Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10421

Search results for: swelling performance

10421 Improving Swelling Performance Using Industrial Waste Products

Authors: Mohieldin Elmashad, Salwa Yassin

Abstract:

Expansive soils regarded as one of the most problematic unsaturated formations in the Egyptian arid zones and present a great challenge in civil engineering, in general, and geotechnical engineering, in particular. Severe geotechnical complications and consequent structural damages have been arising due to an excessive and differential volumetric change upon wetting and change in water content. Different studies have been carried out concerning the swelling performance of the expansive soils using different additives including phospho-gypsum as an industrial waste product. However, this paper describes the results of a comprehensive testing programme that was carried out to investigate the effect of phospho-gypsum (PG) and sodium chloride (NaCl), as an additive mixture, on the swelling performance of constituent samples of swelling soils. The constituent samples comprise commercial bentonite collected from a natural site, mixed with different percentages of PG-NaCl mixture. The testing programme had been scoped to cover the physical and chemical properties of the constituent samples. In addition, a mineralogical study using x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on the collected bentonite and the mixed bentonite with PG-NaCl mixture samples. The obtained results of this study showed significant improvement in the swelling performance of the tested samples with the increase of the proposed PG-NaCl mixture content.

Keywords: expansive soils, industrial waste, mineralogical study, swelling performance, X-ray diffraction

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10420 Analytical and Statistical Study of the Parameters of Expansive Soil

Authors: A. Medjnoun, R. Bahar

Abstract:

The disorders caused by the shrinking-swelling phenomenon are prevalent in arid and semi-arid in the presence of swelling clay. This soil has the characteristic of changing state under the effect of water solicitation (wetting and drying). A set of geotechnical parameters is necessary for the characterization of this soil type, such as state parameters, physical and chemical parameters and mechanical parameters. Some of these tests are very long and some are very expensive, hence the use or methods of predictions. The complexity of this phenomenon and the difficulty of its characterization have prompted researchers to use several identification parameters in the prediction of swelling potential. This document is an analytical and statistical study of geotechnical parameters affecting the potential of swelling clays. This work is performing on a database obtained from investigations swelling Algerian soil. The obtained observations have helped us to understand the soil swelling structure and its behavior.

Keywords: analysis, estimated model, parameter identification, swelling of clay

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10419 Effect of Swelling Pressure on Drug Release from Polyelectrolyte Micro-Hydrogel Particles

Authors: Mina Boroujerdi, Javad Tavakoli

Abstract:

Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of drugs. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. In this contribution, an electronic device for swelling pressure measurement during drug release from hydrogel network was developed. Also, poly acrylic acid micro particles were prepared for prolonged and sustained controlled acetaminophen release. Effect of swelling pressure on drug release from micro particles studied under different environment pH in order to predict release profile in gastro-intestine medium. Swelling ratio and swelling pressure were measured in different pH.

Keywords: swelling pressure, drug delivery, hydrogel, polyelectrolyte

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10418 Swelling Behaviour of Kappa Carrageenan Hydrogel in Neutral Salt Solution

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

Abstract:

Hydrogel films were prepared from kappa carrageenan by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Carrageenan films extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed were immersed in glutaraldehyde solution for 2 min and then cured at 110 °C for 25 min. The obtained crosslinked films were washed with ethanol to remove the unreacted glutaraldehyde and then air dried to constant weights. The aim of this research was to study the swelling degree behaviour of the hydrogel film to neutral salts solution, namely NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. The results showed that swelling degree of crosslinked films varied non-monotonically with salinity of NaCl. Swelling degree decreased with the increasing of KCl concentration. Swelling degree of crosslinked film in CaCl2 solution was lower than that in NaCl and in KCl solutions.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, glutaraldehyde, salt, swelling

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10417 Stabilization of Expansive Soils by Additions Binders Hydraulic Lime and Cement

Authors: Kherafa Abdennasser

Abstract:

A literature review was conducted to gather as much information. Concerns the phenomenon of swelling clays, as well as a presentation of some bibliographic findings on factors affecting the swelling potential. Citing the various techniques of stabilization of clays as well as a presentation of some literature results on the stabilization of swelling. Then a characterization of the materials was carried out at basic bibliographic study. These are standard mechanical geotechnical testing. Simple practical, economical and efficient to minimize the phenomenon swelling.

Keywords: stabilization, expansive soils, cement, lime, oedometer

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10416 A Soil Stabilization Technique on Apa-Hotamiş Conveyance Channel

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel is located within in the boundaries of Konya Regional Directorate of Water Works. This channel transfers the water to the fount of Apa Dam with 17 km length of Blue Channel. Then the water is transmitted with Apa- Hotamış conveyance channel to Hotamış Water Storage. In some places along the Apa-Hotamış conveyance canal which will be constructed by Directorate of Water Works of Konya, some swelling soils have been seen. The samples taken from these places have 35-95 kPa swelling pressure. To prevent the swelling pressure arising from the penetration of water to the concrete channel, it was proposed to make 10 cm concrete coating by spreading the geomembrane and geotextile between the soil and concrete. In this way, the pressure (35-95 kPa) caused by the swelling and cracking of concrete failure will be blocked.

Keywords: conveyance channel, swelling pressure, geomembrane, geotextile, concrete

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10415 Improving the Dimensional Stability of Bamboo Woven Strand Board

Authors: Gulelat Gatew

Abstract:

Bamboo Woven Strand Board (WSB) products are manufactured from Ethiopia highland bamboo (Yushania alpina) as a multiple layer mat structure for enhanced mechanical performance. Hence, it shows similar mechanical properties as tropical hardwood products. WSB, therefore, constitutes a sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood products. The resin and wax ratio had a great influence on the determinants properties of the product quality such as internal bonding, water absorption, thickness swelling, bending and stiffness properties. Among these properties, because of the hygroscopic nature of the bamboo, thickness swelling and water absorption are important performances of WSB for using in construction and outdoor facilities. When WSB is exposed to water or moist environment, they tend to swell and absorb water in all directions. The degree of swelling and water absorption depends on the type of resin used, resin formulation, resin ratio, wax type and ratio. The objective of this research is investigating effects of phenol formaldehyde and wax on thickness swelling and water absorption behavior on bamboo WSB for construction and outdoor facilities. The experiments were conducted to measure the effects of wax and phenol-formaldehyde resin content on WSB thickness swelling and water absorption which leads to investigate its effect on dimension stability and mechanical properties. Both experiments were performed with 2–hour and 24-hour water immersion test and a significant set of data regarding the influence of such method parameters is also presented. The addition of up to 2% wax with 10% of phenol formaldehyde significantly reduced thickness swelling and water absorption of WSB which resulted in making it more hydrophobic and less susceptible to the influences of moisture in high humidity conditions compared to the panels without wax.

Keywords: woven strand board (WSB), water absorption, thickness swelling, phenol formaldehyde resin

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10414 An Experimental Study to Mitigate Swelling Pressure of Expansive Tabuk Shale, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. A. Embaby, A. Abu Halawa, M. Ramadan

Abstract:

In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are several areas where expansive soil exists in the form of variable-thicknesses layers in the developed regions. Severe distress to infrastructures can be caused by the development of heave and swelling pressure in this kind of expansive shale. Among the various techniques for expansive soil mitigation, the removal and replacement technique is very popular for lightly loaded structures and shallow foundations. This paper presents the result of an experimental study conducted for evaluating the effect of type and thickness of the cushion soils on mitigation of swelling characteristics of expanded shale. Seven undisturbed shale samples collected from Al Qadsiyah district, which is located in the Tabuk town north Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are treated with two types of cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS); sand and gravel. Each type is represented with three thicknesses, 22%, 33% and 44% in relation to the depth of the active zone. The test results indicated that the replacement of expansive shale by CCS reduces the swelling potential and pressure. It is found that the reduction in swelling depends on the type and thickness of CCS. The treatment by removing the original expansive shale and replacing it by cushion sand with 44% thickness reduced the swelling potential and pressure of about 53.29% and 62.78 %, respectively.

Keywords: cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS), expansive soil, Saudi Arabia, swelling pressure, Tabuk Shale

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10413 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

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10412 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung

Abstract:

A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

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10411 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana

Abstract:

Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

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10410 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

Abstract:

Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling

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10409 Conductive Clay Nanocomposite Using Smectite and Poly(O-Anisidine)

Authors: M. Şahi̇n, E. Erdem, M. Saçak

Abstract:

In this study, Na-smectite crystals purificated of bentonite were used after being swelling with benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTBAB) as alkyl ammonium salt. Swelling process was carried out using 0.2 g of BTBAB for smectite of 0.8 g with 4 h of mixing time after investigated conditions such as mixing time, the swelling agent amount. Then, the conductive poly(o-anisidine) (POA)/smectite nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of swollen Na-smectite using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. The POA content and conductivity of the prepared nanocomposite were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as the treatment time of swollen smectite in monomer solution and o-anisidine/APS mol ratio. POA/smectite nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques and was compared separately with components of composite.

Keywords: clay, composite, conducting polymer, poly(o-anisidine)

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10408 Thermo-Elastic and Self-Healing Polyacrylamide: 2D Polymer Composite Hydrogels for Water Shutoff Treatment

Authors: Edreese H. Alsharaeh, Feven Mattews Michael, Ayman Almohsin

Abstract:

Self-healing hydrogels have many advantages since they can resist various types of stresses, including tension, compression, and shear, making them attractive for various applications. In this study, thermo-elastic and self-healing polymer composite hydrogels were prepared from polyacrylamide (PAM) and 2D fillers using in-situ method. In addition, the PAM and fillers were prepared in presence of organic crosslinkers, i.e., hydroquinone (HQ) and hexamethylenediamine (HMT). The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was studied by hydrating the dried hydrogels. The thermal and rheological properties of the prepared hydrogels were evaluated before and after swelling study using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric technique and dynamic mechanical analysis. From the results obtained, incorporating fillers into the PAM matrix enhanced the swelling degree of the hydrogels with satisfactory mechanical properties, attaining up to 77% self-healing efficiency compared to the neat-PAM (i.e., 29%). This, in turn, indicates addition of 2D fillers improved self-healing properties of the polymer hydrogel, thus, making the prepared hydrogels applicable for water shutoff treatments under high temperature.

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, 2D fillers, elastic self-healing hydrogels, water shutoff, swelling properties

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10407 A Study of the Resistance of Protective Glove Materials to Metalworking Fluids

Authors: Nguyen-Tri Phuong, Triki Ennouri, Gauvin Chantal, Tuduri Ludovic, Vu-Khanh Toan

Abstract:

Hand injuries due to mechanical hazards such as cuts and punctures are major risks and concerns for several occupational groups, particularly for workers in the metal manufacturing sector and mechanical automotive services. Personal protective equipment such as gloves or clothing is necessary for many professionals to protect against a variety of occupational hazards, which arise daily in their work environments. In many working places such as metal manufacturing or automotive services, mechanical hazards often occur together with industrial contaminants, particularly metalworking fluids (MWFs). The presence of these contaminants could modify the properties of gloves made from polymeric materials and thus increase the risk of hand injuries for workers. The focus of this study is to determine the swelling characteristics and the resistance of six polymer membranes when they are contaminated with several industrial metalworking fluids. These polymer membranes, commonly used in protective gloves, are nitrile, neoprene, vinyl, butyl, polyurethane and latex rubbers. Changes swelling index were continuously followed during the contamination procedure to compare the performance of each polymer under different conditions. The modification of the samples surface, tensile properties during the contamination process was also investigated. The effect of temperature on mechanical properties and morphology of material was also examined.

Keywords: metalworking fluid, swelling behavior, protective glove materials, elastomers

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10406 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry

Abstract:

The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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10405 Modeling the Performance of Natural Sand-Bentonite Barriers after Infiltration with Polar and Non-Polar Hydrocarbon Leachates

Authors: Altayeb Qasem, Mousa Bani Baker, Amani Nawafleh

Abstract:

The complexity of the sand-bentonite liner barrier system calls for an adequate model that reflects the conditions depending on the barrier materials and the characteristics of the permeates which lead to hydraulic conductivity changes when liners infiltrated with polar, no-polar, miscible and immiscible liquids. This paper is dedicated to developing a model for evaluating the hydraulic conductivity in the form of a simple indicator for the compatibility of the liner versus leachate. Based on two liner compositions (95% sand: 5% bentonite; and 90% sand: 10% bentonite), two pressures (40 kPa and 100 kPa), and three leachates: water, ethanol and biofuel. Two characteristics of the leacahtes were used: viscosity of permeate and its octanol-water partitioning coefficient (Kow). Three characteristics of the liners mixtures were evaluated which had impact on the hydraulic conductivity of the liner system: the initial content of bentonite (%), the free swelling index, and the shrinkage limit of the initial liner’s mixture. Engineers can use this modest tool to predict a potential liner failure in sand-bentonite barriers.

Keywords: liner performance, sand-bentonite barriers, viscosity, free swelling index, shrinkage limit, octanol-water partitioning coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, theoretical modeling

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10404 Effect of Different Parameters on the Swelling Behaviour of Thermo-Responsive Elastomers in a Nematogenic Solvent

Authors: Nouria Bouchikhi, Soufiane Bedjaoui, C. Tewfik Bouchaour, Lamia Alachaher Bedjaoui, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

Swelling properties and phase diagrams of binary systems composed of liquid crystalline networks and a low molecular mass liquid crystal (LMWLC) have been investigated. The networks were prepared by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of reactive mixtures including a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a photo-initiator. These networks were prepared using two cross-linking agents: 1,6 hexanedioldiacrylate (HDDA) and a mesogenic acrylic acid 6-(4’-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-yl oxy) hexyl ester (AHBH). The obtained dry networks were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, and immersed in an excess of a LMWLC solvent 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), forming polymer gels. A detailed study by polarized optical microscopy allowed to determine the swelling degree of the gels and to follow the phase behavior of the solvent inside the polymer matrix in a wide range of temperature. It has been found that the gels undergo a sharp decrease of their swelling degree in response to an infinitesimal change of temperature. This finding adds new and interesting aspects on the actuators applications. We have subsequently explored the effect of different parameters on volume phase transition of these liquid crystalline materials. Such as the cross-linking density (CD), a nature of cross-linking agent and the photo initiator concentration.

Keywords: cross-linking density, liquid crystalline elastomers, phase diagrams, swelling

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10403 Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils

Authors: Saloni Pandya, Nikhil Sharma, Ajanta Sachan

Abstract:

Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.

Keywords: differential free swell index, expansive soils, matric suction, swelling pressure

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10402 Pilomatrixoma of the Left Infra-Orbital Region in a 9 Year Old

Authors: Zainab Shaikh, Yusuf Miyanji

Abstract:

Pilomatrixoma is a benign neoplasm of the hair follicle matrix that is not commonly diagnosed in general practice. This is a case report of a 9-year-old boy who presented with a one-year history of a 19mm x 11 mm swelling in the left infra-orbital region. This was previously undiagnosed in Spain, where the patient resided at the time of initial presentation, due to the language barrier the patient’s family encountered. An ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging gave useful information regarding surrounding structures for complete tumor excision and indicated that the risk of facial nerve palsy is low. The lesion was surgically excised and a definitive diagnosis was made after histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, although not rare in its occurrence, is rarely this large at the time of excision due to early presentation. This case highlights the importance of including pilomatrixoma in the differential diagnosis of dermal and subcutaneous lesions in the head and neck region, as it is often misdiagnosed due to the lack of awareness of its clinical presentation.

Keywords: pilomatrixoma, swelling, infra-orbital, facial swelling

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10401 Chemical Amelioration of Expansive Soils

Authors: B. R. Phanikumar, Sana Suri

Abstract:

Expansive soils swell when they absorb water and shrink when water evaporates from them. Hence, lightly loaded civil engineering structures found in these soils are subjected to severe distress. Therefore, there is a need to ameliorate or improve these swelling soils through some innovative methods. This paper discusses chemical stabilisation of expansive soils, a technique in which chemical reagents such as lime and calcium chloride are added to expansive soils to reduce the volumetric changes occurring in expansive soils and also to improve their engineering behaviour.

Keywords: expansive soils, swelling, shrinkage, amelioration, lime, calcium chloride

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10400 Detection of Muscle Swelling Using the Cnts-Based Poc Wearable Strain Sensor

Authors: Nadeem Qaiser, Sherjeel Munsif Khan, Muhammad Mustafa Hussian, Vincent Tung

Abstract:

One of the emerging fields in the detection of chronic diseases is based on the point-of-care (POC) early monitoring of the symptoms and thus provides a state-of-the-art personalized healthcare system. Nowadays, wearable and flexible sensors are being used for analyzing sweat, glucose, blood pressure, and other skin conditions. However, localized jaw-bone swelling called parotid-swelling caused by some viruses has never been tracked before. To track physical motion or deformations, strain sensors, especially piezoresistive ones, are widely used. This work, for the first time, reports carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based piezoresistive sensing patch that is highly flexible and stretchable and can record muscle deformations in real-time. The developed patch offers an excellent gauge factor for in-plane stretching and spatial expansion with low hysteresis. To calibrate the volumetric muscle expansion, we fabricated the pneumatic actuator that experienced volumetric expansion and thus redefined the gauge factor. Moreover, we employ a Bluetooth-low-energy system that can send information about muscle activity in real-time to a smartphone app. We utilized COMSOL calculations to reveal the mechanical robustness of the patch. The experiments showed the sensing patch's greater cyclability, making it a patch for personal healthcare and an excellent choice for monitoring the real-time POC monitoring of the human muscle swelling.

Keywords: piezoresistive strain sensor, FEM simulations, CNTs sensor, flexible

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10399 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad

Abstract:

Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: alkali, kaolinite, swell potential, XRD, SEM

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10398 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

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10397 Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer: Synthesis, Characterization and Removal of Selected Acidic Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

Authors: Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Luke Chimuka

Abstract:

Removal of organics from wastewater offers a better water quality, therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the elimination of selected organics from water. A multi-template MIP for the adsorption of naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac was synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. A MIP was synthesized at 70°C by employing 2-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, toluene and 1,1’-azobis-(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) as functional monomer, cross-linker, porogen and initiator, respectively. Thermogravimetric characterization indicated that the polymer backbone collapses at 250°C and scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous and roughness nature of the MIP after elution of templates. The performance of the MIP in aqueous solutions was evaluated by optimizing several adsorption parameters. The optimized adsorption conditions were 50 mg of MIP, extraction time of 10 min, a sample pH of 4.6 and the initial concentration of 30 mg/L. The imprinting factors obtained for naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1.25, 1.42, and 2.01, respectively. The order of selectivity for the MIP was; diclofenac > ibuprofen > naproxen. MIP showed great swelling in water with an initial swelling rate of 2.62 g/(g min). The synthesized MIP proved to be able to adsorb naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac from contaminated deionized water, wastewater influent and effluent.

Keywords: adsorption, molecularly imprinted polymer, multi template, pharmaceuticals

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10396 Modified Norhaya Upper Limp Elevation Sling-Quick Approach Ensuring Timely Limb Elevation

Authors: Prem, Norhaya, Vwrene C., Mohammad Harris A., Amarjit, Fazir M.

Abstract:

Upper limb surgery is a common orthopedic procedure. After surgery, it is necessary to raise the patient's arm to reduce limb swelling and promote recovery. After an injury or surgery, swelling (edema) in the limbs is common. This swelling can be painful, cause stiffness, and affect movement and ability to do daily activities. One of the easiest ways to manage swelling is to elevate the swollen limb. The goal is to elevate the swollen limb slightly above the level of the heart. This helps the extra fluid move back towards the heart for circulation to the rest of the body. Conventional arm sling or pillows are usually placed under the arm to raise it, but in this way the arm cannot be fixed well and easily slide down, without ideal raising effect. Conventional arm sling need experience to tie the sling and this delay in the application process. To reduce the waiting time and cost, modified Norhaya upper limb elevation sling was designed and made readily available. The sling is made from calico fabric, readily available in the ward. Measurements of patients’ arm lengths are obtained, and fabric sizes are cut into the average arm lengths, as well as 1 size above and below. The cut calico fabric is then sewn together with thick sewing threads. Its application is easy and junior most staff or doctor will be able to apply it on patient. The time taken to set up the sling is also reduced. Feedback gathered from ground staff regarding ease of setting up the sling was tremendous and patient also feel comfort in the modified Norhaya sling. The device can freely adjust the raising height of the affected limb and effectively fix the affected limb to reduce its swelling, thus promoting recovery. This device is worthy to be clinically popularized and applied. The Modified Norhaya upper limb elevation sling is the quickest to set up and the delay in elevating the patient’s hand is significantly reduced. Moreover, it is reproducible and there is also significant cost savings.

Keywords: elevate, effective, sling, timely

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
10395 Consolidation Behavior of Lebanese Soil and Its Correlation with the Soil Parameters

Authors: Robert G. Nini

Abstract:

Soil consolidation is one of the biggest problem facing engineers. The consolidation process has an important role in settlement analysis for the embankments and footings resting on clayey soils. The settlement amount is related to the compression and the swelling indexes of the soil. Because the predominant upper soil layer in Lebanon is consisting mainly of clay, this layer is a real challenge for structural and highway engineering. To determine the effect of load and drainage on the engineering consolidation characteristics of Lebanese soil, a full experimental and synthesis study was conducted on different soil samples collected from many locations. This study consists of two parts. During the first part which is an experimental one, the Proctor test and the consolidation test were performed on the collected soil samples. After it, the identifications soil tests as hydrometer, specific gravity and Atterberg limits are done. The consolidation test which is the main test in this research is done by loading the soil for some days then an unloading cycle was applied. It takes two weeks to complete a typical consolidation test. Because of these reasons, during the second part of our research which is based on the analysis of the experiments results, some correlations were found between the main consolidation parameters as compression and swelling indexes with the other soil parameters easy to calculate. The results show that the compression and swelling indexes of Lebanese clays may be roughly estimated using a model involving one or two variables in the form of the natural void ratio and the Atterberg limits. These correlations have increasing importance for site engineers, and the proposed model also seems to be applicable to a wide range of clays worldwide.

Keywords: atterberg limits, clay, compression and swelling indexes, settlement, soil consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
10394 Quince Seed Mucilage (QSD)/ Multiwall Carbonano Tube Hybrid Hydrogels as Novel Controlled Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: Raouf Alizadeh, Kadijeh Hemmati

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to synthesize several series of hydrogels from combination of a natural based polymer (Quince seed mucilage QSD), a synthetic copolymer contained methoxy poly ethylene glycol -polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) in the presence of different amount of multi-walled carbon nanotube (f-MWNT). Mono epoxide functionalized mPEG (mP EG-EP) was synthesized and reacted with sodium azide in the presence of NH4Cl to afford mPEG- N3(-OH). Then ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε–caprolactone (CL) in the presence of mPEG- N3(-OH) as initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as catalyst led to preparation of mPEG-PCL- N3(-OH ) which was grafted onto propagylated f-MWNT by the click reaction to obtain mPEG-PCL- f-MWNT (-OH ). In the presence of mPEG- N3(-Br) and mixture of NHS/DCC/ QSD, hybrid hydrogels were successfully synthesized. The copolymers and hydrogels were characterized using different techniques such as, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The gel content of hydrogels showed dependence on the weight ratio of QSD:mPEG-PCL:f-MWNT. The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was also studied under variation of pH, immersion time, and temperature. According to the results, the swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels showed significant dependence in the gel content, pH, immersion time and temperature. The highest swelling was observed at room temperature, in 60 min and at pH 8. The loading and in-vitro release of quercetin as a model drug were investigated at pH of 2.2 and 7.4, and the results showed that release rate at pH 7.4 was faster than that at pH 2.2. The total loading and release showed dependence on the network structure of hydrogels and were in the range of 65- 91%. In addition, the cytotoxicity and release kinetics of the prepared hydrogels were also investigated.

Keywords: antioxidant, drug delivery, Quince Seed Mucilage(QSD), swelling behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
10393 Stabilization of Expansive Soils with Polypropylene Fiber

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
10392 The Effect of Polypropylene Fiber in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 427