Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39640

Search results for: mineralogical study

39640 Heavy Metals of Natural Phosphate Ore and the Way They Affect the Various Mineralurgic Modes of Treatment

Authors: Bezzi Nacer


The study focused on the qualitative and quantitative study of Trace elements contained in the natural phosphate ore of Djebel Onk layer and their behaviour to the various mineralurgic modes of treatment. The main objective is to locate the importance of these contents according to granulometry and their association with the existing mineralogical species and to define how the most appropriate treatment. The raw ore is in first submitted to a prior mechanical treatment consisting of homogenization operations, of grinding and of sifting, in order to separate it into three particle-size classes: fine <100 µm (F); medium 100-500 µm (I) and coarse > 500 µm (G), and then treated by calcination, washing and floatation. The identification of the different mineralogical phases, the chemical composition and the thermal behaviour of these samples were realized by various techniques: MEB, DRX, ATG-ATD, etc. The study of Trace elements, carried out by ICP-MS, identified thirty items, consisting mainly of rare earths and of transition metals. A close relation between trace elements and various minerals phases (apatite, dolomite and silicates), through operations of substitution. These elements are distributed between several mineralogical phases, in particular apatite (strontium, uranium, chrome, barium, cadmium) and silicates (strontium, sodium, nickel, zinc and copper).

Keywords: valorization of natural phosphate ore, heavy metals, qualitative and quantitative analysis, various mineralurgic

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39639 Thermal, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties of Soil Building Blocks Reinforced with Cement

Authors: Abdelmalek Ammari


This paper represents an experimental study to determine the effect between thermal conductivity of Compressed Earth Block Stabilized (CEBs) by cement and the mineralogical and chemical analyses of soil, all the samples of CEB in the dry state and with different content of cement, the samples made by soil stabilized by Portland Cement. The soil used collected from fez city in Morocco. That determination of the thermal conductivity of CEBs plays an important role when considering its suitability for energy saving insulation. The measurement technique used to determine thermal conductivity is called hot ring method, the thermal conductivity of the tested samples is strongly affected by the quantity of the cement added. The soil of Fez, mainly composed of calcite, quartz, and dolomite, improved the behaviour of the material by the addition of cement. The findings suggest that to manufacture lightweight samples with high thermal insulation properties, it is advisable to use clays that contain quartz. . In addition, quartz has high thermal conductivity.

Keywords: compressed earth blocks, thermal conductivity, mineralogical, chemical, temperature

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39638 Geotechnical and Mineralogical Properties of Clay Soils in the Second Organized Industrial Region, Konya, Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Yıldız, Ali Ulvi Uzer, Murat Olgun


In this study, geotechnical and mineralogical properties of gypsum containing clay basis which form the ground of Second Organized Industrial Zone in Konya province have been researched through comprehensive field and laboratory experiments. Although sufficient geotechnical research has not been performed yet, an intensive structuring in the region continues at present. The study area consists of mid-lake sediments formed by gypsum containing soft silt-clay basis which evolves to a large area. To determine the soil profile and geotechnical specifications; 18 drilling holes were opened and disturbed / undisturbed soil samples have been taken through shelby tubes within 1.5m intervals. Tests have been performed on these samples to designate the index and strength properties of soil. Besides, at all drilling holes Standart Penetration Tests have been done within 1.5m intervals. For the purpose of determining the mineralogical characteristics of the soil; all rock and X-RD analysis have been carried out on 6 samples which were taken from various depths through the soil profile. Strength and compressibility characteristics of the soil were defined with correlations using laboratory and field test results. Unconfined compressive strength, undrained cohesion, compression index varies between 16 kN/m2 and 405.4 kN/m2, 6.5 kN/m2 and 72 kN/m2, 0.066 and 0.864, respectively.

Keywords: Konya second organized industrial region, strength, compressibility, soft clay

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39637 Babouchite Siliceous Rocks: Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Sebei Abdelaziz, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj


The present work aims to determine mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of siliceous rock levels and to clarify the origin through geochemical arguments. This study was performed on the deposit of Tabarka-Babouch, which belongs to the northwestern of Tunisia; they spread out the later Miocene. Investigations were carried out to study mineralogical structure by XRD and chemical analysis by ICP-AES. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the powdered natural rocks show that the Babouchite is composed mainly of quartz and clay minerals (smectite, illite, and kaolinite). Siliceous rocks contain quartz as a major silica mineral, which is characterized by two broad reflections at the vicinity of 4.26Å and 3.34 Å, respectively, with a total lack of opal-CT. That confirms that these siliceous rocks are quartz-rich (can reach 90%). Indeed, the amounts of all clay minerals (ACM), constituted essentially by smectite marked by a close association with illite and kaolinite, are relatively high, where their percentages vary from 7 to 46%. Chemical analyses show that the major oxide contents are consistent with mineralogical observations. It reveals that the siliceous rocks of the Babouchite formation are rich in SiO₂. The data of whole-rock chemical analyses indicate that the SiO₂ content is generally in the range 73-91 wt.%; (average: 80.43 wt.%). The concentration of Al₂O₃, which represent the detrital fractions in the studied samples, varies from 3.99 to 10.55 wt. % and Fe₂O₃ from 0.73 to 4.41wt. %. The low levels recorded in CaO (%) show that the carbonate is considered impurities. However, these rocks contain a low amount of some others oxides, such as the following: Na₂O, MgO, K₂O, and TiO₂. The trace elemental distributions also vary with high Sr (up to 84.55 ppm), Cu (5–127 ppm), and Zn (up to 124 ppm), with a relatively lower concentration of Co (2.43-25.54 ppm), Cr (10–61 ppm) and Pb (8-22ppm). The Babouchite siliceous rocks of northwestern of Tunisia have generally high Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values (0.63-0.83). The majority of Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values are nearly of 0.6, which is the biogenic end-member. Thus, Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values revealed the biogenic origin of silica.

Keywords: siliceous rocks, Babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, biogenic silica, Northwestern of Tunisia

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39636 Gold-Bearing Alteration Zones in South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Geology and Remote Sensing Analysis

Authors: Mohamed F. Sadek, Safaa M. Hassan, Safwat S. Gabr


Several alteration zones hosting gold mineralization are wide spreading in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt where gold has been mined from many localities since the time of the Pharaohs. The Sukkari is the only mine currently producing gold in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more detailed studies on these locations using modern exploratory methods. The remote sensing plays an important role in lithological mapping and detection of associated hydrothermal mineralization particularly the exploration of gold mineralization. This study is focused on three localities in South Eastern Desert of Egypt, namely Beida, Defiet and Hoteib-Eiqat aiming to detect the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones using the integrated data of remote sensing, field study and mineralogical investigation. Generally, these areas are dominated by Precambrian basement rocks including metamorphic and magmatic assemblages. They comprise ophiolitic serpentinite-talc carbonate, island-arc metavolcanics which were intruded by syn to late orogenic mafic and felsic intrusions mainly gabbro, granodiorite and monzogranite. The processed data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Landsat-8 images are used in the present study to map the gold bearing-hydrothermal alteration zones. Band rationing and principal component analysis techniques are used to discriminate the different lithologic units exposed in the studied three areas. Field study and mineralogical investigation have been used to verify the remote sensing data. This study concluded that, the integrated remote sensing data with geological, field and mineralogical investigations are very effective in lithological discrimination, detailed geological mapping and detection of the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones. More detailed exploration for gold mineralization with the help of remote sensing techniques is recommended to evaluate its potentiality in the study areas.

Keywords: pan-african, Egypt, landsat-8; ASTER, gold, alteration zones

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39635 Depositional Environment of the Babouchite Rocks of Numidian Formation, Northwestern Tunisia: Mineralogical Study and Geochemical Properties

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Harris Chris, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj


The present work has set itself the objective of studying non-detritic siliceous rocks in the extreme northwestern of Tunisia. It aims to discuss the origin and depositional environment of siliceous rocks based on petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical results. The different sections were made in the area of Babouch and the area of Cap-Serrat. The collected samples were subjected to petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical characterization using different analytical methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), geochemical analysis (ICP- AES), isotopic geochemistry (δ¹⁸O) to assess their suitability for industrial use. These babouchite shows that the mineralogy consists of quartz as the dominant mineral with the total lack of amorphous silica, while clay represents the minor phase. The petrographic examination revealed allowed to deduce that it is a rock of chemical origin deriving from tests of siliceous organisms (the radiolarians). Chemical analyzes show that SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ represent the most abundant oxides. The other oxides are present in negligible quantity. Geochemical data support a biogenic and non-hydrothermal origin of babouchite silica. Oxygen isotopic has shown that babouchites are formed in an environment with a high temperature, ranging from 56°C to 73°C.

Keywords: siliceous rocks, babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, isotopic geochemistry, Northwestern of Tunisia

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39634 Variation with Depth of Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical and Physical Properties of Overburden over Gneiss Basement Complex in Minna Metropolis, North Central Nigeria

Authors: M. M. Alhaji, M. Alhassan, A. M. Yahaya


Soil engineers pay very little or no attention to variation in the mineralogical and consequently, the geotechnical properties of overburden with depth on basement complexes, a situation which can lead to sudden failure of civil engineering structures. Soil samples collected at depths ranging from 0.5m to 4.0m at 0.5m intervals, from a trial pit dogged manually to depth of 4.0m on an overburden over gneiss basement complex, was evaluated for physico-chemical, mineralogical and physical properties. This is to determine the variation of these properties with depth within the profile of the strata. Results showed that sodium amphibolite and feldspar, which are both primary minerals dominate the overall profile of the overburden. Carbon which dominates the lower profile of the strata was observed to alter to gregorite at upper section of the profile. Organic matter contents and cation exchange capacity reduces with increase in depth while lost on ignition and pH were relatively constant with depth. The index properties, as well as natural moisture contents, increases from 0.5m to between 1.0m to 1.5m depth after which the values reduced to constant values at 3.0m depth. The grain size analysis shows high composition of sand sized particles with silts of low to non-plasticity. The maximum dry density (MDD) values are generally relatively high and increases from 2.262g/cm³ at 0.5m depth to 2.410g/cm³ at 4.0m depth while the optimum moisture content (OMC) reduced from 9.8% at 0.5m depth to 6.7% at 4.0m depth.

Keywords: Gneiss basement complex, mineralogical properties, North Central Nigeria, physico-chemical properties, physical properties, overburden soil

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39633 Improving Swelling Performance Using Industrial Waste Products

Authors: Mohieldin Elmashad, Salwa Yassin


Expansive soils regarded as one of the most problematic unsaturated formations in the Egyptian arid zones and present a great challenge in civil engineering, in general, and geotechnical engineering, in particular. Severe geotechnical complications and consequent structural damages have been arising due to an excessive and differential volumetric change upon wetting and change in water content. Different studies have been carried out concerning the swelling performance of the expansive soils using different additives including phospho-gypsum as an industrial waste product. However, this paper describes the results of a comprehensive testing programme that was carried out to investigate the effect of phospho-gypsum (PG) and sodium chloride (NaCl), as an additive mixture, on the swelling performance of constituent samples of swelling soils. The constituent samples comprise commercial bentonite collected from a natural site, mixed with different percentages of PG-NaCl mixture. The testing programme had been scoped to cover the physical and chemical properties of the constituent samples. In addition, a mineralogical study using x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on the collected bentonite and the mixed bentonite with PG-NaCl mixture samples. The obtained results of this study showed significant improvement in the swelling performance of the tested samples with the increase of the proposed PG-NaCl mixture content.

Keywords: expansive soils, industrial waste, mineralogical study, swelling performance, X-ray diffraction

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39632 Texture Characterization and Mineralogical Composition of the 1982-1983 Second Phase Galunggung Eruption, West Java Regency, Indonesia

Authors: M. Hanif Irsyada, Rifaldy, Arif Lutfi Namury, Syahreza S. Angkasa, Khalid Rizky, Ricky Aryanto, M. Alfiyan Bagus, Excobar Arman, Fahri Septianto, Firman Najib Wibisana


Galunggung Mountain is an active volcano in Indonesia, precisely on the island of Java. This area is included in the Sunda Sunda arc formed by the tendency of the Australian oceanic plate to Eurasian continental plate. This research was conducted to determine the characteristics and document the mineralogical composition of the Galunggung eruption of the second phase 1982-1983. In fragment samples, petrographic analysis is carried out under a qualitative and quantitative polarizing microscope. This sample was obtained from the second phase eruption in the Cibanjanj formation. Based on the analysis results obtained filter texture characteristics, olivine parallel growth, lamellar structure, glass inclusion, plagioclase zonation and obtained special texture in the gabbroic cummulate. The mineral composition consists of phenocryst plagioclase (41vol%), pyroxene (26vol%), olivin (4vol%) and mineral opaque (29vol%). Microlite minerals consist of plagioclase (31.95vol%), pyroxene (12.09vol%), opaque minerals (55.96vol%). This research is expected to be developed by further researchers to be able to explain in more detail related to Galunggung mountain with 3 phases of eruption that are so intense. Also, it is expected to explain the structural characteristics and mineralogical composition that can be used to determine the origin of all the results of the Galunggung eruption 1982-1983.

Keywords: Galunggung eruption, mineralogical composition, texture characterization, gabbroic cumulate

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39631 Morphology and Mineralogy of Acid Treated Soil

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad, G. Kalyan Kumar


This paper presents the morphological and mineralogical changes occurring in the soil due to immediate and prolonged interaction with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid. In order to assess the effect of acid contamination, a series of sediment volume, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis tests were carried out on soil samples were exposed to different concentrations (1N, 4N and 8N) of phosphoric and sulphuric acid. Experimental results show that both acids showed severe morphological and mineralogical changes with synthesis of neogenic formations mainly at higher concentrations (4N and 8N) and at prolonged duration of interaction (28 and 80 days).

Keywords: phosphoric acid, scanning electron microscopy, sulphuric acid, x-ray diffraction analysis

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39630 Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints on the Origin and Environment of Numidian Siliceous Sedimentary Rocks of the Extreme Northwest Tunisia

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Harris Chris, Sebei Abdelaziz, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj


The present work has set itself the objective of studying non-detritic siliceous rocks of the extreme northwest Tunisia. It aims to examine the origin and their sedimentary depositional environment based on mineralogical and geochemical characteristics. The different sections were located in the area of Babouch and the area of Tabarka. The collected samples were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical characterization using different analytical methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), geochemical analysis (ICP- AES), isotopic geochemistry (δ18O), to assess their suitability for industrial use. X-ray powder diffraction of the pure siliceous rock indicates quartz as the major mineral, with the total lack of amorphous silica. Trace impurities, such as carbonate and clay minerals, are concealed in the analytical results. The petrographic examination revealed allowed us to deduce that this rock was deriving from tests of siliceous organisms (the radiolarians). The chemical composition shows that SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 represent the most abundant oxides. The other oxides are present in negligible quantities. Geochemical data support a biogenic and non-hydrothermal origin of babouchite silica. Oxygen isotopic has shown that babouchites were formed in an environment with a high temperature ranging from 56 °C to 73 °C.

Keywords: biogenic silica, babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, oxygen isotopic, northwest tunisia

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39629 Numerical Simulation of Fracturing Behaviour of Pre-Cracked Crystalline Rock Using a Cohesive Grain-Based Distinct Element Model

Authors: Mahdi Saadat, Abbas Taheri


Understanding the cracking response of crystalline rocks at mineralogical scale is of great importance during the design procedure of mining structures. A grain-based distinct element model (GBM) is employed to numerically study the cracking response of Barre granite at micro- and macro-scales. The GBM framework is augmented with a proposed distinct element-based cohesive model to reproduce the micro-cracking response of the inter- and intra-grain contacts. The cohesive GBM framework is implemented in PFC2D distinct element codes. The microstructural properties of Barre granite are imported in PFC2D to generate synthetic specimens. The microproperties of the model is calibrated against the laboratory uniaxial compressive and Brazilian split tensile tests. The calibrated model is then used to simulate the fracturing behaviour of pre-cracked Barre granite with different flaw configurations. The numerical results of the proposed model demonstrate a good agreement with the experimental counterparts. The GBM framework proposed thus appears promising for further investigation of the influence of grain microstructure and mineralogical properties on the cracking behaviour of crystalline rocks.

Keywords: discrete element modelling, cohesive grain-based model, crystalline rock, fracturing behavior

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39628 Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Construction and Demolition Waste Produced in Greece

Authors: C. Alexandridou, G. N. Angelopoulos, F. A. Coutelieris


Construction industry in Greece consumes annually more than 25 million tons of natural aggregates originating mainly from quarries. At the same time, more than 2 million tons of construction and demolition waste are deposited every year, usually without control, therefore increasing the environmental impact of this sector. A potential alternative for saving natural resources and minimize landfilling, could be the recycling and re-use of Concrete and Demolition Waste (CDW) in concrete production. Moreover, in order to conform to the European legislation, Greece is obliged to recycle non-hazardous construction and demolition waste to a minimum of 70% by 2020. In this paper characterization of recycled materials - commercially and laboratory produced, coarse and fine, Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) - has been performed. Namely, X-Ray Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used for chemical and mineralogical analysis respectively. Physical properties such as particle density, water absorption, sand equivalent and resistance to fragmentation were also determined. This study, first time made in Greece, aims at outlining the differences between RCA and natural aggregates and evaluating their possible influence in concrete performance. Results indicate that RCA’s chemical composition is enriched in Si, Al, and alkali oxides compared to natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, quartz and minor peaks of mica and feldspars. From all the evaluated physical properties of coarse RCA, only water absorption and resistance to fragmentation seem to have a direct influence on the properties of concrete. Low Sand Equivalent and significantly high water absorption values indicate that fine fractions of RCA cannot be used for concrete production unless further processed. Chemical properties of RCA in terms of water soluble ions are similar to those of natural aggregates. Four different concrete mixtures were produced and examined, replacing natural coarse aggregates with RCA by a ratio of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% respectively. Results indicate that concrete mixtures containing recycled concrete aggregates have a minor deterioration of their properties (3-9% lower compression strength at 28 days) compared to conventional concrete containing the same cement quantity.

Keywords: chemical and physical characterization, compressive strength, mineralogical analysis, recycled concrete aggregates, waste management

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39627 Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence

Authors: M. A. Elbagermia, A. I. Alajtala, M. Alkerzab


This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

Keywords: Portland cement, chemical composition, Libyan market, X-Ray fluorescence

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39626 The Economic Geology of Ijero Ekiti, South Western Nigeria: A Need for Sustainable Mining for a Responsible Socio-Economic Growth and Development

Authors: Olagunju John Olusesan-Remi


The study area Ijero-Ekiti falls within the Ilesha-Ekiti Schist belt, originating from the long year of the Pan-Africa orogenic events and various cataclysmic tectonic activities in history. Ijero-Ekiti is situated within latitude 7 degree 45N and 7 Degree 55N. Ijero Ekiti is bordered between the Dahomean Basin and the southern Bida/Benue basin on the Geological map of Nigeria. This research work centers on majorly on investigating the chemical composition and as well as the mineralogical distribution of the various mineral-bearing rocks that composed the study area. This work is essentially carried out with a view to assessing and at the same time ascertaining the economic potentials and or the industrial significance of the area to Ekiti-south western region and the Nigeria nation as a whole. The mineralogical distribution pattern is of particular interest to us in this study. In this regard essential focus is put on the mostly the economic gemstones distributions within the various mineral bearing rocks in the zone, some of which includes the tourmaline formation, cassiterite deposit, tin-ore, tantalum columbite, smoky quartz, amethyst, polychrome and emerald variety beryl among others as they occurred within the older granite of the Precambrian rocks. To this end, samples of the major rock types were taken from various locations within the study area for detail scientific analysis as follows: The Igemo pegmatite of Ijero west, the epidiorite of Idaho, the biotitic hornblende gneiss of Ikoro-Ijero north and the beryl crystalline rock types to mention a few. The slides of the each rock from the aforementioned zones were later prepared and viewed under a cross Nichol petro graphic microscope with a particular focus on the light reflection ability of the constituent minerals in each rock samples. The results from the physical analysis viewed from the colour had it that the pegmatite samples ranges from pure milky white to fairly pinkish coloration. Other physical properties investigated include the streak, luster, form, specific gravity, cleavage/fracture pattern etc. The optical examination carried out centers on the refractive indices and pleochroism of the minerals present while the chemical analysis reveals from the tourmaline samples a differing correlation coefficient of the various oxides in each samples collected through which the mineral presence was established. In conclusion, it was inferred that the various minerals outlined above were in reasonable quantity within the Ijero area. With the above discoveries, therefore, we strongly recommend a detailed scientific investigation to be carried out such that will lead to a comprehensive mining of the area. Above all, it is our conclusion that a comprehensive mineralogical exploitation of this area will not only boost the socio-economic potential of the area but at the same time will go a long way contributing immensely to the socio-economic growth and development of the Nation-Nigeria at large.

Keywords: Ijero Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria, economic minerals, pegmatite of the pan African origin, cataclastic tectonic activities, Ilesha Schistbelt, precambrian formations

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39625 Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Zentar Rachid, Achour Raouf, Tran Ngoc Thanh


This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.

Keywords: marine sediments, river sediments, physico chemical characterizations, environmental characterizations

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39624 Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Soils from an Arid Region of Misurata-Libya: Treated Wastewater Irrigation Impacts

Authors: Khalifa Alatresh, Mirac Aydin


This research explores the impacts of irrigation by treated wastewater (TWW) on the mineralogical and chemical attributes of sandy calcareous soils in the Southern region of Misurata. Soil samples obtained from three horizons (A, B, and C) of six TWW-irrigated pedons (29years) and six other pedons from nearby non-irrigated areas (dry-control). The results demonstrated that the TWW-irrigated pedons had significantly higher salinity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphor (AP), total nitrogen (TN), and organic matter (OM) relative to the control pedons. Nonetheless, all the values of interest (EC < 4000 µs/cm < SAR < 13, pH < 8.5 and ESP < 15) remained lower than the thresholds, showing no issues with sodicity or salinity. Irrigated pedons contained significantly higher amounts of total clay and showed an altered distribution of particle sizes and minerals identified (quartz, calcite, microcline, albite, anorthite, and dolomite) within the profile. The observed results included the occurrence of Margarite, Anorthite, Chabazite, and Tridymite minerals after the application of TWW in small quantities that are not enough to influence soil genesis and classification.0,51 cm.

Keywords: treated wastewater, sandy calcareous soils, soil mineralogy, and chemistry

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39623 Development of High Quality Refractory Bricks from Fireclays for Industrial Applications

Authors: David E. Esezobor, Friday I. Apeh, Harrison O. Onovo, Ademola A. Agbeleye


Available indigenous refractory bricks in Nigeria can only be used in the lining of furnaces for melting of cast iron operating at less than 1,400°C or in preheating furnaces due to their low refractoriness less than 1,500°C. The bricks crack and shatter on heating at 1350 to 1450°C. In this paper, a simple and adaptable technology of manufacturing high-quality refractory bricks from selected Nigerian clays for furnace linings was developed. Fireclays from Onibode, Owode-Ketu in Ogun State and Kwoi in Kaduna State were crushed, ground, and sieved into various grain sizes using standard techniques. The pulverized clays were blended with alumina in various mix ratios and indurated in the furnace at 900 – 16000C. Their chemical, microstructure and mineralogical properties were characterized using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction spectrometry respectively. The mineralogical and spectrochemical analyses suggested that the clays are of siliceous alumino-silicate and acidic in nature. The appropriate blending of fireclays with alumina provided the tremendous improvement in the refractoriness of the bricks and other acceptable service properties comparable with imported refractory bricks. The change in microstructure from pseudo-hexagonal grains to equiaxed grains of well – ordered sequence of structural layers could be responsible for the improved properties.

Keywords: alumina, furnace, industry, manufacturing, refractoriness

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39622 Rupture Probability of Type of Coarse Aggregate on Fracture Surface of Concrete

Authors: B. Ramakrishna, S. Sivamurthy Reddy


The various types of aggregates such as granite, dolerite, Quartzite, dolomitic limestone, limestone and river gravel were used to produce the concrete with 28-day target compressive strength of 35, 60, and 80 Mpa. The compressive strength of concrete, as well as aggregates, was measured to study the effect of rupture probability of aggregate on the fracture surface of the concrete. Also, the petrographic studies were carried out to study the texture, type of minerals present and their relative proportions in various types of aggregates. The concrete of various grades produced with the same aggregate has shown a rise in RPCA with strength. However, the above relationship has ceased to exist in the concretes of the same grade, made of different types of aggregates. The carbonate aggregates namely Limestone and Dolomitic limestone have produced concrete with higher RPCA irrespective of the strength of concrete. The mode of origin, texture and mineralogical composition of aggregates have a significant impact on their pulse velocity and thereby the pulse velocity of concrete.

Keywords: RPCA, DL, G, LS, RG

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39621 Geochemical and Mineralogical Characters of the Coastal Plain Sediments of the Arabian Gulf, Kuwait

Authors: Adel Ahmed Aly Elhabab, Ibrahim Adsani


The present study deals with detailed geochemical and mineralogical studies of the coastal plain sediments formed along the shoreline of the Arabian Gulf area, Kuwait. These deposits are mainly fluviomarine and beach sands. The coastal plain deposits of the central Kuwait shoreline zone were found to consist of average medium-grained sand. The sand composed, on average of about 90% sand, and about 10% or less is mud, and has a unimodal distribution with a mode of medium sand (1-2 ф). The sediments consist mainly quartz, Feldspar, clay minerals with carbonate minerals (detritus calcite and dolomite) and rock fragments (chert). The mineralogy of the clay fractions of the sediments is dominated by illite, palygorskite, mixed layer illite-montmorillonite with minor amounts of chlorite and Kaolinite Heavy minerals are concentrated in the very fine sand fraction and are dominated by opaque minerals, and non opaque minerals which represented by amphiboles, pyroxenes, epidotes, dolomite, zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet and other which represented by Staurolite, Kyanite, Andalusite and Sillimenite as a trace amounts. The chemical analysis for the detrital amphibole grains from sandstone of coastal plain sediments shows the following features; the grains which have (Na+K) <0.50 its composition ranges from actino hornblende to magnesio hornblende, but the grains which have (Na+K) >0.50 its composition have wide variation and on the (Na+K)-AlIV diagram can be characterized two association: Association 1 which characterized by low amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), by comparing the chemical composition of this association and the chemical composition of amphibole grains from older basement rock, can be say, these association may be derived from metamorphic source rocks and association 2 which characterized by high amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), may be derived from volcanic source rocks.

Keywords: chemical composition, clay minerals, coastal area, electro probe micro analyzer (EPMA), fluviomarine sediments, heavy minerals

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39620 The Effect of the Parameters of the Grinding on the Characteristics of the Deposit Phosphate Ore of Kef Es Sennoun, Djebel Onk-Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: N. Benabdeslam, N. Bouzidi, F. Atmani, R. Boucif, A. Sakhri


The objective of this study was to provide answers for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved during grinding. To obtain a phosphate powder, we carry out sieving - grinding circuits for each parameter influencing the process. The analysis of the average particle size of the different tests carried out served in the first place as a basis for the determination of the granulometric curve area, the characteristics and the granular coefficients, then the exploitation of the different results for the calculation of the energies consumed for the fragmentation of different ore types, the energy coefficients as well as the ability to grind. Indeed, a time of 5 to 10 minutes can be chosen as the optimal grinding time in a disc mill for a % in weight of the highest pass. However, grinding time can influence the granular characteristics of ore.

Keywords: characteristic granular, grinding, mineralogical composition, phosphate ore, parameters

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39619 Effects of Potential Chloride-Free Admixtures on Selected Mechanical Properties of Kenya Clay-Based Cement Mortars

Authors: Joseph Mwiti Marangu, Joseph Karanja Thiong'o, Jackson Muthengia Wachira


The mechanical performance of hydrated cements mortars mainly depends on its compressive strength and setting time. These properties are crucial in the construction industry. Pozzolana based cements are mostly characterized by low 28 day compressive strength and long setting times. These are some of the major impediments to their production and diverse uses despite numerous technological and environmental benefits associated with them. The study investigated the effects of potential chemical activators on calcined clay- Portland cement blends with an aim to achieve high early compressive strength and shorter setting times in cement mortar. In addition, standard consistency, soundness and insoluble residue of all cement categories was determined. The test cement was made by blending calcined clays with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) at replacement levels from 35 to 50 percent by mass of the OPC to make test cement labeled PCC for the purposes of this study. Mortar prisms measuring 40mmx40mmx160mm were prepared and cured in accordance with KS EAS 148-3:2000 standard. Solutions of Na2SO4, NaOH, Na2SiO3 and Na2CO3 containing 0.5- 2.5M were separately added during casting. Compressive strength was determined at 2rd, 7th, 28th and 90th day of curing. For comparison purposes, commercial Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were also investigated without activators under similar conditions. X-Ray Florescence (XRF) was used for chemical analysis while X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for mineralogical analysis of the test samples. The results indicated that addition of activators significantly increased the 2nd and 7th day compressive strength but minimal increase on the 28th and 90th day compressive strength. A relatively linear relationship was observed between compressive strength and concentration of activator solutions up to 28th of curing. Addition of the said activators significantly reduced both initial and final setting time. Standard consistency and soundness varied with increased amount of clay in the test cement and concentration of activators. Amount of insoluble residues increased with increased replacement of OPC with calcined clays. Mineralogical studies showed that N-A-S-H is formed in addition to C-S-H. In conclusion, the concentration of 2 molar for all activator solutions produced the optimum compressive strength and greatly reduced the setting times for all cement mortars.

Keywords: activators, admixture, cement, clay, pozzolana

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39618 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador


Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

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39617 Petro-Mineralogical Studies of Phosphorite Deposit of Sallopat Block of Banswara District, Rajasthan, India

Authors: K. F. Khan, Samsuddin Khan


The Paleoproterozoic phosphorite deposit of Sallopat block of Banswara district of Rajasthan belongs to kalinjara formation of lunavada group of Aravalli Super Group. The phosphorites are found to occur as massive, brecciated, laminated and stromatolitic associated with calcareous quartzite, interbedded dolomite and multi coloured chert. The phosphorites are showing alternate brown and grey coloured concentric rims which are composed of phosphate, calcite and quartz minerals. Petro-mineralogical studies of phosphorite samples using petrological microscope, XRD, FEG- SEM and EDX reveal that apatite-(CaF) and apatite-(CaOH) are phosphate minerals which are intermixed with minor amount of carbonate materials. Sporadic findings of the uniform tiny granules of partially anisotropic apatite-(CaF) along with dolomite, calcite, quartz, muscovite, zeolite and other gangue minerals have been observed with the replacement of phosphate material by quartz and carbonate. The presence of microbial filaments of organic matter and alternate concentric rims of stromatolitic structure may suggest that the deposition of the phosphate took place in shallow marine oxidizing environmental conditions leading to the formation of phosphorite layers as primary biogenic precipitates by bacterial or algal activities. Different forms and texture of phosphate minerals may be due to environmental vicissitudes at the time of deposition followed by some replacement processes and biogenic activities.

Keywords: apatite, petro-mineralogy, phosphorites, sallopat, stromatolites

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39616 The Paleoenvironment and Paleoclimatological Variations during Aptian in North Central Tunisia

Authors: Houda Khaled, Frederic Boulvain, Fredj Chaabani


This paper focuses on the sedimentological and mineralogical studies of Aptian series outcrops in the Serdj and Bellouta Mountain situated in north-central Tunisia. In the Serdj Mountain, the Aptian series is about 590 meters thick and it is defined by tow formations corresponding respectively to the Sidi Hamada formation (Barremian-Gragasian) and the Serdj formation (Middle Gragasian-Late Clansaysian). This later is consisting of five limestones sequences separated by marly levels limestones associated to some siltstones bed. The Bellouta section is especially composed of carbonate rocks and it is attributed to the Middle Gragasian - Late Clansaysian. These sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, micropaleontology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition in order to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during Aptian. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone-wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone-packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as ooliths, rudists ostracods associated to athor bioclats. The coastal facies is especially defined by a mudstone -wackestone texture coastal rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xin) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. The MS curves show that the high values are correlated with the distal facies and the low values are registred in the coastal environment. The X-ray diffractometer analysis show the presence of kaolinite and illite.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj formation, mineralogy, petrography

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39615 Spatial and Geostatistical Analysis of Surficial Soils of the Contiguous United States

Authors: Rachel Hetherington, Chad Deering, Ann Maclean, Snehamoy Chatterjee


The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a soil survey and subsequent mineralogical and geochemical analyses of over 4800 samples taken across the contiguous United States between the years 2007 and 2013. At each location, samples were taken from the top 5 cm, the A-horizon, and the C-horizon. Many studies have looked at the correlation between the mineralogical and geochemical content of soils and influencing factors such as parent lithology, climate, soil type, and age, but it seems little has been done in relation to quantifying and assessing the correlation between elements in the soil on a national scale. GIS was used for the mapping and multivariate interpolation of over 40 major and trace elements for surficial soils (0-5 cm depth). Qualitative analysis of the spatial distribution across the U.S. shows distinct patterns amongst elements both within the same periodic groups and within different periodic groups, and therefore with different behavioural characteristics. Results show the emergence of 4 main patterns of high concentration areas: vertically along the west coast, a C-shape formed through the states around Utah and northern Arizona, a V-shape through the Midwest and connecting to the Appalachians, and along the Appalachians. The Band Collection Statistics tool in GIS was used to quantitatively analyse the geochemical raster datasets and calculate a correlation matrix. Patterns emerged, which were not identified in qualitative analysis, many of which are also amongst elements with very different characteristics. Preliminary results show 41 element pairings with a strong positive correlation ( ≥ 0.75). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses on this scale could increase knowledge on the relationships between element distribution and behaviour in surficial soils of the U.S.

Keywords: correlation matrix, geochemical analyses, spatial distribution of elements, surficial soils

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39614 Study of Strontium Sorption onto Indian Bentonite

Authors: Pankaj Pathak, Susmita Sharma


Incessant industrial growth fulfill the energy demand of present day society, at the same time it produces huge amount of waste which could be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature. These wastes are coming out from different sources viz, nuclear power, thermal power, coal mines which contain different types of contaminants and one of the emergent contaminant is strontium, used in the present study. The isotope of strontium (Sr90) is radioactive in nature with half-life of 28.8 years and permissible limit of strontium in drinking water is 1.5 ppm. Above the permissible limit causes several types of diseases in human being. Therefore, safe disposal of strontium into ground becomes a biggest challenge for the researchers. In this context, bentonite is being used as an efficient material to retain strontium onto ground due to its specific physical, chemical and mineralogical properties which exhibits higher cation exchange capacity and specific surface area. These properties influence the interaction between strontium and bentonite, which is quantified by employing a parameter known as distribution coefficient. Batch test was conducted, and sorption isotherms were modelled at different interaction time. The pseudo first-order and pseudo second order kinetic models have been used to fit experimental data, which helps to determine the sorption rate and mechanism.

Keywords: bentonite, interaction time, sorption, strontium

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39613 The Preparation of Silicon and Aluminum Extracts from Tuncbilek and Orhaneli Fly Ashes by Alkali Fusion

Authors: M. Sari Yilmaz, N. Karamahmut Mermer


Coal fly ash is formed as a solid waste product from the combustion of coal in coal fired power stations. Huge amounts of fly ash are produced globally every year and are predicted to increase. Nowadays, less than half of the fly ash is used as a raw material for cement manufacturing, construction and the rest of it is disposed as a waste causing yet another environmental concern. For this reason, the recycling of this kind of slurries into useful materials is quite important in terms of economical and environmental aspects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Orhaneli and Tuncbilek coal fly ashes for utilization in some industrial applications. Therefore the mineralogical and chemical compositions of these fly ashes were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the fly ashes were activated by alkali fusion technique with sodium hydroxide. The obtained extracts were analyzed for Si and Al content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

Keywords: extraction, fly ash, fusion, XRD

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39612 Geochemical Characterization of the Fahdene Formation in the Kef-Tedjerouine Area (Northwestern Tunisia)

Authors: Tahani Hallek, Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer


The present work is an organo-geochemical study of the Fahdene Formation outcrops at the Mahjouba region belonging to the Eastern part of the Kalaat Senan structure in northwestern Tunisia (the Kef-Tedjerouine area). The analytical study of the organic content of the samples collected, allowed us to point out that the Formation in question is characterized by an average to good oil potential. This fossilized organic matter has a planktonic marine origin (type II), as indicated by the relatively high values of hydrogen index. Tmax values are in the range 440°C and attest a thermal stage of the oil window beginning. Mineralogical study found the existence of macro and micro fractures that are parallel to rock stratification or oblique with a high density. Fill standpoint, the major component of the mineralized veins is the fibrous calcite with bitumen traces. The composition of these fractures is mainly due to the availability of chemical elements scattered in the surrounding rock. As for the origin of these fractures, we assume that fluid pressure processes are heavily involved, together with the regional compressional tectonic stress regime. The Fahdene Formation has a great importance in conventional oil development as a potential source rock, and even in terms of unconventional oil exploitation through the intense fracturing allowing the percolation of gas shale and facilitating its exploitation.

Keywords: fluid pressure, fracturation, oil exploration, organic matter

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39611 Phosphate Tailings in View of a Better Waste Disposal And/or Valorization: Case of Tunisian Phosphates Mines

Authors: Mouna Ettoumi, Jouini Marouen, Carmen Mihaela Neculita, Salah Bouhlel, Lucie Coudert, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Y. Taha


In the context of sustainable development and circular economy, waste valorization is considered a promising alternative to overcome issues related to their disposal or elimination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of phosphate sludges (tailings) from the Kef Shfeir mine site (Gafsa, Tunisia) as an alternative material in the production of fired bricks. To do so, representative samples of raw phosphate treatment sludges were collected and characterized for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and environmental characteristics. Then, the raw materials were baked at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C, and 1100°C) for bricks making. Afterward, fired bricks were characterized for their physical (particle size distribution, density, and plasticity), chemical (XRF and digestion), mineralogical (XRD) and mechanical (flexural strength) properties as well as for their environmental behavior (TCLP, SPLP, and CTEU-9) to ensure whether they meet the required construction standards. Results showed that the raw materials had low density (2.47g/cm 3), were non-plastic and were mainly composed of fluoroapatite (15.6%), calcite (23.1%) and clays (22.2% - mainly as heulandite, vermiculite and palygorskite). With respect to the environmental behavior, all metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Ba, Cd) complied with the requirements set by the USEPA. In addition, fired bricks had varying porosity (9-13%), firing shrinking (5.2-7.5%), water absorption (12.5-17.2%) and flexural strength (3.86-13.4 MPa). Noteworthy, an improvement in the properties (porosity, firing shrinking, water absorption, and flexural strength) of manufactured fired bricks was observed with the increase of firing temperature from 900 to 1100°C. All the measured properties complied with the construction norms and requirements. Moreover, regardless of the firing temperature, the environmental behavior of metals obeyed the requirements of the USEPA standards. Finally, fired bricks could be produced at high temperatures (1000°C) based on 100% of phosphate sludge without any substitution or addition of either chemical agents or binders. This sustainable brick-making process could be a promising approach for the Phosphate Company to partially manage these wastes, which are considered “non-profitable” for the moment and preserve soils that are exploited presently.

Keywords: phosphate treatment sludge, mine waste, backed bricks, waste valorization

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