Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1941

Search results for: conducting polymer

1941 Electrospun Conducting Polymer/Graphene Composite Nanofibers for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors: Aliaa M. S. Salem, Soliman I. El-Hout, Amira Gaber, Hassan Nageh


Nowadays, the development of poisonous gas detectors is considered to be an urgent matter to secure human health and the environment from poisonous gases, in view of the fact that even a minimal amount of poisonous gas can be fatal. Of these concerns, various inorganic or organic sensing materials have been used. Among these are conducting polymers, have been used as the active material in the gassensorsdue to their low-cost,easy-controllable molding, good electrochemical properties including facile fabrication process, inherent physical properties, biocompatibility, and optical properties. Moreover, conducting polymer-based chemical sensors have an amazing advantage compared to the conventional one as structural diversity, facile functionalization, room temperature operation, and easy fabrication. However, the low selectivity and conductivity of conducting polymers motivated the doping of it with varied materials, especially graphene, to enhance the gas-sensing performance under ambient conditions. There were a number of approaches proposed for producing polymer/ graphene nanocomposites, including template-free self-assembly, hard physical template-guided synthesis, chemical, electrochemical, and electrospinning...etc. In this work, we aim to prepare a novel gas sensordepending on Electrospun nanofibers of conducting polymer/RGO composite that is the effective and efficient expectation of poisonous gases like ammonia, in different application areas such as environmental gas analysis, chemical-,automotive- and medical industries. Moreover, our ultimate objective is to maximize the sensing performance of the prepared sensor and to check its recovery properties.

Keywords: electro spinning process, conducting polymer, polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, functionalized reduced graphene oxide, spin coating technique, gas sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
1940 Polymer Nanostructures Based Catalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

Authors: S. Ghosh, L. Ramos, A. N. Kouamé, A.-L. Teillout, H. Remita


Catalytic materials have attracted continuous attention due to their promising applications in a variety of energy and environmental applications including clean energy, energy conversion and storage, purification and separation, degradation of pollutants and electrochemical reactions etc. With the advanced synthetic technologies, polymer nanostructures and nanocomposites can be directly synthesized through soft template mediated approach using swollen hexagonal mesophases and modulate the size, morphology, and structure of polymer nanostructures. As an alternative to conventional catalytic materials, one-dimensional PDPB polymer nanostructures shows high photocatalytic activity under visible light for the degradation of pollutants. These photocatalysts are very stable with cycling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and AFM-IR characterizations reveal that the morphology and structure of the polymer nanostructures do not change after photocatalysis. These stable and cheap polymer nanofibers and metal polymer nanocomposites are easy to process and can be reused without appreciable loss of activity. The polymer nanocomposites formed via one pot chemical redox reaction with 3.4 nm Pd nanoparticles on poly(diphenylbutadiyne) (PDPB) nanofibers (30 nm). The reduction of Pd (II) ions is accompanied by oxidative polymerization leading to composites materials. Hybrid Pd/PDPB nanocomposites used as electrode materials for the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol without using support of proton exchange Nafion membrane. Hence, these conducting polymer nanofibers and nanocomposites offer the perspective of developing a new generation of efficient photocatalysts for environmental protection and in electrocatalysis for fuel cell applications.

Keywords: conducting polymer, swollen hexagonal mesophases, solar photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, water depollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1939 Preparation, Characterisation and Electrical Properties of Metal/polymer-DNA Nanohybrids

Authors: Mahdi Almaky


Conducting polymer of N-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-propyl)-2,2`-bipyridinium hexafluoro-phosphate (PPBH) was prepared via chemical and electrochemical polymerization methods. The bulk polymer showed conductivity in the order of 10-12 S cm-1. DNA-templated polymer nano wires of PPBH (PolyPPBH-DNA) have been chemically prepared then used as templates to direct the formation of metal nanowires (Cu) in order to enhance the electrical properties of the polymer/DNA wires. The chemical structures, morphology and the electrical characterisation of the as obtained structures have been characterized through spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis and XPS), single-crystal X-ray diffraction and microscopic (AFM, EFM and c-AFM) techniques. The morphology of the nanomaterials has been observed by AFM; showing the nanowires are uniform and continuous. The polymer conductivity was slightly improved after metallization. The conductivity of Cu-PolyPPBH-DNA nanowires was estimated to be 7.1x10-2 S cm-1. This conductivity is slightly higher than the conductivity of PolyPPBH-DNA nano wires (2.0 x 10-2 S cm-1), but it is lower than the measurements for PPy/DNA nano wires (2.1 x 10-1 S cm-1) prepared and measured by using c-AFM probe. These results reflect the large effect of the chemical structure (N-substitution) on the electrical properties of these polymers by reducing the extended conjugation.

Keywords: DNA, template, nano wires, N-Alkylatedpyrrole, copper

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
1938 Elaboration of Polymethylene Blue on Conducting Glassy Substrate and Study of Its Optical, Electrical and Photoelectrochemical Characterization

Authors: Abdi Djamila, Haffar Hichem


The poly methylene bleu (PMB) has been successfully electro deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass as substrate. Its optical, electrical and photoelectrochemical characterizations have been carried out in order to show the performances of such polymer. The deposited film shows a good electric conductivity which is well confirmed by the low gap value determinated optically by UV–vis spectroscopy. Like all polymers the PMB presents an absorption difference in the visible range function of the polarization potential, it is expressed by the strong conjugation at oxidized state but is weakened with leucoform formation at reduced state. The electrochemical analysis of the films permit to show the cyclic voltamperogram with the anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction states of the polymer and to locate the corresponding energy levels HOMO and LUMO of this later. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy permit to see the conductive character of such film and to calculate important parameters as Rtc and CPE. The study of the photoelectro activity of our polymer shows that under exposure to intermittent light source this later exhibit important photocurrents which enables it to be used in photo organic ells.

Keywords: polymethylene blue, electropolymerization, homo-lumo, photocurrents

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1937 Electrophoretic Deposition of Ultrasonically Synthesized Nanostructured Conducting Poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Co-Poly(1-naphthylamine) Film for Detection of Glucose

Authors: Vaibhav Budhiraja, Chandra Mouli Pandey


The ultrasonic synthesis of nanostructured conducting copolymer is an effective technique to synthesize polymer with desired chemical properties. This tailored nanostructure, shows tremendous improvement in sensitivity and stability to detect a variety of analytes. The present work reports ultrasonically synthesized nanostructured conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine)-co-poly(1-naphthylamine) (POPD-co-PNA). The synthesized material has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed random copolymerization, while UV-visible studies reveal the variation in polaronic states upon copolymerization. High crystallinity was achieved via ultrasonic synthesis which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the controlled morphology of the nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry shows that POPD-co-PNA has rather high electrochemical activity. This behavior was explained on the basis of variable orientations adopted by the conducting polymer chains. The synthesized material was electrophoretically deposited at onto indium tin oxide coated glass substrate which is used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. The fabricated bioelectrode was further used for detection of glucose by crosslinking of glucose oxidase in the PODP-co-PNA film. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (α) of 0.72, charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 21.77 s⁻¹ and diffusion coefficient 7.354 × 10⁻¹⁵ cm²s⁻¹.

Keywords: conducting, electrophoretic, glucose, poly (o-phenylenediamine), poly (1-naphthylamine), ultrasonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1936 Value Chain Network: A Social Network Analysis of the Value Chain Actors of Recycled Polymer Products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Olamide Shittu, Olayinka Akanle


Value Chain Analysis is a common method of examining the stages involved in the production of a product, mostly agricultural produce, from the input to the consumption stage including the actors involved in each stage. However, the Functional Institutional Analysis is the most common method in literature employed to analyze the value chain of products. Apart from studying the relatively neglected phenomenon of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, this paper adopted the use of social network analysis to attempt a grounded theory of the nature of social network that exists among the value chain actors of the subject matter. The study adopted a grounded theory approach by conducting in-depth interviews, administering questionnaires and conducting observations among the identified value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The thematic analysis of the collected data gave the researchers the needed background to formulate a truly representative network of the social relationships among the value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis. The paper introduced concepts such as Transient and Perennial Social Ties to explain the observed social relations among the actors. Some actors have more social capital than others as a result of the structural holes that exist in their triad network. Households and resource recoverers are at disadvantaged position in the network as they have high constraints in their relationships with other actors. The study attempted to provide a new perspective in the study of the environmental value chain by analyzing the network of actors to bring about policy action points and improve recycling in Nigeria. Government and social entrepreneurs can exploit the structural holes that exist in the network for the socio-economic and sustainable development of the state.

Keywords: recycled polymer products, social network analysis, social ties, value chain analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
1935 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1934 Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Pyrrole-Based Polymer and Electric and Magnetic Performance of Their Composites

Authors: Miroslav Mrlik, Marketa Ilcikova, Martin Cvek, Josef Osicka, Michal Sedlacik, Vladimir Pavlinek, Jaroslav Mosnacek


Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a unique type of materials consisting of two components, magnetic filler, and elastomeric matrix. Their properties can be tailored upon application of an external magnetic field strength. In this case, the change of the viscoelastic properties (viscoelastic moduli, complex viscosity) are influenced by two crucial factors. The first one is magnetic performance of the particles and the second one is off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. The former factor strongly depends on the intended applications; however general rule is that higher magnetic performance of the particles provides higher MR performance of the MRE. Since magnetic particles possess low stability properties against temperature and acidic environment, several methods how to improve these drawbacks have been developed. In the most cases, the preparation of the core-shell structures was employed as a suitable method for preservation of the magnetic particles against thermal and chemical oxidations. However, if the shell material is not single-layer substance, but polymer material, the magnetic performance is significantly suppressed, due to the in situ polymerization technique, when it is very difficult to control the polymerization rate and the polymer shell is too thick. The second factor is the off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. Since the MR effectivity is calculated as the relative value of the elastic modulus upon magnetic field application divided by elastic modulus in the absence of the external field, also the tuneability of the cross-linking reaction is highly desired. Therefore, this study is focused on the controllable modification of magnetic particles using a novel monomeric system based on 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethyl methacrylate. In this case, the short polymer chains of different chain lengths and low polydispersity index will be prepared, and thus tailorable stability properties can be achieved. Since the relatively thin polymer chains will be grafted on the surface of magnetic particles, their magnetic performance will be affected only slightly. Furthermore, also the cross-linking density will be affected, due to the presence of the short polymer chains. From the application point of view, such MREs can be utilized for, magneto-resistors, piezoresistors or pressure sensors especially, when the conducting shell on the magnetic particles will be created. Therefore, the selection of the pyrrole-based monomer is very crucial and controllably thin layer of conducting polymer can be prepared. Finally, such composite particle consisting of magnetic core and conducting shell dispersed in elastomeric matrix can find also the utilization in shielding application of electromagnetic waves.

Keywords: atom transfer radical polymerization, core-shell, particle modification, electromagnetic waves shielding

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
1933 Effect of Gel Concentration on Physical Properties of an Electrochromic Device

Authors: Sharan K. Indrakar, Aakash B. Prasad, Arash Takshi, Sesha Srinivasan, Elias K. Stefanakos


In this work, we present an exclusive study on the effect of the feeding ratio of polyaniline-based redox-active gel layer on electrical and optical properties of innovative electrochromic devices (ECs). An electrochromic device consisting of polyaniline (PANI) has a redox-active gel electrolyte placed between two conducting transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates. The redox-active composite gel is a mixture of different concentrations of aniline (monomer), a water-soluble polymer poly (vinyl alcohol), hydrochloric acid, and an oxidant. The EC device shows the color change from dark green to transparent for the applied potential between -0.5 V to +2.0 V. The coloration and decoloration of the ECs were tested for electrochemical behavior using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The optical transparency of the EC devices was examined at two different biasing voltage conditions under UV-visible spectroscopic technique; the result showed 65% transmittance at 564 nm and zero transmittance when the cell was biased at 0.0 V and 2.0 V, the synthesized mol fraction gel was analyzed for surface morphology and structural properties by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformer spectroscopy.

Keywords: electrochromic, gel electrolyte, polyaniline, conducting polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
1932 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray


Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
1931 A Study on Reinforced Concrete Beams Enlarged with Polymer Mortar and UHPFRC

Authors: Ga Ye Kim, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin


Many studies have been done on the repair and strengthening method of concrete structure, so far. The traditional retrofit method was to attach fiber sheet such as CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer), GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) and AFRP (Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer) on the concrete structure. However, this method had many downsides in that there are a risk of debonding and an increase in displacement by a shortage of structure section. Therefore, it is effective way to enlarge the structural member with polymer mortar or Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) as a means of strengthening concrete structure. This paper intends to investigate structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams enlarged with polymer mortar and compare the experimental results with analytical results. Nonlinear finite element analyses were conducted to compare the experimental results and predict structural behavior of retrofitted RC beams accurately without cost consuming experimental process. In addition, this study aims at comparing differences of retrofit material between commonly used material (polymer mortar) and recently used material (UHPFRC) by conducting nonlinear finite element analyses. In the first part of this paper, the RC beams having different cover type were fabricated for the experiment and the size of RC beams was 250 millimeters in depth, 150 millimeters in width and 2800 millimeters in length. To verify the experiment, nonlinear finite element models were generated using commercial software ABAQUS 6.10-3. From this study, both experimental and analytical results demonstrated good strengthening effect on RC beam and showed similar tendency. For the future, the proposed analytical method can be used to predict the effect of strengthened RC beam. In the second part of the study, the main parameters were type of retrofit materials. The same nonlinear finite element models were generated to compare the polymer mortar with UHPFRCC. Two types of retrofit material were evaluated and retrofit effect was verified by analytical results.

Keywords: retrofit material, polymer mortar, UHPFRC, nonlinear finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1930 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1929 Development of New Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Interfaces Based on ITO Au NPs/ Polymer for Nickel Detection

Authors: F. Z. Tighilt, N. Belhaneche-Bensemra, S. Belhousse, S. Sam, K. Lasmi, N. Gabouze


Recently, the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) became an active multidisciplinary research topic. First, Au thin films fabricated by alkylthiol-functionalized Au NPs were found to have vapor sensitive conductivities, they were hence widely investigated as electrical chemiresistors for sensing different vapor analytes and even organic molecules in aqueous solutions. Second, Au thin films were demonstrated to have speciallocalized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), so that highly ordered 2D Au superlattices showed strong collective LSPR bands due to the near-field coupling of adjacent nanoparticles and were employed to detect biomolecular binding. Particularly when alkylthiol ligands were replaced by thiol-terminated polymers, the resulting polymer-modified Au NPs could be readily assembled into 2D nanostructures on solid substrates. Monolayers of polystyrene-coated Au NPs showed typical dipolar near-field interparticle plasmon coupling of LSPR. Such polymer-modified Au nanoparticle films have an advantage that the polymer thickness can be feasibly controlled by changing the polymer molecular weight. In this article, the effect of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coatings on the plasmonic properties of ITO interfaces modified with gold nanostructures (Au NSs) is investigated. The interest in developing ITO overlayers is multiple. The presence of a con-ducting ITO overlayer creates a LSPR-active interface, which can serve simultaneously as a working electrode in an electro-chemical setup. The surface of ITO/ Au NPs contains hydroxyl groups that can be used to link functional groups to the interface. Here the covalent linking of nickel /Au NSs/ITO hybrid LSPR platforms will be presented.

Keywords: conducting polymer, metal nanoparticles (NPs), LSPR, poly (3-(pyrrolyl)–carboxylic acid), polypyrrole

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1928 Single Ion Conductors for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Seyda Tugba Gunday Anil, Ayhan Bozkurt


Next generation lithium batteries are taking more attention and single-ion polymer electrolytes are expected to play a significant role in the development of these kinds of energy storage systems. In the present work we used a different strategy to design of novel solid single-ion conducting inorganic polymer electrolytes based on lithium polyvinyl alcohol oxalate borate (Li(PVAOB), lithium polyacrylic acid oxalate borate (LiPAAOB) and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). Free radical polymerization was used to convert PEGMA into PPEGMA and LiPAAOB is prepared from poly (acrylic acid), oxalic acid and boric acid. Blend polymer electrolytes were produced by mixing of LiPAAOB or Li (PVAOB with PPEGMA at different stoichiometric ratios to enhance the single ion conductivity of the systems. To exploit the flexible chemistry and increase the segmental mobility of the blend electrolyte, the composition was changed up to 80% with respect to the guest polymer, PPEGMA. FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter techniques confirmed the interaction between the host and guest polymers. TGA verified that the thermal stability of the blends increased up to approximately 200 C. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the homogeneity of the blend electrolytes. CV studies showed that electrochemical stability electrochemical stability window is approximately 5 V versus Li/Li⁺. The effect of PPEGMA on to the Lithium-ion conductivity was investigated using dielectric impedance analyzer. The maximum single ion conductivity was measured as 1.3 × 10⁻⁴ S/cm at 100 C for the sample LiPAAOB-80PPEGMA. Clearly, the results confirmed the positive effect to the increment in ionic conductivity of the blend electrolytes with the addition of PPEGMA.

Keywords: single-ion conductor, inorganic polymer, blends, polymer electrolyte

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1927 Elaboration and Characterization of MEH-PPV/PCBM Composite Film Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Wided Zerguine, Farid Habelhames


The performance of photovoltaic devices with a light absorber consisting of a single-type conjugated polymer is poor, due to a low photo-generation yield of charge carriers, strong radiative recombination’s and low mobility of charge carriers. Recently, it has been shown that ultra-fast photoinduced charge transfer can also occur between a conjugated polymer and a metal oxide semiconductor such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO, Nb2O5, etc. This has led to the fabrication of photovoltaic devices based on composites of oxide semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a conjugated polymer matrix. In this work, Poly [2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (n-type) were dissolved, mixed and deposited by physical methods (spin-coating) on indium tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. The incorporation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles changed the morphology and increased the roughness of polymers film (MEH-PPV/PCBM), and the photocurrent density of the composite (MEH-PPV/PCBM +n-TiO2) was higher than that of single MEHPPV/ PCBM film. The study showed that the presence of n-TiO2 particles in the polymeric film improves the photoelectrochemical properties of MEH-PPV/PCBM composite.

Keywords: photocurrent density, organic nanostructures, hybrid coating, conducting polymer, titanium dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1926 Effects of Polymer Adsorption and Desorption on Polymer Flooding in Waterflooded Reservoir

Authors: Sukruthai Sapniwat, Falan Srisuriyachai


Polymer Flooding is one of the most well-known methods in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology which can be implemented after either primary or secondary recovery, resulting in favorable conditions for the displacement mechanism in order to lower the residual oil in the reservoir. Polymer substances can lower the mobility ratio of the whole process by increasing the viscosity of injected water. Therefore, polymer flooding can increase volumetric sweep efficiency, which leads to a better recovery factor. Moreover, polymer adsorption onto rock surface can help decrease reservoir permeability contrast with high heterogeneity. Due to the reduction of the absolute permeability, effective permeability to water, representing flow ability of the injected fluid, is also reduced. Once polymer is adsorbed onto rock surface, polymer molecule can be desorbed when different fluids are injected. This study is performed to evaluate the effects of the adsorption and desorption process of polymer solutions to yield benefits on the oil recovery mechanism. A reservoir model is constructed by reservoir simulation program called STAR® commercialized by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Various polymer concentrations, starting times of polymer flooding process and polymer injection rates were evaluated with selected values of polymer desorption degrees including 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The higher the value, the more adsorbed polymer molecules to return back to flowing fluid. According to the results, polymer desorption lowers polymer consumption, especially at low concentrations. Furthermore, starting time of polymer flooding and injection rate affect the oil production. The results show that waterflooding followed by earlier polymer flooding can increase the oil recovery factor while the higher injection rate also enhances the recovery. Polymer concentration is related to polymer consumption due to the two main benefits of polymer flooding control described above. Therefore, polymer slug size should be optimized based on polymer concentration. Polymer desorption causes polymer re-employment that is previously adsorbed onto rock surface, resulting in an increase of sweep efficiency in the further period of polymer flooding process. Even though waterflooding supports polymer injectivity, water cut at the producer can prematurely terminate the oil production. The injection rate decreases polymer adsorption due to decreased retention time of polymer flooding process.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery technology, polymer adsorption and desorption, polymer flooding, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1925 Carbon Nanofibers Reinforced P(VdF-HFP) Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Anjan Sil, Rajni Sharma, Subrata Ray


The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in the present work are 5-50 µm and 200-600 nm, respectively. The nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, CNFs, ionic conductivity, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1924 Electromechanical Behaviour of Chitosan Based Electroactive Polymer

Authors: M. Sarikanat, E. Akar, I. Şen, Y. Seki, O. C. Yılmaz, B. O. Gürses, L. Cetin, O. Özdemir, K. Sever


Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, polyelectrolyte, cheap polymer. In this study, chitosan based electroactive polymer (CBEAP) was fabricated. Electroactive properties of this polymer were investigated at different voltages. It exhibited excellent tip displacement at low voltages (1, 3, 5, 7 V). Tip displacement was increased as the applied voltage increased. Best tip displacement was investigated as 28 mm at 5V. Characterization of CBEAP was investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. CBEAP exhibited desired electroactive properties at low voltages. It is suitable for using in artificial muscle and various robotic applications.

Keywords: chitosan, electroactive polymer, electroactive properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
1923 Preparation of Conductive Composite Fiber by the Reduction of Silver Particles onto Hydrolyzed Polyacrylonitrile Fiber

Authors: Z. Okay, M. Kalkan Erdoğan, M. Şahin, M. Saçak


Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is one of the most common and cheap fiber-forming polymers because of its high strength and high abrasion resistance properties. The result of alkaline hydrolysis of PAN fiber could be formed the products with conjugated sequences of –C=N–, acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and amidine. In this study, PAN fiber was hydrolyzed in a solution of sodium hydroxide, and this hydrolyzed PAN (HPAN) fiber was used to prepare conductive composite fiber by silver particles. The electrically conductive PAN fiber has the usage potential to produce variety of materials such as antistatic materials, life jackets and static charge reducing products. We monitored the change in the weight loss values of the PAN fiber with hydrolysis time. It was observed that a 60 % of weight loss was obtained in the fiber weight after 7h hydrolysis under the investigated conditions, but the fiber lost its fibrous structure. The hydrolysis time of 5h was found to be suitable in terms of preserving its fibrous structure. The change in the conductivity values of the composite with the preparation conditions such as hydrolysis time, silver ion concentration was studied. PAN fibers with different degrees of hydrolysis were treated with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of silver ions by continuous stirring at 20 oC for 30 min, and the composite having the maximum conductivity of 2 S/cm could be prepared. The antibacterial property of the conductive HPAN fibers participated silver was also investigated. While the hydrolysis of the PAN fiber was characterized with FTIR and SEM techniques, the silver reduction process of the HPAN fiber was investigated with SEM and TGA-DTA techniques. The SEM micrographs showed that the surface of HPAN fiber was rougher and much more corroded than that of the PAN fiber. Composite, Conducting polymer, Fiber, Polyacrylonitrile.

Keywords: composite, conducting polymer, fiber, polyacrylonitrile

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
1922 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan


Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

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1921 Polymeric Composites with Synergetic Carbon and Layered Metallic Compounds for Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Anukul K. Thakur, Ram Bilash Choudhary, Mandira Majumder


In this technologically driven world, it is requisite to develop better, faster and smaller electronic devices for various applications to keep pace with fast developing modern life. In addition, it is also required to develop sustainable and clean sources of energy in this era where the environment is being threatened by pollution and its severe consequences. Supercapacitor has gained tremendous attention in the recent years because of its various attractive properties such as it is essentially maintenance-free, high specific power, high power density, excellent pulse charge/discharge characteristics, exhibiting a long cycle-life, require a very simple charging circuit and safe operation. Binary and ternary composites of conducting polymers with carbon and other layered transition metal dichalcogenides have shown tremendous progress in the last few decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymer, these days conducting polymers have gained more attention because of their high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short length for the ion transport and superior electrochemical activity. These properties make them very suitable for several energy storage applications. On the other hand, carbon materials have also been studied intensively, owing to its rich specific surface area, very light weight, excellent chemical-mechanical property and a wide range of the operating temperature. These have been extensively employed in the fabrication of carbon-based energy storage devices and also as an electrode material in supercapacitors. Incorporation of carbon materials into the polymers increases the electrical conductivity of the polymeric composite so formed due to high electrical conductivity, high surface area and interconnectivity of the carbon. Further, polymeric composites based on layered transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are also considered important because they are thin indirect band gap semiconductors with a band gap around 1.2 to 1.9eV. Amongst the various 2D materials, MoS2 has received much attention because of its unique structure consisting of a graphene-like hexagonal arrangement of Mo and S atoms stacked layer by layer to give S-Mo-S sandwiches with weak Van-der-Waal forces between them. It shows higher intrinsic fast ionic conductivity than oxides and higher theoretical capacitance than the graphite.

Keywords: supercapacitor, layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, conducting polymer, ternary, carbon

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1920 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Study of Urethanized Poly Vinyl Alcohol Metal Complexes

Authors: Maha A. Younus, Dhefaf H. Badri, Maha A. Al Abayaji, Taha M. Salih


Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol and Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Co (III) were prepared from the reaction of PVA with three different percentages of urea. The compound was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Analysis. It has been established that the polymer and its metal complexes showed good activities against nine pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonae, Staphylococcusaureus, Staphylococcus Albus, Salmonella Typhoid, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Shigella Dysentery, Proteus Morgani, Brucella Militensis). The polymer metal complexes show activity higher than that of the free polymer. The increasing activities were in the order (polymer < pol-Mn< pol-Co < pol-Ni ˂ pol-Cu). The ability of these compounds to show antimicrobial properties suggests that they can be further evaluated for medicinal and/or environmental applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PVA, polymer-metal complex, urea

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1919 Evaluation of Sequential Polymer Flooding in Multi-Layered Heterogeneous Reservoir

Authors: Panupong Lohrattanarungrot, Falan Srisuriyachai


Polymer flooding is a well-known technique used for controlling mobility ratio in heterogeneous reservoirs, leading to improvement of sweep efficiency as well as wellbore profile. However, low injectivity of viscous polymer solution attenuates oil recovery rate and consecutively adds extra operating cost. An attempt of this study is to improve injectivity of polymer solution while maintaining recovery factor, enhancing effectiveness of polymer flooding method. This study is performed by using reservoir simulation program to modify conventional single polymer slug into sequential polymer flooding, emphasizing on increasing of injectivity and also reduction of polymer amount. Selection of operating conditions for single slug polymer including pre-injected water, polymer concentration and polymer slug size is firstly performed for a layered-heterogeneous reservoir with Lorenz coefficient (Lk) of 0.32. A selected single slug polymer flooding scheme is modified into sequential polymer flooding with reduction of polymer concentration in two different modes: Constant polymer mass and reduction of polymer mass. Effects of Residual Resistance Factor (RRF) is also evaluated. From simulation results, it is observed that first polymer slug with the highest concentration has the main function to buffer between displacing phase and reservoir oil. Moreover, part of polymer from this slug is also sacrificed for adsorption. Reduction of polymer concentration in the following slug prevents bypassing due to unfavorable mobility ratio. At the same time, following slugs with lower viscosity can be injected easily through formation, improving injectivity of the whole process. A sequential polymer flooding with reduction of polymer mass shows great benefit by reducing total production time and amount of polymer consumed up to 10% without any downside effect. The only advantage of using constant polymer mass is slightly increment of recovery factor (up to 1.4%) while total production time is almost the same. Increasing of residual resistance factor of polymer solution yields a benefit on mobility control by reducing effective permeability to water. Nevertheless, higher adsorption results in low injectivity, extending total production time. Modifying single polymer slug into sequence of reduced polymer concentration yields major benefits on reducing production time as well as polymer mass. With certain design of polymer flooding scheme, recovery factor can even be further increased. This study shows that application of sequential polymer flooding can be certainly applied to reservoir with high value of heterogeneity since it requires nothing complex for real implementation but just a proper design of polymer slug size and concentration.

Keywords: polymer flooding, sequential, heterogeneous reservoir, residual resistance factor

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1918 Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Coated Non-Conducting Cellulosic Substrate and Modified by Copper Oxide

Authors: A. Hamam, D. Oukil, A. Dib, L. Makhloufi


The aim of this work is to synthesize modified Polypyrrole films (PPy) containing nanoparticles of copper oxides onto a non conducting cellulosic substrate. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is carried out using FeCl3 as an oxidant and Pyrrole as monomer. Different parameters were optimized (monomer concentration, duration of the experiment, nature of supporting electrolyte, temperature, etc.) in order to obtain films with different thickness and different morphologies. Thickness and topography of different PPy deposits were estimated by a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide nanonoparticles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from CuCl2 solution. Surface characterization has been carried out using scanning microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis showed the presence of the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm.

Keywords: polypyrrole, modified electrode, cellulosic substrate, copper oxide

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1917 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: Sy-Wei Lo, Chi-Heng Yu


A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/µm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/µm at bearing elevation 9.5 µm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: aerostatic, bearing, polymer, static stiffness

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1916 Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as a New Adsorbent for the Removal of Pyridine from Organic Medium

Authors: Opeyemi Elujulo, Aderonke Okoya, Kehinde Awokoya


Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for the adsorption of pyridine (PYD) was obtained from PYD (the template), styrene (the functional monomer), divinyl benzene (the crosslinker), benzoyl peroxide (the initiator), and water (the porogen). When the template was removed by solvent extraction, imprinted binding sites were left in the polymer material that are capable of selectively rebinding the target molecule. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the adsorption of the material in terms of adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the imprinted polymer exhibited higher affinity for PYD compared to non-imprinted polymer (NIP).

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, bulk polymerization, environmental pollutant, adsorption

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1915 Effect of Polymer Concentration on the Rheological Properties of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

Authors: Khaled Benyounes, Abderrahmane Mellak


The rheology of aqueous solutions of polyelectrolyte (polyanionic cellulose, PAC) at high molecular weight was investigated using a controlled stress rheometer. Several rheological measurements; viscosity measurements, creep compliance tests at a constant low shear stress and oscillation experiments have been performed. The concentrations ranged by weight from 0.01 to 2.5% of PAC. It was found that the aqueous solutions of PAC do not exhibit a yield stress, the flow curves of PAC over a wide range of shear rate (0 to 1000 s-1) could be described by the cross model and the Williamson models. The critical concentrations of polymer c* and c** have been estimated. The dynamic moduli, i.e., storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G’’) of the polymer have been determined at frequency sweep from 0.01 to 10 Hz. At polymer concentration above 1%, the modulus G’ is superior to G’’. The relationships between the dynamic modulus and concentration of polymer have been established. The creep-recovery experiments demonstrated that polymer solutions show important viscoelastic properties of system water-PAC when the concentration of the polymer increases.

Keywords: polyanionic cellulose, viscosity, creep, oscillation, cross model

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1914 Segmental Motion of Polymer Chain at Glass Transition Probed by Single Molecule Detection

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The glass transition phenomenon has been extensively studied for a long time. The glass transition of polymer materials is assigned to the transition of the dynamics of the chain backbone segment. However, the detailed mechanism of the transition behavior of the segmental motion is still unclear. In the current work, the single molecule detection technique was employed to reveal the trajectory of the molecular motion of the single polymer chain. The center segment of poly(butyl methacrylate) chain was labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule and observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was analyzed near the glass transition temperature. The direct observation of the individual polymer chains revealed the intermittent behavior of the segmental motion, indicating the spatial inhomogeneity.

Keywords: glass transition, molecular motion, polymer materials, single molecule

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1913 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnaník


In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: geopolymer, mechanical properties, metakaolin, microstructure, polymer admixtures, porosity

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1912 Annular Axi-Symmetric Stagnation Flow of Electrically Conducting Fluid on a Moving Cylinder in the Presence of Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Deva Kanta Phukan


An attempt is made where an electrically conducting fluid is injected from a fixed outer cylindrical casing onto an inner moving cylindrical rod. A magnetic field is applied parallel to the axis of the cylindrical rod. The basic governing set of partial differential equations for conservation of mass and momentum are reduced to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equation by introducing similarity transformation, which are integrated numerically. A perturbation solution for the case of large magnetic parameter is derived for constant Reynolds number.

Keywords: annular axi-symmetric stagnation flow, conducting fluid, magnetic field, moving cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 291