bozorgniya, Hamidreza Shahbazi

Abstract:

In this research, poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The poly urea-formaldehyde was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Pb(II) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Pb(II) was 5. The sorption capacity of poly urea-formaldehyde for Pb(II) were 40 mg g−1. A Pb(II) removal of 90% was obtained. The profile of Pb(II) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Pb(II) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly urea-formaldehyde, lead Ion, environmental sample, determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
535 Utilization of Low-Cost Adsorbent Fly Ash for the Removal of Phenol from Water

Authors: Ihsanullah, Muataz Ali Atieh

Abstract:

In this study, a low-cost adsorbent carbon fly ash (CFA) was used for the removal of Phenol from the water. The adsorbent characteristics were observed by the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), BET specific surface area analyzer, Zeta Potential and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). The effect of pH, agitation speed, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of phenol were studied on the removal of phenol from the water. The optimum values of these variables for maximum removal of phenol were also determined. Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were successfully applied to describe the experimental data. Results showed that low-cost adsorbent phenol can be successfully applied for the removal of Phenol from the water.

Keywords: phenol, fly ash, adsorption, carbon adsorbents

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
534 Poly Urea-Formaldehyde for Preconcentration and Determination of Cadmium Ion in Environmental Samples

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Samira Tajik, Mohamad Hadi Dehghani, Mostafa Khezri, Elham Moniri

Abstract:

In this research, poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The poly urea-formaldehyde was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Cd (II) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cd(II) was 5.5. The sorption capacity of poly urea-formaldehyde for Cd (II) were 76.3 mg g−1. A Cd (II) removal of 55% was obtained. The profile of Cd (II) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Cd (II) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly urea-formaldehyde, cadmium ion, environmental sample, determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
533 Formaldehyde Degradation from Indoor Air by Encapsulated Microbial Cells

Authors: C. C. Castro, T. Senechal, D. Lahem, A. L. Hantson

Abstract:

Formaldehyde is one of the most representative volatile organic compounds present in the indoor air of residential units and workplaces. Increased attention has been given to this toxic compound because of its carcinogenic effect in health. Biological or enzymatic transformation is being explored to degrade this pollutant. Pseudomonas putida is a bacteria able to synthesize formaldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme known to use formaldehyde as a substrate and transform it into less toxic compounds. The immobilization of bacterial cells in the surface of different supports through spraying or dip-coating is herein proposed. The determination of the enzymatic activity on the coated surfaces was performed as well as the study of its effect on formaldehyde degradation in an isolated chamber. Results show that the incorporation of microbial cells able to synthesize depolluting enzymes can be an innovative, low-cost, effective and environmentally friendly solution for indoor air depollution.

Keywords: cells encapsulation, formaldehyde, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, indoor air depollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
532 Synthesis and Characterization of Thiourea-Formaldehyde Coated Fe3O4 ([email protected]) and Its Application for Adsorption of Methylene Blue

Authors: Saad M. Alshehri, Tansir Ahamad

Abstract:

Thiourea-Formaldehyde Pre-Polymer (TUF) was prepared by the reaction thiourea and formaldehyde in basic medium and used as a coating materials for magnetite Fe3O4. The synthesized polymer coated microspheres ([email protected]) was characterized using FTIR, TGA SEM and TEM. Its BET surface area was up to 1680 m2 g_1. The adsorption capacity of this ACF product was evaluated in its adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) in water under different pH values and different temperature. We found that the adsorption process was well described both by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetic processes of MB adsorption onto [email protected] were described in order to provide a more clear interpretation of the adsorption rate and uptake mechanism. The overall kinetic data was acceptably explained by a pseudo second-order rate model. Evaluated ∆Go and ∆Ho specify the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the reaction. The adsorption takes place with a decrease in entropy (∆So is negative). The monolayer capacity for MB was up to 450 mg g_1 and was one of the highest among similar polymeric products. It was due to its large BET surface area.

Keywords: TGA, FTIR, magentite, thiourea formaldehyde resin, methylene blue, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
531 Engineered Biopolymers as Novel Sustainable Resin Binder for Wood Composites

Authors: Somaieh Salehpour, Douglas Ireland, Chris Anderson, Charles Markessini

Abstract:

Over the last few years, advancements have been made around improving sustainability for wood composite boards. One of the last and most challenging sustainability hurdles is finding a viable alternative to petroleum-based resin binders. In today’s market, no longer is formaldehyde emission control sufficient to meet the requirements of many architects and end-use consumers. Even the use of highly reactive isocyanates is considered by many as not sustainable enough since these chemicals are manufactured from classical fossil fuel sources. The emergence of biopolymers specifically engineered for usage as wood composite binders has been successfully demonstrated in this paper as a viable option towards a truly renewable wood composite board. Recent technology advancements driven by EcoSynthetix and CHIMAR have exploited the advantages of using an engineered biopolymer. The evidence shows that this renewable technology has the potential to be used as a partial up to full replacement of classical formaldehyde technologies. Numerous trials, both in the lab and at industrial scale, have shown that a renewable binder of the proposed technology can produce a commercially viable board in a traditional industrial setting. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide evidence that a sustainable binder alternative can be used to make a commercial board while at the same time improving the total cost of manufacturing.

Keywords: no added formaldehyde, renewable, biopolymers, sustainable wood composites, engineered biopolymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
530 Improving the Dimensional Stability of Medium-Density Fiberboard with Bio-Based Additives

Authors: Reza Hosseinpourpia, Stergios Adamopoulos, Carsten Mai

Abstract:

Medium density fiberboard (MDF) is a common category of wood-based panels that are widely used in the furniture industry. Fine lignocellulosic fibres are combined with a synthetic resin, mostly urea formaldehyde (UF), and joined together under heat and pressure to form panels. Like solid wood, MDF is a hygroscopic material; therefore, its moisture content depends on the surrounding relative humidity and temperature. In addition, UF is a hydrophilic resin and susceptible to hydrolysis under certain conditions of elevated temperatures and humidity, which cause dimensional instability of the panels. The latter directly affect the performance of final products such as furniture, when they are used in situations of high relative humidity. Existing water-repellent formulations, such as paraffin, present limitations related to their non-renewable nature, cost and highest allowed added amount. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the suitability of renewable water repellents as alternative chemicals for enhancing the dimensional stability of MDF panels. A small amount of tall oil based formulations were used as water-repellent agents in the manufacturing of laboratory scale MDF. The effects on dimensional stability, internal bond strength and formaldehyde release of MDF were tested. The results indicated a good potential of tall oil as a bio-based substance of water repellent formulations for improving the dimensional stability of MDF.

Keywords: dimensional stability, medium density fiberboard, tall oil, urea formaldehyde

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
529 Carbon Aerogel Spheres from Resorcinol/Phenol and Formaldehyde for CO₂ Adsorption

Authors: Jessica Carolina Hernandez Galeano, Juan Carlos Moreno Pirajan, Liliana Giraldo

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Carbon gels are materials whose structure and porous texture can be designed and controlled on a nanoscale. Among their characteristics it is found their low density, large surface area and high degree of porosity. These materials are produced by a sol-gel polymerization of organic monomers using basic or acid catalysts, followed by drying and controlled carbonization. In this work, the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels from resorcinol, phenol and formaldehyde in ethanol is described. The aim of this study is obtaining different carbonaceous materials in the form of spheres using the Stöber method to perform a further evaluation of CO₂ adsorption of each material. In general, the synthesis consisted of a sol-gel polymerization process that generates a cluster (cross-linked organic monomers) from the precursors in the presence of NH₃ as a catalyst. This cluster was subjected to specific conditions of gelling and curing (30°C for 24 hours and 100°C for 24 hours, respectively) and CO₂ supercritical drying. Finally, the dry material was subjected to a process of carbonization or pyrolysis, in N₂ atmosphere at 350°C (1° C / min) for 2 h and 600°C (1°C / min) for 4 hours, to obtain porous solids that retain the structure initially desired. For this work, both the concentrations of the precursors and the proportion of ammonia in the medium where modify to describe the effect of the use of phenol and the amount of catalyst in the resulting material. Carbon aerogels were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), N₂ isotherms, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) showing the obtention of carbon spheres in the nanometric scale with BET areas around 500 m2g-1.

Keywords: carbon aerogels, carbon spheres, CO₂ adsorption, Stöber method

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
528 Modification of Polyurethane Adhesive for OSB/EPS Panel Production

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Premysl Sedivka, Petra Gajdacova

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Currently, structural composite materials contain cellulose-based particles (wood chips, fibers) bonded with synthetic adhesives containing formaldehyde (urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde adhesives and others). Formaldehyde is classified as a volatile substance with provable carcinogenic effects on live organisms, and an emphasis has been put on continual reduction of its content in products. One potential solution could be the development of an agglomerated material which does not contain adhesives releasing formaldehyde. A potential alternative to formaldehyde-based adhesives could be polyurethane adhesives containing no formaldehyde. Such adhesives have been increasingly used in applications where a few years ago formaldehyde-based adhesives were the only option. Advantages of polyurethane adhesive in comparison with others in the industry include the high elasticity of the joint, which is able to resist dynamic stress, and resistance to increased humidity and climatic effects. These properties predict polyurethane adhesives to be used in OSB/EPS panel production. The objective of this paper is to develop an adhesive for bonding of sandwich panels made of material based on wood and other materials, e.g. SIP) and optimization of input components in order to obtain an adhesive with required properties suitable for bonding of the given materials without involvement of formaldehyde. It was found that polyurethane recyclate as a filler is suitable modification of polyurethane adhesive and results have clearly revealed that modified adhesive can be used for OSB/EPS panel production.

Keywords: adhesive, polyurethane, recyclate, SIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
527 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: phenol, photocatalytic, solar, titanium dioxide

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526 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

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Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
525 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So

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Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: formaldehyde, indoor air quality, passive panel, removal efficiency, sorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
524 Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution Using Watermelon (Citrullus C. lanatus) Rind

Authors: Fidelis Chigondo

Abstract:

This study focuses on investigating the effectiveness of watermelon rind in phenol removal from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters (pH, initial phenol concentration, biosorbent dosage and contact time) on phenol adsorption were investigated. The pH of 2, initial phenol concentration of 40 ppm, the biosorbent dosage of 0.6 g and contact time of 6 h also deduced to be the optimum conditions for the adsorption process. The maximum phenol removal under optimized conditions was 85%. The sorption data fitted to the Freundlich isotherm with a regression coefficient of 0.9824. The kinetics was best described by the intraparticle diffusion model and Elovich Equation with regression coefficients of 1 and 0.8461 respectively showing that the reaction is chemisorption on a heterogeneous surface and the intraparticle diffusion rate only is the rate determining step. The study revealed that watermelon rind has a potential of removing phenol from industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: biosorption, phenol, biosorbent, watermelon rind

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
523 Fabrication of Eco-Friendly Pigment Printed Textiles by Reducing Formaldehyde Content

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Raja Fahad Qureshi, Farooq Ahmed, Rabia Almas, Tahir Jameel

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This research aimed to decrease formaldehyde content in substrates printed by pigments using different fixation temperature and concentration of urea in order to produce eco-friendly textiles. Substrates were printed by hand screen printing method as per recipe followed by drying and curing. Standard test methods were adapted to measure formaldehyde content washing and rubbing fastness. Formaldehyde content is instantaneously decreased by raising the temperature during curing printed fabric. Good results of both dry and wet rubbing fastness were found at 160˚C slightly improved dry rubbing results are achieved with 2% urea at a curing temperature of 150˚C.

Keywords: formaldehyde content, pigment printing, urea, washing fastness, rubbing fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
522 Adsorption of Phenol and 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid onto Functional Materials

Authors: Mourad Makhlouf, Omar Bouchher, Messabih Sidi Mohamed, Benrachedi Khaled

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The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of two organic pollutants; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and phenol from synthetic wastewater by the adsorption on mesoporous materials. In this context, the aim of this work is to study the adsorption of organic compounds phenol and 4AHB on MCM-41 and FSM-16 non-grafted (NG) and other grafted (G) by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The results of phenol and 4AHB adsorption in aqueous solution show that the adsorption capacity tends to increase after grafting in relation to the increase in hydrophobicity. The materials are distinguished by a higher adsorption capacity to the other NG materials. The difference in the phenol is 14.43% (MCM-41), 14.55% (FSM-16), and 16.72% (MCM-41), 13.57% (FSM-16) in the 4AHB. Our adsorption results show that the grafted materials by TMCS are good adsorbent at 25 °C.

Keywords: MCM-41, FSM-16, TMCS, phenol, 4AHB

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521 Producing and Mechanical Testing of Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Foams Reinforced by Waste Phosphogypsum

Authors: Krasimira Georgieva, Yordan Denev

Abstract:

Many of thermosetting resins have application only in filled state, reinforced with different mineral fillers. The co-filling of polymers with mineral filler and gases creates a possibility for production of polymer composites materials with low density. This processing leads to forming of new materials – gas-filled plastics (polymer foams). The properties of these materials are determined mainly by the shape and size of internal structural elements (pores). The interactions on the phase boundaries have influence on the materials properties too. In the present work, the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins were reinforced by waste phosphogypsum. The waste phosphogypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a solid by-product in wet phosphoric acid production processes. The values of the interactions polymer-filler were increased by using two modifying agents: polyvinyl acetate for polymer matrix and sodium metasilicate for filler. Technological methods for gas-filling and recipes of urea-formaldehyde based materials with apparent density 20-120 kg/m3 were developed. The heat conductivity of the samples is between 0.024 and 0.029 W/moK. Tensile analyses were carried out at 10 and 50% deformation and show values 0.01-0.14 MPa and 0.01-0.09 MPa, respectively. The apparent density of obtained materials is between 20 and 92 kg/m3. The changes in the tensile properties and density of these materials according to sodium metasilicate content were studied too. The mechanism of phosphogypsum adsorption modification was studied using methods of FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure of the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins was described by results of electron scanning microscopy at three different magnification ratios – x50, x150 and x 500. The aim of present work is to study the possibility of the usage of phosphogypsum as mineral filler for urea-formaldehyde resins and development of a technology for the production of gas-filled reinforced polymer composite materials. The structure and the properties of obtained composite materials are suitable for thermal and sound insulation applications.

Keywords: urea formaldehyde resins, gas-filled thermostes, phosphogypsum, mechanical properties

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520 Elaboration and Investigation of the New Ecologically Clean Friction Composite Materials on the Basis of Nanoporous Raw Materials

Authors: Lia Gventsadze, Elguja Kutelia, David Gventsadze

Abstract:

The purpose of the article is to show the possibility for the development of a new generation, eco-friendly (asbestos free) nano-porous friction materials on the basis of Georgian raw materials, along with the determination of technological parameters for their production, as well as the optimization of tribological properties and the investigation of structural aspects of wear peculiarities of elaborated materials using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) methods. The study investigated the tribological properties of the polymer friction materials on the basis of the phenol-formaldehyde resin using the porous diatomite filler modified by silane with the aim to improve the thermal stability, while the composition was modified by iron phosphate, technical carbon and basalt fibre. As a result of testing the stable values of friction factor (0.3-0,45) were reached, both in dry and wet friction conditions, the friction working parameters (friction factor and wear stability) remained stable up to 500 OC temperatures, the wear stability of gray cast-iron disk increased 3-4 times, the soundless operation of materials without squeaking were achieved. Herewith it was proved that small amount of ingredients (5-6) are enough to compose the nano-porous friction materials. The study explains the mechanism of the action of nano-porous composition base brake lining materials and its tribological efficiency on the basis of the triple phase model of the tribo-pair.

Keywords: brake lining, friction coefficient, wear, nanoporous composite, phenolic resin

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519 Synthesis of Ion Imprinted Polymer for Removal of Chromium(III) Ion in Environmental Samples

Authors: Elham Moniri, Zohre Moradi

Abstract:

In this study, ion imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The morphology imprinted polymer was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Then, the effects of various parameters on Cr(III) sorption such as pH, contact time were investigated. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cr(III) was 6. The sorption capacity of imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde for Cr(III) were 4 mg.g−1. A Cr(III) removal of 97-98% was obtained. The profile of Cr(III) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Cr(III) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: chromium ion, environmental sample, elimination, imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde, polymeric sorbent

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518 Preparation of Fe, Cr Codoped TiO2 Nanostructure for Phenol Removal from Wastewaters

Authors: N. Nowzari-Dalini, S. Sabbaghi

Abstract:

Phenol is a hazardous material found in many industrial wastewaters. Photocatalytic degradation and furthermore catalyst doping are promising techniques in purpose of effective phenol removal, which have been studied comprehensively in this decade. In this study, Fe, Cr codoped TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method, and its photocatalytic activity was investigated through degradation of phenol under visible light. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, BET, and EDX. The results showed that nanoparticles possess anatase phase, and the average size of nanoparticles was about 21 nm. Also, photocatalyst has significant surface area. Effect of experimental parameters such as pH, irradiation time, pollutant concentration, and catalyst concentration were investigated by using Design-Expert® software. 98% of phenol degradation was achieved after 6h of irradiation.

Keywords: doping, metals, sol-gel, titanium dioxide, wastewater

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517 Removal of Na₂SO₄ by Electro-Confinement on Nanoporous Carbon Membrane

Authors: Jing Ma, Guotong Qin

Abstract:

We reported electro-confinement desalination (ECMD), a desalination method combining electric field effects and confinement effects using nanoporous carbon membranes as electrode. A carbon membrane with average pore size of 8.3 nm was prepared by organic sol-gel method. The precursor of support was prepared by curing porous phenol resin tube. Resorcinol-formaldehyde sol was coated on porous tubular resin support. The membrane was obtained by carbonisation of coated support. A well-combined top layer with the thickness of 35 μm was supported by macroporous support. Measurements of molecular weight cut-off using polyethylene glycol showed the average pore size of 8.3 nm. High salt rejection can be achieved because the water molecules need not overcome high energy barriers in confined space, while huge inherent dehydration energy was required for hydrated ions to enter the nanochannels. Additionally, carbon membrane with additional electric field can be used as an integrated membrane electrode combining the effects of confinement and electric potential gradient. Such membrane electrode can repel co-ions and attract counter-ions using pressure as the driving force for mass transport. When the carbon membrane was set as cathode, the rejection of SO₄²⁻ was 94.89%, while the removal of Na⁺ was less than 20%. We set carbon membrane as anode chamber to treat the effluent water from the cathode chamber. The rejection of SO₄²⁻ and Na⁺ reached to 100% and 88.86%, respectively. ECMD will be a promising energy efficient method for salt rejection.

Keywords: nanoporous carbon membrane, confined effect, electric field, desalination, membrane reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 54