Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Ulrich Maschke

28 Stimuli Responsives of Crosslinked Poly on 2-HydroxyEthyl MethAcrylate – Optimization of Parameters by Experimental Design

Authors: Tewfik Bouchaour, Salah Hamri, Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

Stimuli-responsive materials based on UV crosslinked acrylic polymer networks are fabricated. A various kinds of polymeric systems, hydrophilic polymers based on 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate have been widely studied because of their ability to simulate biological tissues, which leads to many applications. The acrylic polymer network PHEMA developed by UV photopolymerization has been used for dye retention. For these so-called smart materials, the properties change in response to an external stimulus. In this contribution, we report the influence of some parameters (initial composition, temperature, and nature of components) in the properties of final materials. Optimization of different parameters is examined by experimental design.

Keywords: UV photo-polymerization, PHEMA, external stimulus, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
27 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
26 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
25 Effect of Different Parameters on the Swelling Behaviour of Thermo-Responsive Elastomers in a Nematogenic Solvent

Authors: Nouria Bouchikhi, Soufiane Bedjaoui, C. Tewfik Bouchaour, Lamia Alachaher Bedjaoui, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

Swelling properties and phase diagrams of binary systems composed of liquid crystalline networks and a low molecular mass liquid crystal (LMWLC) have been investigated. The networks were prepared by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of reactive mixtures including a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a photo-initiator. These networks were prepared using two cross-linking agents: 1,6 hexanedioldiacrylate (HDDA) and a mesogenic acrylic acid 6-(4’-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-yl oxy) hexyl ester (AHBH). The obtained dry networks were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, and immersed in an excess of a LMWLC solvent 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), forming polymer gels. A detailed study by polarized optical microscopy allowed to determine the swelling degree of the gels and to follow the phase behavior of the solvent inside the polymer matrix in a wide range of temperature. It has been found that the gels undergo a sharp decrease of their swelling degree in response to an infinitesimal change of temperature. This finding adds new and interesting aspects on the actuators applications. We have subsequently explored the effect of different parameters on volume phase transition of these liquid crystalline materials. Such as the cross-linking density (CD), a nature of cross-linking agent and the photo initiator concentration.

Keywords: cross-linking density, liquid crystalline elastomers, phase diagrams, swelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
24 Half-Metallicity in a BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 Superlattice: A First-Principles Study

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Ulrich Eckern, Udo Schwingenschlogl

Abstract:

We present first principles results for the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of the BiFeO3 /La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 heterostructure as obtained by spin polarized calculations using density functional theory. The electronic states of the heterostructure are compared to those of the bulk compounds. Structural relaxation turns out to have only a minor impact on the chemical bonding, even though the oxygen octahedra in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 develop some distortions due to the interface strain. While a small charge transfer affects the heterointerfaces, our results demonstrate that the half-metallic character of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 is fully maintained.

Keywords: BiFeO3, La2/3Sr1/3MnO3, superlattice, half-metallicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
23 Camera Model Identification for Mi Pad 4, Oppo A37f, Samsung M20, and Oppo f9

Authors: Ulrich Wake, Eniman Syamsuddin

Abstract:

The model for camera model identificaiton is trained using pretrained model ResNet43 and ResNet50. The dataset consists of 500 photos of each phone. Dataset is divided into 1280 photos for training, 320 photos for validation and 400 photos for testing. The model is trained using One Cycle Policy Method and tested using Test-Time Augmentation. Furthermore, the model is trained for 50 epoch using regularization such as drop out and early stopping. The result is 90% accuracy for validation set and above 85% for Test-Time Augmentation using ResNet50. Every model is also trained by slightly updating the pretrained model’s weights

Keywords: ​ One Cycle Policy, ResNet34, ResNet50, Test-Time Agumentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
22 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, L.Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke

Abstract:

Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of monofunctional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiateor, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
21 A Formal Approach for Instructional Design Integrated with Data Visualization for Learning Analytics

Authors: Douglas A. Menezes, Isabel D. Nunes, Ulrich Schiel

Abstract:

Most Virtual Learning Environments do not provide support mechanisms for the integrated planning, construction and follow-up of Instructional Design supported by Learning Analytic results. The present work aims to present an authoring tool that will be responsible for constructing the structure of an Instructional Design (ID), without the data being altered during the execution of the course. The visual interface aims to present the critical situations present in this ID, serving as a support tool for the course follow-up and possible improvements, which can be made during its execution or in the planning of a new edition of this course. The model for the ID is based on High-Level Petri Nets and the visualization forms are determined by the specific kind of the data generated by an e-course, a population of students generating sequentially dependent data.

Keywords: educational data visualization, high-level petri nets, instructional design, learning analytics

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
20 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerisation of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, T. Bouchaour, L. Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke

Abstract:

Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of mono functional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiator, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
19 Level of Gross Motor Development and Age Equivalents of Children 9 Years

Authors: Masri Baharom

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to identify the age group of children 9 who have experienced delays in gross motor development. Instrument used in this study is Test Gross Motor Development / TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000) which was adopted at the international level. Gross motor development data were obtained by video recording (Sony (DRC-SR42 with a 40x optical zoom capability, and software Ultimate Studio 14) on locomotor and manipulative skills. A total n = 192 persons, children of 9 years (9.30 ± .431) at Sekolah Kebangsaan Mutiara Perdana, Bayan Lepas, Penang were involved as subjects. Children age 9 years experienced delays AELS (4.61 ± .69), AEMS (5:52 ± .62) and GMDQ (7.26 ± .2.14). The findings based on descriptive rating indicated that the performance of children age 9 years acquired low levels of AELS, MSS, AEMS and very low in LSS and GMDS.

Keywords: gross motor development score, locomotor standard score, age equivalent locomotor score, manipulative standard score, age equivalent manipulative score

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
18 Level Of Gross Motor Development And Age Equivalents Of 9-Year-Old Children

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Masri Baharom

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to identify the age group of children 9 who have experienced delays in gross motor development. Instrument used in this study is Test Gross Motor Development / TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000) which was adopted at the international level. Gross motor development data were obtained by video recording (Sony (DRC-SR42 with a 40x optical zoom capability, and software Ultimate Studio 14) on locomotor and manipulative skills. A total n = 192 persons, children of 9 years (9.30 ± .431) at Sekolah Kebangsaan Mutiara Perdana, Bayan Lepas, Penang were involved as subjects. Children age 9 years experienced delays AELS (4.61 ± .69), AEMS (5:52 ± .62) and GMDQ (7.26 ± .2.14). The findings based on descriptive rating indicated that the performance of children age 9 years acquired low levels of AELS, MSS, AEMS and very low in LSS and GMDS.

Keywords: gross motor development score, locomotor standard score, age equivalent locomotor score, manipulative standard score, age equivalent manipulative score

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
17 Identifying Degradation Patterns of LI-Ion Batteries from Impedance Spectroscopy Using Machine Learning

Authors: Yunwei Zhang, Qiaochu Tang, Yao Zhang, Jiabin Wang, Ulrich Stimming, Alpha Lee

Abstract:

Forecasting the state of health and remaining useful life of Li-ion batteries is an unsolved challenge that limits technologies such as consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Here we build an accurate battery forecasting system by combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) -- a real-time, non-invasive and information-rich measurement that is hitherto underused in battery diagnosis -- with Gaussian process machine learning. We collect over 20,000 EIS spectra of commercial Li-ion batteries at different states of health, states of charge and temperatures -- the largest dataset to our knowledge of its kind. Our Gaussian process model takes the entire spectrum as input, without further feature engineering, and automatically determines which spectral features predict degradation. Our model accurately predicts the remaining useful life, even without complete knowledge of past operating conditions of the battery. Our results demonstrate the value of EIS signals in battery management systems.

Keywords: battery degradation, machine learning method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, battery diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
16 Transformation of Iopromide Due to Redox Gradients in Sediments of the Hyporheic Zone

Authors: Niranjan Mukherjee, Burga Braun, Ulrich Szewzyk

Abstract:

Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals are increasingly found in urban water systems forced by demographic changes. The groundwater-surface water interface, or the hyporheic zone, is known for its impressive self-purification capacity of water bodies. Redox gradients present in this zone provide a wide range of electron acceptors and harbour diverse microbial communities. Biotic transformations of pharmaceuticals in this zone have been demonstrated, but not much information is available on the kind of communities bringing about these transformations. Therefore, bioreactors using sediment from the hyporheic zone of a river in Berlin were set up and fed with iopromide, a recalcitrant iodinated X-ray contrast medium. Iopromide, who’s many oxic and anoxic transformation products have been characterized, was shown to be transformed in such a bioreactor as it passes along the gradient. Many deiodinated transformation products of iopromide could be identified at the outlet of the reactor. In our experiments, it was seen that at the same depths of the column, the transformation of iopromide increased over time. This could be an indication of the microbial communities in the sediment adapting to iopromide. The hyporheic zone, with its varying redox conditions, mainly due to the upwelling and downwelling of surface and groundwater levels, could potentially provide microorganisms with conditions for the complete transformation of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: iopromide, hyporheic zone, recalcitrant pharmaceutical, redox gradients

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
15 Towards a Broader Understanding of Journal Impact: Measuring Relationships between Journal Characteristics and Scholarly Impact

Authors: X. Gu, K. L. Blackmore

Abstract:

The impact factor was introduced to measure the quality of journals. Various impact measures exist from multiple bibliographic databases. In this research, we aim to provide a broader understanding of the relationship between scholarly impact and other characteristics of academic journals. Data used for this research were collected from Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory (Ulrichs), Cabell’s (Cabells), and SCImago Journal & Country Rank (SJR) from 1999 to 2015. A master journal dataset was consolidated via Journal Title and ISSN. We adopted a two-step analysis process to study the quantitative relationships between scholarly impact and other journal characteristics. Firstly, we conducted a correlation analysis over the data attributes, with results indicating that there are no correlations between any of the identified journal characteristics. Secondly, we examined the quantitative relationship between scholarly impact and other characteristics using quartile analysis. The results show interesting patterns, including some expected and others less anticipated. Results show that higher quartile journals publish more in both frequency and quantity, and charge more for subscription cost. Top quartile journals also have the lowest acceptance rates. Non-English journals are more likely to be categorized in lower quartiles, which are more likely to stop publishing than higher quartiles. Future work is suggested, which includes analysis of the relationship between scholars and their publications, based on the quartile ranking of journals in which they publish.

Keywords: academic journal, acceptance rate, impact factor, journal characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
14 Characteristics of Business Models of Industrial-Internet-of-Things Platforms

Authors: Peter Kress, Alexander Pflaum, Ulrich Loewen

Abstract:

The number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) platforms is steadily increasing across various industries, especially for smart factories, smart homes and smart mobility. Also in the manufacturing industry, the number of Industrial-IoT platforms is growing. Both IT players, start-ups and increasingly also established industry players and small-and-medium-enterprises introduce offerings for the connection of industrial equipment on platforms, enabled by advanced information and communication technology. Beside the offered functionalities, the established ecosystem of partners around a platform is one of the key differentiators to generate a competitive advantage. The key question is how platform operators design the business model around their platform to attract a high number of customers and partners to co-create value for the entire ecosystem. The present research tries to answer this question by determining the key characteristics of business models of successful platforms in the manufacturing industry. To achieve that, the authors selected an explorative qualitative research approach and created an inductive comparative case study. The authors generated valuable descriptive insights of the business model elements (e.g., value proposition, pricing model or partnering model) of various established platforms. Furthermore, patterns across the various cases were identified to derive propositions for the successful design of business models of platforms in the manufacturing industry.

Keywords: industrial-internet-of-things, business models, platforms, ecosystems, case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
13 Protein Stabilized Foam Structures as Protective Carrier Systems during Microwave Drying of Probiotics

Authors: Jannika Dombrowski, Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik

Abstract:

Due to the increasing popularity of healthy products, probiotics are still of rising importance in food manufacturing. With the aim to amplify the field of probiotic application to non-chilled products, the cultures have to be preserved by drying. Microwave drying has proved to be a suitable technique to achieve relatively high survival rates, resulting from drying at gentle temperatures, among others. However, diffusion limitation due to compaction of cell suspension during drying can prolong drying times as well as deteriorate product properties (grindability, rehydration performance). Therefore, we aimed to embed probiotics in an aerated matrix of whey proteins (surfactants) and di-/polysaccharides (foam stabilization, probiotic protection) during drying. As a result of the manifold increased inner surface of the cell suspension, drying performance was enhanced significantly as compared to non-foamed suspensions. This work comprises investigations on suitable foam matrices, being stable under vacuum (variation of protein concentration, type and concentration of di-/polysaccharide) as well as development of an applicable microwave drying process in terms of microwave power, chamber pressure and maximum product temperatures. Performed analyses included foam characteristics (overrun, drainage, firmness, bubble sizes), and properties of the dried cultures (survival, activity). In addition, efficiency of the drying process was evaluated.

Keywords: foam structure, microwave drying, polysaccharides, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
12 Monitoring the Drying and Grinding Process during Production of Celitement through a NIR-Spectroscopy Based Approach

Authors: Carolin Lutz, Jörg Matthes, Patrick Waibel, Ulrich Precht, Krassimir Garbev, Günter Beuchle, Uwe Schweike, Peter Stemmermann, Hubert B. Keller

Abstract:

Online measurement of the product quality is a challenging task in cement production, especially in the production of Celitement, a novel environmentally friendly hydraulic binder. The mineralogy and chemical composition of clinker in ordinary Portland cement production is measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X ray fluorescence (XRF), where only crystalline constituents can be detected. But only a small part of the Celitement components can be measured via XRD, because most constituents have an amorphous structure. This paper describes the development of algorithms suitable for an on-line monitoring of the final processing step of Celitement based on NIR-data. For calibration intermediate products were dried at different temperatures and ground for variable durations. The products were analyzed using XRD and thermogravimetric analyses together with NIR-spectroscopy to investigate the dependency between the drying and the milling processes on one and the NIR-signal on the other side. As a result, different characteristic parameters have been defined. A short overview of the Celitement process and the challenging tasks of the online measurement and evaluation of the product quality will be presented. Subsequently, methods for systematic development of near-infrared calibration models and the determination of the final calibration model will be introduced. The application of the model on experimental data illustrates that NIR-spectroscopy allows for a quick and sufficiently exact determination of crucial process parameters.

Keywords: calibration model, celitement, cementitious material, NIR spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
11 A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of COSMO and WRF Models in Quantitative Rainfall Prediction

Authors: Isaac Mugume, Charles Basalirwa, Daniel Waiswa, Mary Nsabagwa, Triphonia Jacob Ngailo, Joachim Reuder, Sch¨attler Ulrich, Musa Semujju

Abstract:

The Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are considered powerful tools for guiding quantitative rainfall prediction. A couple of NWP models exist and are used at many operational weather prediction centers. This study considers two models namely the Consortium for Small–scale Modeling (COSMO) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It compares the models’ ability to predict rainfall over Uganda for the period 21st April 2013 to 10th May 2013 using the root mean square (RMSE) and the mean error (ME). In comparing the performance of the models, this study assesses their ability to predict light rainfall events and extreme rainfall events. All the experiments used the default parameterization configurations and with same horizontal resolution (7 Km). The results show that COSMO model had a tendency of largely predicting no rain which explained its under–prediction. The COSMO model (RMSE: 14.16; ME: -5.91) presented a significantly (p = 0.014) higher magnitude of error compared to the WRF model (RMSE: 11.86; ME: -1.09). However the COSMO model (RMSE: 3.85; ME: 1.39) performed significantly (p = 0.003) better than the WRF model (RMSE: 8.14; ME: 5.30) in simulating light rainfall events. All the models under–predicted extreme rainfall events with the COSMO model (RMSE: 43.63; ME: -39.58) presenting significantly higher error magnitudes than the WRF model (RMSE: 35.14; ME: -26.95). This study recommends additional diagnosis of the models’ treatment of deep convection over the tropics.

Keywords: comparative performance, the COSMO model, the WRF model, light rainfall events, extreme rainfall events

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
10 Preservation of Sensitive Biological Products: An Insight into Conventional and Upcoming Drying Techniques

Authors: Jannika Dombrowski, Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik

Abstract:

Several drying techniques are used to preserve sensitive substances such as probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With the aim to better understand differences between these processes, this work gives new insights into structural variations resulting from different preservation methods and their impact on product quality and storage stability. Industrially established methods (freeze drying, spray drying) were compared to upcoming vacuum, microwave-freeze, and microwave-vacuum drying. For freeze and microwave-freeze dried samples, survival and activity maintained 100%, whereas vacuum and microwave-vacuum dried cultures achieved 30-40% survival. Spray drying yielded in lowest viability. The results are directly related to temperature and oxygen content during drying. Interestingly, most storage stable products resulted from vacuum and microwave-vacuum drying due to denser product structures as determined by helium pycnometry and SEM images. Further, lower water adsorption velocities were responsible for lower inactivation rates. Concluding, resulting product structures as well as survival rates and storage stability mainly depend on the type of water removal instead of energy input. Microwave energy compared to conductive heating did not lead to significant differences regarding the examined factors. Correlations could be proven for three investigated microbial strains. The presentation will be completed by an overview on the energy efficiency of the presented methods.

Keywords: drying techniques, energy efficiency, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, survival rates, structure characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
9 Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Mine Oezcelik, Evelyn Dachmann, Ulrich Kulozik

Abstract:

Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.

Keywords: foam drying, freeze drying, fruit puree, microwave freeze drying, raspberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
8 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: biomaterials, coatings, immune system, implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
7 Preservation of High Quality Fruit Products: Microwave Freeze Drying as a Substitute for the Conventional Freeze Drying Process

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik

Abstract:

Berries such as blue- and raspberries belong to the most valuable fruits. To preserve the characteristic flavor and the high contents of vitamins and anthocyanins, the very sensitive berries are usually dried by lyophilization. As this method is very time- and energy-consuming, the dried fruit is extremely expensive. However, healthy snack foods are growing in popularity. Especially dried fruit free of any additives or additional sugar are more and more asked for. To make these products affordable, the fruits have to be dried by a method that is more energy-efficient than freeze drying but reveals the same high product quality. The additional insertion of microwaves to a freeze drying process was examined in this work to overcome the inconveniences of freeze drying. As microwaves penetrate the product volumetrically, sublimation takes place simultaneously all over the product and leads to a many times shorter process duration. A range of microwave and pressure settings was applied to find the optimum drying condition. The influence of the process parameters microwave power and chamber pressure on drying kinetics, product temperature and product quality was investigated to find the best condition for an energy-efficient process with high product quality. The product quality was evaluated by rehydration capacitiy, crispiness, shrinkage, color, vitamin C content and antioxidative capacity. The conclusion could be drawn that microwave freeze dried berries were almost equal to freeze dried fruit in all measured quality parameters or even could overcome it. Additionally, sensory evaluations could confirm the analytical studies. Drying time could be reduced by more than 75% at much lower energy consumption rates. Thus, an energy-efficient and cost saving method compared to the conventional freeze drying technique for the gentle production of tasty fruit or vegetable snacks has been found. This technique will make dried high-quality snacks available for many of consumers.

Keywords: blueberries, freeze drying, microwave freeze drying, process parameters, product quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
6 Hepatocyte-Intrinsic NF-κB Signaling Is Essential to Control a Systemic Viral Infection

Authors: Sukumar Namineni, Tracy O'Connor, Ulrich Kalinke, Percy Knolle, Mathias Heikenwaelder

Abstract:

The liver is one of the pivotal organs in vertebrate animals, serving a multitude of functions such as metabolism, detoxification and protein synthesis and including a predominant role in innate immunity. The innate immune mechanisms pertaining to liver in controlling viral infections have largely been attributed to the Kupffer cells, the locally resident macrophages. However, all the cells of liver are equipped with innate immune functions including, in particular, the hepatocytes. Hence, our aim in this study was to elucidate the innate immune contribution of hepatocytes in viral clearance using mice lacking Ikkβ specifically in the hepatocytes, termed IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice. Blockade of Ikkβ activation in IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice affects the downstream signaling of canonical NF-κB signaling by preventing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, an important step required for the initiation of innate immune responses. Interestingly, infection of IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to strongly increased hepatic viral titers – mainly confined in clusters of infected hepatocytes. This was due to reduced interferon stimulated gene (ISG) expression during the onset of infection and a reduced CD8+ T-cell-mediated response. Decreased ISG production correlated with increased liver LCMV protein and LCMV in isolated hepatocytes from IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice. A similar phenotype was found in LCMV-infected mice lacking interferon signaling in hepatocytes (IFNARΔᴴᵉᵖ) suggesting a link between NFkB and interferon signaling in hepatocytes. We also observed a failure of interferon-mediated inhibition of HBV replication in HepaRG cells treated with NF-kB inhibitors corroborating our initial findings with LCMV infections. Collectively, these results clearly highlight a previously unknown and influential role of hepatocytes in the induction of innate immune responses leading to viral clearance during a systemic viral infection with LCMV-WE.

Keywords: CD8+ T cell responses, innate immune mechanisms in the liver, interferon signaling, interferon stimulated genes, NF-kB signaling, viral clearance

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
5 Is HR in a State of Transition? An International Comparative Study on the Development of HR Competencies

Authors: Barbara Covarrubias Venegas, Sabine Groblschegg, Bernhard Klaus, Julia Domnanovich

Abstract:

Research Objectives: The roles and activities of human resource management (HRM) have changed a lot in the past years. Driven by a changing environment and therefore, new business requirements, the scope of human resource (HR) activities has widened. The extent to which these activities should focus on strategic issues to support the long-term success of a company has been discussed in science for many years. As many economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) experienced a phase of transition after the socialist era and are now recovering from the 2008 global crisis it is needed to examine the current state of HR positioning. Furthermore, a trend in HR work developing from rather administrative units to being strategic partners of management can be noticed. This leads to the question of better understanding the underlying competencies which are necessary to support organisations. This topic was addressed by the international study “HR Competencies in international comparison”. The quantitative survey was conducted by the Institute for Human Resources & Organisation of FHWien University of Applied Science of WKW (A) in cooperation with partner universities in the countries Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. Methodology: Using the questionnaire developed by Dave Ulrich we tested whether the HR Competency model can be used for Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. After performing confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis for the whole data set containing all five countries we could clearly distinguish between four competencies. In a further step, our analysis focused on median and average comparisons between the HR competency dimensions. Conclusion: Our literature review, in alignment with other studies, shows a relatively rapid pace of development of HR Roles and HR Competencies in BCSS in the past decades. Comparing data from BCSS and Austria we still can notice that regards strategic orientation there is a lack in BCSS countries, thus competencies are not as developed as in Austria. This leads us to the tentative conclusion that HR has undergone a rapid change but is still in a State of Transition from being a rather administrative unit to performing the role of a strategic partner.

Keywords: comparative study, HR competencies, HRM, HR roles

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
4 Tuberculosis in Humans and Animals in the Eastern Part of the Sudan

Authors: Yassir Adam Shuaib, Stefan Niemann, Eltahir Awad Khalil, Ulrich Schaible, Lothar Heinz Wieler, Mohammed Ahmed Bakhiet, Abbashar Osman Mohammed, Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla, Elvira Richter

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial disease of humans and animals and it is characterized by the progressive development of specific granulomatous tubercle lesions in affected tissues. In a six-month study, from June to November 2014, a total of 2,304 carcasses of cattle, camel, sheep, and goats slaughtered at East and West Gaash slaughterhouses, Kassala, were investigated during postmortem, in parallel, 101 sputum samples from TB suspected patients at Kassala and El-Gadarif Teaching Hospitals were collected in order to investigate tuberculosis in animals and humans. Only 0.1% carcasses were found with suspected TB lesions in the liver and lung and peritoneal cavity of two sheep and no tuberculous lesions were found in the carcasses of cattle, goats or camels. All samples, tissue lesions and sputum, were decontaminated by the NALC-NaOH method and cultured for mycobacterial growth at the NRZ for Mycobacteria, Research Center Borstel, Germany. Genotyping and molecular characterization of the grown strains were done by line probe assay (GenoType CM and MTBC) and 16S rDNA, rpoB gene, and ITS sequencing, spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTR typing and next generation sequencing (NGS). Culture of the specimens revealed growth of organisms from 81.6% of all samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (76.2%), M. intracellulare (14.2%), mixed infection with M. tuberculosis and M. intracellulare (6.0%) and mixed infection with M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum and with M. intracellulare and unknown species (1.2%) were detected in the sputum samples and unknown species (1.2%) were detected in the samples of one of the animals tissues. From the 69 M. tuberculosis strains, 25 (36.2%) were showing either mono-drug-resistant or multi-drug-resistant or poly-drug-resistant but none was extensively drug-resistant. In conclusion, the prevalence of TB in animals was very low while in humans M. tuberculosis-Delhi/CAS lineage was responsible for most cases and there was an evidence of MDR transmission and acquisition.

Keywords: animal, human, slaughterhouse, Sudan, tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
3 Analysis of Urban Flooding in Wazirabad Catchment of Kabul City with Help of Geo-SWMM

Authors: Fazli Rahim Shinwari, Ulrich Dittmer

Abstract:

Like many megacities around the world, Kabul is facing severe problems due to the rising frequency of urban flooding. Since 2001, Kabul is experiencing rapid population growth because of the repatriation of refugees and internal migration. Due to unplanned development, green areas inside city and hilly areas within and around the city are converted into new housing towns that had increased runoff. Trenches along the roadside comprise the unplanned drainage network of the city that drains the combined sewer flow. In rainy season overflow occurs, and after streets become dry, the dust particles contaminate the air which is a major cause of air pollution in Kabul city. In this study, a stormwater management model is introduced as a basis for a systematic approach to urban drainage planning in Kabul. For this purpose, Kabul city is delineated into 8 watersheds with the help of one-meter resolution LIDAR DEM. Storm, water management model, is developed for Wazirabad catchment by using available data and literature values. Due to lack of long term metrological data, the model is only run for hourly rainfall data of a rain event that occurred in April 2016. The rain event from 1st to 3rd April with maximum intensity of 3mm/hr caused huge flooding in Wazirabad Catchment of Kabul City. Model-estimated flooding at some points of the catchment as an actual measurement of flooding was not possible; results were compared with information obtained from local people, Kabul Municipality and Capital Region Independent Development Authority. The model helped to identify areas where flooding occurred because of less capacity of drainage system and areas where the main reason for flooding is due to blockage in the drainage canals. The model was used for further analysis to find a sustainable solution to the problem. The option to construct new canals was analyzed, and two new canals were proposed that will reduce the flooding frequency in Wazirabad catchment of Kabul city. By developing the methodology to develop a stormwater management model from digital data and information, the study had fulfilled the primary objective, and similar methodology can be used for other catchments of Kabul city to prepare an emergency and long-term plan for drainage system of Kabul city.

Keywords: urban hydrology, storm water management, modeling, SWMM, GEO-SWMM, GIS, identification of flood vulnerable areas, urban flooding analysis, sustainable urban drainage

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
2 Cycle-Oriented Building Components and Constructions Made from Paper Materials

Authors: Rebecca Bach, Evgenia Kanli, Nihat Kiziltoprak, Linda Hildebrand, Ulrich Knaack, Jens Schneider

Abstract:

The building industry has a high demand for resources and at the same time is responsible for a significant amount of waste created worldwide. Today's building components need to contribute to the protection of natural resources without creating waste. This is defined in the product development phase and impacts the product’s degree of being cycle-oriented. Paper-based materials show advantage due to their renewable origin and their ability to incorporate different functions. Besides the ecological aspects like renewable origin and recyclability the main advantages of paper materials are its light-weight but stiff structure, the optimized production processes and good insulation values. The main deficits from building technology’s perspective are the material's vulnerability to humidity and water as well as inflammability. On material level, those problems can be solved by coatings or through material modification. On construction level intelligent setup and layering of a building component can improve and also solve these issues. The target of the present work is to provide an overview of developed building components and construction typologies mainly made from paper materials. The research is structured in four parts: (1) functions and requirements, (2) preselection of paper-based materials, (3) development of building components and (4) evaluation. As part of the research methodology at first the needs of the building sector are analyzed with the aim to define the main areas of application and consequently the requirements. Various paper materials are tested in order to identify to what extent the requirements are satisfied and determine potential optimizations or modifications, also in combination with other construction materials. By making use of the material’s potentials and solving the deficits on material and on construction level, building components and construction typologies are developed. The evaluation and the calculation of the structural mechanics and structural principals will show that different construction typologies can be derived. Profiles like paper tubes can be used at best for skeleton constructions. Massive structures on the other hand can be formed by plate-shaped elements like solid board or honeycomb. For insulation purposes corrugated cardboard or cellulose flakes have the best properties, while layered solid board can be applied to prevent inner condensation. Enhancing these properties by material combinations for instance with mineral coatings functional constructions mainly out of paper materials were developed. In summary paper materials offer a huge variety of possible applications in the building sector. By these studies a general base of knowledge about how to build with paper was developed and is to be reinforced by further research.

Keywords: construction typologies, cycle-oriented construction, innovative building material, paper materials, renewable resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
1 The Asymptotic Hole Shape in Long Pulse Laser Drilling: The Influence of Multiple Reflections

Authors: Torsten Hermanns, You Wang, Stefan Janssen, Markus Niessen, Christoph Schoeler, Ulrich Thombansen, Wolfgang Schulz

Abstract:

In long pulse laser drilling of metals, it can be demonstrated that the ablation shape approaches a so-called asymptotic shape such that it changes only slightly or not at all with further irradiation. These findings are already known from ultra short pulse (USP) ablation of dielectric and semiconducting materials. The explanation for the occurrence of an asymptotic shape in long pulse drilling of metals is identified, a model for the description of the asymptotic hole shape numerically implemented, tested and clearly confirmed by comparison with experimental data. The model assumes a robust process in that way that the characteristics of the melt flow inside the arising melt film does not change qualitatively by changing the laser or processing parameters. Only robust processes are technically controllable and thus of industrial interest. The condition for a robust process is identified by a threshold for the mass flow density of the assist gas at the hole entrance which has to be exceeded. Within a robust process regime the melt flow characteristics can be captured by only one model parameter, namely the intensity threshold. In analogy to USP ablation (where it is already known for a long time that the resulting hole shape results from a threshold for the absorbed laser fluency) it is demonstrated that in the case of robust long pulse ablation the asymptotic shape forms in that way that along the whole contour the absorbed heat flux density is equal to the intensity threshold. The intensity threshold depends on the special material and radiation properties and has to be calibrated be one reference experiment. The model is implemented in a numerical simulation which is called AsymptoticDrill and requires such a few amount of resources that it can run on common desktop PCs, laptops or even smart devices. Resulting hole shapes can be calculated within seconds what depicts a clear advantage over other simulations presented in literature in the context of industrial every day usage. Against this background the software additionally is equipped with a user-friendly GUI which allows an intuitive usage. Individual parameters can be adjusted using sliders while the simulation result appears immediately in an adjacent window. A platform independent development allow a flexible usage: the operator can use the tool to adjust the process in a very convenient manner on a tablet during the developer can execute the tool in his office in order to design new processes. Furthermore, at the best knowledge of the authors AsymptoticDrill is the first simulation which allows the import of measured real beam distributions and thus calculates the asymptotic hole shape on the basis of the real state of the specific manufacturing system. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the investigation of the effect of multiple reflections on the asymptotic hole shape which gain in importance when drilling holes with large aspect ratios.

Keywords: asymptotic hole shape, intensity threshold, long pulse laser drilling, robust process

Procedia PDF Downloads 111